Darren G Candow

Darren G Candow
University of Regina · Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies

About

120
Publications
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3,588
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Publications

Publications (120)
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study examined the effects of short-term betaine supplementation on muscle endurance, plasma lactate, testosterone and cortisol levels, and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio in response to acute resistance exercise (RE). Method: Using a double-blind, crossover study design, 10 handball players (age ± SD = 16 ± 1 yrs) witho...
Article
Creatine supplementation has been shown to increase measures of lean body mass (LBM), however there is often high heterogeneity across individual studies. Therefore, we systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating creatine supplementation on LBM. Sub-analyses were performed based on age, sex, and type...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep deprivation leads to the deterioration in the physiological functioning of the brain, cognitive decline, and many neurodegenerative diseases, all of which progress with advancing age. Sleep insufficiency and impairments in cognitive function are characterized by progressive neuronal losses in the cerebral cortex. In this study, we analyze gen...
Article
Full-text available
Sarcopenia refers to the age-related reduction in strength, muscle mass and functionality which increases the risk for falls, injuries and fractures. Sarcopenia is associated with other age-related conditions such as osteoporosis, frailty and cachexia. Identifying treatments to overcome sarcopenia and associated conditions is important from a globa...
Article
Full-text available
Sarcopenia negatively affects skeletal muscle mass and function in older adults. Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acid supplementation, with or without resistance exercise training (RET), is suggested to play a role as a therapeutic component to prevent or treat the negative effects of sarcopenia. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted on the impa...
Article
Aims: The purpose was to examine the relationship between habitual dietary creatine intake obtained in food and visuo-spatial short-term memory (VSSM). Methods: Forty-two participants (32 females, 10 males; > 60 yrs of age) completed a 5-day dietary recall to estimate creatine intake and performed a cognitive assessment which included a visuospatia...
Article
Full-text available
It is well-established that creatine supplementation augments the gains in muscle mass and performance during periods of resistance training. However, whether the timing of creatine ingestion influences these physical and physiological adaptations is unclear. Muscle contractions increase blood flow and possibly creatine transport kinetics which has...
Article
Purpose The aim was to explore five established SNPs (rs1815739, rs1805086, rs2700352, rs28497577, and rs28357094) that are known to modulate skeletal muscle protein kinetics in response to creatine supplementation. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated measures design was used. Participants (n = 152) were rand-omized divided into one...
Article
Full-text available
It is well established that creatine supplementation, primarily when combined with resistance training, significantly increases measures of muscle mass and performance (primarily strength). Emerging research also indicates that creatine supplementation may have favorable effects on measures of bone biology. These anabolic adaptations may be related...
Article
Full-text available
Supplementing with creatine is very popular amongst athletes and exercising individuals for improving muscle mass, performance and recovery. Accumulating evidence also suggests that creatine supplementation produces a variety of beneficial effects in older and patient populations. Furthermore, evidence-based research shows that creatine supplementa...
Article
Full-text available
Sarcopenia refers to the age-related loss of muscle strength and muscle mass, which is associated with a reduced quality of life, particularly in older females. Resistance training (RT) is well established to be an effective intervention to counter indices of sarcopenia. Accumulating research indicates that the addition of creatine supplementation...
Article
Full-text available
Higher daily protein intake, with an emphasis on leucine content, is thought to mitigate age-related anabolic resistance, potentially counteracting age-related morphological and functional declines. The present study investigated potential associations between total daily leucine intake and dependent variables, including quadriceps muscle cross-sec...
Article
Background: Creatine supplementation, in close proximity to resistance training sessions, may be an important strategy to augment muscle accretion and strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation immediately before compared to immediately after unilateral resistance training on hypertrophy and strength...
Article
Resistance training (RT) dynamically alters the skeletal muscle nuclear DNA methylome. However, no study has examined if RT affects the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) methylome. Herein, ten older, Caucasian untrained males (65 ± 7 y.o.) performed six weeks of full‐body RT (twice weekly). Body composition and knee extensor torque were assessed prior to a...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, which creates a large economic burden. Diet is a critical factor in the treatment and management of T2D; however, there are a large number of dietary approaches and a general lack of consensus regarding the efficacy of each. Therefore, the purpose of this narrative review is twofold: (1) to cri...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is a growing interest in the considerable benefits of dietary supplementations, such as folic acid, on the glycemic profile. We aimed to investigate the effects of folic acid supplementation on glycemic control markers in adults. Methods: Randomized controlled trials examining the effects of folic acid supplementation on glycem...
Article
Due to the important roles of resistance training and protein consumption in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia, we assessed the efficacy of post-exercise Icelandic yogurt consumption on lean mass, strength, and skeletal muscle regulatory factors in healthy untrained older males. Thirty healthy untrained older males (age = 68 ± 4 yr) were r...
Article
Purpose: To examine the efficacy of creatine (Cr) supplementation and any sex differences during supervised whole-body resistance training (RT) on properties of bone and muscle in older adults. Methods: Seventy participants (39 males, 31 females; mean age ± standard deviation: 58 ± 6y) were randomized to supplement with Cr (0.1 g·kg-1·d-1) or pl...
Article
Full-text available
Creatine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training (RT) augments gains in lean tissue mass and strength in aging adults; however, there is a large amount of heterogeneity between individual studies that may be related to creatine ingestion strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to (1) perform updated meta-analyses compa...
Poster
Caffeine (Caf) is a well-established ergogenic aid among various training models, including strength and/or power. However, there is limited information on the ergogenic effects of Caf ingestion during many strength and power training models. Purpose: This study investigated the acute effects of Caf ingestion in bench press power and velocity when...
Conference Paper
Caffeine (Caf) is a well-established ergogenic aid among various training models, including strength and/or power. However, there is limited information on the ergogenic effects of Caf ingestion during many strength and power training models. Purpose: This study investigated the acute effects of Caf ingestion in bench press power and velocity when...
Preprint
Full-text available
Resistance training (RT) alters skeletal muscle nuclear DNA methylation patterns (or the methylome). However, no study has examined if RT affects the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) methylome. Herein, ten older untrained males (65+/-7 years old) performed six weeks of full-body RT (twice weekly). Body composition and knee extensor torque were assessed pr...
Article
Full-text available
Carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse has been shown to enhance aerobic endurance performance. However, the effects of CHO mouth rinse on muscular strength and endurance are mixed and may be dependent on dosage of CHO. The primary purpose was to examine the effects of different dosages of CHO rinse on strength (bench press 1 repetition maximum [1-RM]) and...
Article
The primary purpose was to determine the separate and combined effects of creatine and caffeine supplementation during resistance training on body composition and muscle performance in trained young adults. Twenty-eight participants were randomized to supplement with creatine and caffeine (CR-CAF; n = 9, 22 ± 4 years; 0.1 g·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹ of creatine mon...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Creatine supplementation has some beneficial effects on cognitive processing in healthy adults, including athletes; however the effects on cognitive function following exhaustive exercise in athletes is unknown. Therefore, the purpose was to determine the effects of 28 days of creatine supplementation on tasks of cognitive performance i...
Article
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Background: We evaluated the effects of high-protein dairy milk ingestion on changes in body composition, strength, power, and skeletal muscle regulatory markers following 6 weeks of resistance training in trained young males. Methods: Thirty resistance-trained young males (age: 27 ± 3 years; training experience: 15 ± 2 months) were randomly ass...
Article
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Despite extensive research on creatine, evidence for use among females is understudied. Creatine characteristics vary between males and females, with females exhibiting 70–80% lower endogenous creatine stores compared to males. Understanding creatine metabolism pre- and post-menopause yields important implications for creatine supplementation for p...
Article
Full-text available
Sarcopenia, defined as age-related reduction in muscle mass, strength, and physical performance, is associated with other age-related health conditions such as osteoporosis, osteosarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, physical frailty, and cachexia. From a healthy aging perspective, lifestyle interventions that may help overcome characteristics and associ...
Article
Full-text available
Aging is associated with reductions in muscle and bone mass and brain function, which may be counteracted by several lifestyle factors, of which exercise appears to be most beneficial. However, less than 20% of older adults (> 55 years of age) adhere to performing the recommended amount of resistance training (≥ 2 days/week) and less than 12% regul...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Creatine (CR) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) alone improve anaerobic performance. However, the ergogenic effects of CR and SB co-ingestion on taekwondo anaerobic performance remains unknown. Methods: Forty trained taekwondo athletes (21 ± 1 y.; 180.5 ± 7.3 cm; 72.7 ± 8.6 kg) were randomized to: (i) CR and SB (CR + SB; 20 g of CR+ 0.5 g·kg−...
Article
Full-text available
Bagheri, R, Moghadam, BH, Ashtary-Larky, D, Forbes, SC, Candow, DG, Galpin, AJ, Eskandari, M, Kreider, RB, and Wong, A. Whole egg vs. egg white ingestion during 12 weeks of resistance training in trained young males: a randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The primary purpose was to compare the effects of whole egg i...
Article
Background: The age-related loss in muscular function is typically accelerated after menopause. Resistance training (RT) has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength in postmenopausal women. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation acutely increases myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and decreases muscle soreness following RT. Howe...
Article
Background The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training (10–12 weeks) has been shown to increase bone mineral content and reduce a urinary indicator of bone resorption in older males compared with placebo. However, the longer-term effects (12 months) of creatine and resistance training on bone mineral density and bone geometr...
Article
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Abstract Background: To examine the effects of varying doses of caffeine on autonomic reactivation following anaerobic exercise. Methods: Recreationally active males (N = 20; 24 ± 2y) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled, crossover study where participants ingested: [1] Control (CON; no supplement), [2] a non-caffeinated pl...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: The age-related loss of skeletal muscle and bone tissue decreases functionality and increases the risk for falls and injuries. One contributing factor of muscle and bone loss over time is chronic low-grade inflammation. Exercise training is an effective countermeasure for decreasing the loss of muscle and bone tissue, possibly b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: To examine the dose effects of caffeine ingestion on autonomic reactivation following anaerobic exercise. Methods: Recreationally active males (N=20; 24±2y) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study where participants ingested: (1) Control (CON; no supplement), (2) a non-caffeinated placebo (PLA), (...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: To examine the effects of varying doses of caffeine on autonomic reactivation following anaerobic exercise. Methods: Recreationally active males (N=20; 24±2y) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study where participants ingested: (1) Control (CON; no supplement), (2) a non-caffeinated placebo (PLA),...
Article
Full-text available
Protein is an important component of a healthy diet and appears to be integral to enhancing training adaptations in exercising individuals. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an evidence-based assessment of the current literature examining increases in dietary protein intake above the recommended dietary allowance (RDA: 0.8 g/kg/d)...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation during resistance training sessions on skeletal muscle mass and exercise performance in physically active young adults. Twenty-two participants were randomized to supplement with creatine (CR: n = 13, 26 ± 4 yrs; 0.0055 g·kg−1 post training set) or placebo (PLA: n = 9, 26 ± 5 yrs; 0...
Article
Full-text available
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) involves short bursts of intense activity interspersed by periods of low-intensity exercise or rest. HIIT is a viable alternative to traditional continuous moderate-intensity endurance training to enhance maximal oxygen uptake and endurance performance. Combining nutritional strategies with HIIT may result in...
Article
Full-text available
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is an intermittent sport that is physically and cognitively demanding. Nutritional strategies to support training, competition, and weight-cutting are important to optimize performance. One purported ergogenic aid that may have beneficial effects for MMA is creatine monohydrate. The purpose of this narrative review is to (1...
Article
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The timing of macronutrient ingestion in relation to exercise is a purported strategy to augment muscle accretion, muscle and athletic performance, and recovery. To date, the majority of macronutrient nutrient timing research has focused on carbohydrate and protein intake. However, emerging research suggests that the strategic ingestion of various...
Article
Full-text available
Aging is associated with an increase in fat mass which increases the risk for disease, morbidity and premature mortality. Creatine supplementation in combination with resistance training has been shown to increase lean tissue mass in adults ≥50 years of age; however, the synergetic effects of creatine and resistance training on fat mass in this pop...
Article
Full-text available
Sarcopenia is an age-related muscle condition characterized by a reduction in muscle quantity, force generating capacity and physical performance. Sarcopenia occurs in 8–13% of adults ≥ 60 years of age and can lead to disability, frailty, and various other diseases. Over the past few decades, several leading research groups have focused their effor...
Article
Full-text available
Sarcopenia, defined as the age-related decrease in muscle mass, strength and physical performance, is associated with reduced bone mass and elevated low-grade inflammation. From a healthy aging perspective, interventions which overcome sarcopenia are clinically relevant. Accumulating evidence suggests that exogenous creatine supplementation has the...
Article
Objective This study compared the effects of different creatine supplementation dosages, independent of resistance training, on aging muscle performance and functionality. Design and Participants Using a double-blind, repeated measures design, participants were randomized to one of three groups: Creatine-High (CR-H; n=11; 0.3 g/kg/day of creatine...
Article
Full-text available
The combination of creatine monohydrate supplementation and resistance training increases muscle mass and strength. In this brief narrative review, we propose that the timing of creatine supplementation in relation to resistance training may be an important factor to optimize hypertrophy and strength gains. Meta-analyses indicated that creatine sup...
Article
Full-text available
The loss of muscle mass and strength with aging results in significant functional impairment. Creatine supplementation has been used in combination with resistance training as a strategy for increasing lean tissue mass and muscle strength in older adults, but results across studies are equivocal. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training increases muscle mass and strength in young and older adults. Speculation exists that the timing of ingestion may be an important factor contributing to the greater gains in muscle mass and strength from creatine supplementation. We performed meta-analyses which indicated creatine...
Article
Full-text available
Creatine is one of the most popular nutritional ergogenic aids for athletes. Studies have consistently shown that creatine supplementation increases intramuscular creatine concentrations which may help explain the observed improvements in high intensity exercise performance leading to greater training adaptations. In addition to athletic and exerci...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction/purpose: Resistance training with ibuprofen supplementation may improve musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of resistance training and ibuprofen supplementation on bone and muscle properties in postmenopausal women. Methods: Participants (n = 90, 65.3 ± 4.9 y) were randomly...
Article
Full-text available
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, performance, body composition, and insulin sensitivity. Creatine (Cr) supplementation may augment responses to HIIT, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of four weeks of HIIT (three sessi...
Poster
Full-text available
Hemp contains oils that are anti-inflammatory and protein that has an excellent amino acid profile. Our purpose was to investigate the benefits of hemp powder supplementation during resistance training on strength, body composition, fatigue, and inflammatory markers. Forty participants (12 females) were randomized (double blind) to receive 60g/d of...
Poster
Hemp contains oils that are anti-inflammatory and protein that has an excellent amino acid profile. Our purpose was to investigate the benefits of hemp powder supplementation during resistance training on strength, body composition, fatigue, and inflammatory markers. Forty participants (12 females) were randomized (double blind) to receive 60g/d of...
Article
Full-text available
This narrative review aims to summarize the recent findings on the adjuvant application of creatine supplementation in the management of age-related deficits in skeletal muscle, bone and brain metabolism in older individuals. Most studies suggest that creatine supplementation can improve lean mass and muscle function in older populations. Important...
Article
Objective: To investigate the effects of creatine supplementation and drop-set resistance training in untrained aging adults. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: Creatine (CR: n=14, 7 females, 7 males; 58.0±3.0yrs, 0.1g/kg/day of creatine+0.1g/kg/day of maltodextrin) or Placebo (PLA: n=17, 7females, 10 males; age: 57.6±5.0yrs, 0.2g/...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To compare the effects of nine months of exercise training and ibuprofen supplementation (given immeditately after exercise sessions) on bone and muscle in postmenopausal women. Methods In a double-blind randomized trial, participants (females: n = 90, mean age 64.8, SD 4.3 years) were assigned (computer generated, double blind) to receive...
Article
Introduction: The purpose was to investigate the effects of creatine (CR) supplementation on recovery after eccentric exercise (ECC). Methods: Fourteen men were assigned randomly to ingest 0.3g·kg(-1) of CR or placebo (PL) prior to and during recovery (48 hrs) from 6 sets of 8 repetitions of ECC. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary ac...
Chapter
Sarcopenia, defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, decreases the ability to perform tasks of daily living. Two strategies that may help offset symptoms of sarcopenia include resistance exercise and creatine supplementation. Mechanical stimuli from resistance exercise appear to increase many cellular processes leading toward mu...
Article
Pre-exercise creatine supplementation may have a beneficial effect on aging muscle performance. Using a double-blind, repeated measures, cross-over design, healthy males (N = 9, 54.8 ± 4.3 years; 92.9 ± 11.5 kg; 179.2 ± 11.1 cm) were randomized to consume creatine (20 grams) and placebo (20 grams corn-starch maltodextrin), on 2 separate occasions (...