Dario Caro

Dario Caro
European Commission | ec · Joint Research Centre (JRC)

PhD
Environmental impact assessment with an emphasis on food and waste. EU's transition to a circular economy.

About

76
Publications
20,008
Reads
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1,971
Citations
Citations since 2016
59 Research Items
1894 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
January 2016 - present
Aarhus University
Position
  • Researcher
October 2014 - September 2015
Università degli Studi di Siena
Position
  • PostDoc Position
October 2014 - September 2015
University of California, Davis
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • I am dealing with a project aimed to predict GHG emisssions released from livestock at national/global level.
Education
October 2012 - April 2013
Stanford University
Field of study
  • Environmental indicators (focus on livestock emissions)
September 2010
Università degli Studi di Siena
Field of study
  • Environmental indicators (focus on carbon dioxide emissions)
September 2008 - April 2010
Università degli Studi di Siena
Field of study
  • Chemistry (Environmental Chemistry)

Publications

Publications (76)
Article
Full-text available
Enteric methane (CH4) generated in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminant represents the source of the greatest direct greenhouse gas (GHG) released from the livestock sector. We evaluated the global potential reduction of enteric CH4 emissions released from dairy cattle through amendment of their traditional diets in 183 countries aggregated to 11...
Article
Coffee consumption is concentrated in the "Global North", while production is mainly located in the "Global South". This trade-driven dependency leads to the exploitation of natural resources. As an export-oriented cash crop, such dependency jeopardizes the existence of a fair distribution of the risks and revenues among all the actors taking part...
Article
China is a major producer of wheat, maize and rice, which generates massive greenhouse gas emissions due to the consumption of elevated amounts of energy, land, and water, yet there is actually few knowledge on the spatial heterogeneity of greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we introduce a polyphasic approach to quantify the emissions from the land, en...
Preprint
Agricultural cereal production plays a crucial role feeding the world’s growing population, particularly pertaining to rice, wheat, and maize. Cereal production requires vast amounts of land and enormous energy and water resources, potentially leading to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, very little information exists on GHG emissions result...
Article
Full-text available
Quality of recycling is a concept used by many authors in the scientific literature and the EU legislator. However, a clear definition of what is intended for quality of recycling and a framework for operationalising it is lacking. Most studies, while proposing indicators reflecting quality, leave the concept of quality largely undefined. Such lack...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the large quantities and possibilities of reuse of the by-products (solids and liquids) generated by the brewing industry, the proper disposal of these by-products has imposed severe problems for circular and cleaner production transitions worldwide. These challenges are still more salient for the small breweries due to the recognized lack...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Coffee consumption is concentrated in countries belonging to the "Global North", while its production is concentrated in countries belonging to the "Global South". This dependency creates a trade-driven exploitation of natural resources such as cropland, fertilizer, water, etc. As a cash crop, the production of this export-oriented commodity tends...
Article
The design, evaluation and monitor of actions, plans and policies aimed at improving countries’ progress at both national and international level is a hard task to achieve and requires a variety of tools. Part of the complexity of progress assessment is due to the necessity to measure its economic, social, and environmental aspects. The latest inte...
Article
Food production and consumption have been recognized as a major source of environmental impacts. To ensure food security and a sustainable food system, dietary changes have been identified as one of the valuable strategies to reduce impacts on the environment while promoting human health. The vast majority of scientific literature has been focused...
Presentation
Rice is the staple food for half of the global population. However, compared to other major crops, such as maize and wheat, rice has a higher water footprint and, due to its particular cultivation techniques, it is a major source of GHG emission, as well as exploitation of large amounts of cropland. Despite a large part of global paddy fields is ra...
Article
The consequence of the lockdowns implemented to address the COVID-19 pandemic on human health damage due to air pollution and other environmental issues must be better understood. This paper analyses the effect of reducing energy demands on the evolution of environmental impacts during the occurrence of 2020-lockdown periods in Italy, with a specif...
Article
Food production is a major driver of global warming, water scarcity and biodiversity loss. Denmark has set ambitious targets to lower its territorial carbon emissions in the next decades. In 2019, the Danish Agriculture and Food Council announced a strategy to make Denmark's food production systems climate-neutral by 2050. Therefore, detailed infor...
Article
Rice is a staple food supplying a large share of calories in so many countries and requiring a large amount of land and water. Rice is also a substantial source of methane (CH4) emissions. In this paper, water and land use, and CH4 emissions from rice in 167 countries during the period 2000-2016 are estimated. A Physical Trade Analysis based on a M...
Article
Full-text available
Stimulants play a central role in modern human society. Consumption of stimulants transcends culture, demography, and income group. As cash crops, stimulants (such as cocoa, coffee, tea and tobacco) also act as a source of economic security for producers in low-income countries. However, satisfying the demand for stimulants entails a potentially la...
Article
Feed consumption is responsible for the largest shares of resource use required for producing pork. In the European Union (EU), a meat consumption decrease is expected in combination with a growth of meat production driven by foreign demand. This paper presents a multiple environmental assessment of the resource use linked to EU pig feed by perform...
Article
This paper investigates the relationship between international trade of avocado and the related virtual water trade over the period 2000-2016. Using a Physical Trade Analysis, we show that commercial and virtual water trade grew rapidly moving almost hand-in-hand in the years taken into account: in parallel with a remarkable increase of internation...
Article
Bioaccumulation of heavy metals (HMs) in the food supply chain is a crucial environmental and health issue in need of urgent risk reduction action plans. This study assesses the daily intake of four HMs, i.e. cadmium, mercury, lead and arsenic, and four minerals; chromium, nickel, selenium and zinc. 456 Danish food items were grouped in six food ca...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a calculation of Denmark's production and consumption-based accounting CO2e emissions for five regions in 2011. We apply an environmentally extended economic model for Danish municipalities known as the Local “INterregional” Economic (LINE) model, together with a multi-regional input-output model for the world economy (EXIOBASE...
Article
Bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd) in the agricultural soil constitutes a dangerous risk for the health of both the environment and humans. Especially in the European Union, a large amount of Cd in agricultural topsoil originates from mineral fertilizer application. In this context, the EU has recently adopted the Regulation (EU) 2019/1009 with the ai...
Presentation
Global rice production and trade have strongly increased in recent years. Trade of rice corresponds to a high share of virtual resources shipped from a country to another one. While most of the studies have focused on single impacts embodied in international trade of agricultural products, this study reveals a complete overview of the three most re...
Article
Stringent lockdown measures implemented in Italy to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 are generating unprecedented economic impacts. However, the environmental consequences associated with the temporary shutdown and recovery of industrial and commercial activities are still not fully understood. Using the well-known carbon footprint (CF) indicator, t...
Article
This paper investigates the correlation between the high level of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lethality and the atmospheric pollution in Northern Italy. Indeed, Lombardy and Emilia Romagna are Italian regions with both the highest level of virus lethality in the world and one of Europe's most polluted area. Based on...
Article
Full-text available
In the last years, a significant increase of imports of Rice from Cambodia and Myanmar into the European Union has been recorded. In particular, Italian farmers were badly affected by the imports of rice from these two Asiatic countries. Indeed, the European Commission in 2019 has therefore decided to reintroduce specific import duties. In turn, su...
Article
Full-text available
The Danish diet is characterized by a high content of sugar, fat dairy products and red meat, and a low content of fruits and vegetables. As it is considered unhealthy and environmentally unfriendly, various alternatives to the standard Danish diet have been investigated and promoted in Denmark, such as the New Nordic Diet. By using a Life Cycle As...
Article
The global use of and pressure on land resources will continue to rise in tandem with the predicted rise in global population and food demand. Addressing unavoidable trade-offs between satisfying human needs and biodiversity conservation for future generations is of paramount importance when tackling the global environmental challenges of land use....
Article
Full-text available
As an alternative to the traditional IPCC-based accounting of GHG emissions based on a geographical perspective (only emissions relating to activities that occur nationally are taken into account), consumption-based accountings have shown the quantity of CO2 emissions embodied in international trade. However, few studies have focused on the contrib...
Poster
Full-text available
How much land is required to support domestic food and feed consumption in Denmark? Our analysis assesses the cropland footprint of Danish food and feed supply from 2000-2013 using a consumption-based accounting. We estimate the hectares of land displaced in other countries to satisfy Danish food and feed consumption. In particular we give emphasis...
Article
International trade of soybeans has increased substantially over recent decades. Its environmental toll is routinely linked to deforestation and biodiversity loss. However, soybean trade also imposes a huge demand on water and land resources, in individual countries and globally. Such a burden, and its underlying sectoral drivers, is frequently ove...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to determine the environmental performance of the current landfill gas management system (based on flaring) in Mexico City (Bordo Poniente) in comparison to the collection of biogas generated from solid waste through one of the most innovative technology implemented in Denmark (Aikan Technology), which produces biogas and digestate...
Article
Full-text available
International trade shifts production of a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions embodied in traded goods from the importing country to the exporting country. The European Union (EU) plays a prominent role in the flow of international-related emissions as it accounts for the second largest share of global exports and imports of goods. Cons...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents a comparative analysis of the environmental and economic performances of four integrated waste and wastewater management scenarios in the city of Aarhus in Denmark. The purpose of this analysis is to deliver decision support regarding whether (i) the installation of food waste disposers in private homes (AS1) or (ii) separate co...
Poster
Full-text available
Food consumption appears as one of the most resource-demanding activity at world level and it is amongst the main drivers of environmental impacts. Agriculture and food production are the human activities with the largest impact on natural resource use. Therefore, diet and eating habits of individual people are important drivers of the environmenta...
Article
The need to define sustainability and identify meaning and scientific foundations of the concept has been compelling during the last decades. Systems approach has been largely contributing to describe the reality in which we live and understand how to measure the progress of human action towards sustainable development. Professor Sven Erik Jørgense...
Chapter
Climate change represents the biggest sustainability challenge of our time. As such, international governments, local authorities and private companies are called for suitable tools to monitor their impact on climate change which is estimated by the amount of greenhouse gas emissions released into the atmosphere. Carbon footprint is an easy-to-appl...
Presentation
This study focuses on hidden water flows embodied in the international trade of soybean. The virtual water content embedded in soybean imported and exported by 174 countries during the period 2000-2013 is estimated.
Article
Fodder for feeding pork and poultry requires a large amount of cultivated and processed agricultural crops, which are often related to greenhouse gas emissions from land-use change (LUC). Given the rapid growth in meat production in Brazil for domestic consumption and international export, the link between LUC emissions and consumption of pork and...
Chapter
The paper summarizes the current knowledge about the impact of livestock sector on climate change. The main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock are described and the contribution of livestock sector to the global GHG emissions is presented on the basis of the latest results obtained from the scientific research. The most recent...
Article
Denmark is ambitious in the green transition of its transport sector. The biogas has potentials to substitute diesel as the vehicle fuel. In this paper, we examine the whole chain of biogas utilisation (biomass supply, biogas production and distribution, and fuel substitution) from both environmental and economic perspectives. We find that with low...
Article
In this paper we discuss how targets, policy instruments and accounting frameworks for greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction need to be complemented and aligned, to achieve a more effective road to reduce the GHG emission. We focus on gaps in the policy framework presently adopted by countries that are parties to the UNFCCC, using as illustrative case stu...
Article
Full-text available
During the last two decades, the scientific literature has focused on the allocation of emissions embodied in international trade by implementing accounting procedures based on consumeroriented perspective. While the Multi Regional Input-Otput analysis has been accepted by the scientific community as an alternative to the IPCC accounting, some conc...
Chapter
We estimate greenhouse gas emissions due to the production of beef cattle, pork and chickens for the period 1961–2010, following IPCC guidelines (IPCC. 2006 IPCC guideline for national greenhouse gas inventories. In: Eggleston H S, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K (eds) IGES, Japan. Available at: http:// www. ipcc-nggip. iges. or. jp/ public/ 2...
Article
Full-text available
Waste to Energy combustion plants currently process most of the organic fraction of the household waste. This study presents an assessment of the environmental performance of an increased circular bioresource management system obtained by reallocating the organic fraction of the household waste from combustion (Reference Scenario) to biogas and fer...
Article
Full-text available
Livestock production has a variety of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution, acidification, and primary energy consumption. The demand for livestock products is expected to grow substantially, creating even more environmental pressure. The use of specialty feed ingredients (SFI) such as supplemented AA and phytase...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Livestock production has a variety of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution, acidification, and primary energy consumption. The demand for livestock products is expected to grow substantially, creating even more environmental pressure. The use of specialty feed ingredients (SFI) such as supplemented AA and phytase...
Chapter
Full-text available
Countries around the world have experienced noticeable changes in both their economic and social conditions in the last few decades. While most of the economies have grown and socio-economic conditions improved, such improvements have been coupled with fundamental changes in the society–nature relationship, frequently leading to a worsening of the...
Article
Full-text available
The article shows how a joint application of the 2006 IPCC methodology and the ISO 14064-1 standard of certification, as well as the co-operation between academic, legislative and administrative organizations, are important points for a sustainable management of an administrative jurisdiction, providing positive environmental effects. The administr...
Article
Full-text available
Although previous studies have quantified carbon dioxide emissions embodied in products traded internationally, there has been limited attention to other greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Following IPCC guidelines, we estimate non-CO2 emissions from beef, pork and chicken produced in 237 countries over the period 1990-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To the best of our knowledge, the Province of Siena is the first administrative system in Europe to achieve the total abatement of gross emissions, becoming a carbon neutral area and obtaining an ISO 14064 certification of its greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories, developed in time series (2006-2011) by using the 2006 IPCC methodology. Starting from an...
Article
Full-text available
Following IPCC guidelines (IPCC 2006), we estimate greenhouse gas emissions related to livestock in 237 countries and 11 livestock categories during the period 1961-2010. We find that in 2010, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide related to livestock worldwide represented approximately 9% of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Global GHG emissi...
Article
Full-text available
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has defined a comprehensive method for takinginto account greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions released from different countries. The geographical orproducer-based perspective currently used in the IPCC framework does not consider (and may thereforeencourage) delocalization of production from indust...
Article
Full-text available
The allocation of emissions embodied in international trade is crucial to evaluate the real impact that each country has on climate change and its responsibility in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this paper we develop a new theoretical framework recently proposed by Caro et al. (2014) that computes the carbon emissions embodied in international...
Article
This study presents a possible implementation of a second generation bioethanol production chain within the Province of Siena (Tuscany, Italy) by means of a biorefinery, and its consequences for the regional GHG balance in order to meet the European requirements for partial substitution of 10% bio-ethanol for gasoline by 2020. According to the last...

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Projects

Projects (4)
Archived project
1. To advocate for consumption-based accounting of emissions (emission embodied in trade) as a complement to the production-based accounting using an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model. 2. To ascertain the effect of less emission-intensive livestock feed inputs on Denmark's carbon and resource footprint. 3. To estimate emissions and resource footprint embodied in the global trade of livestock products.
Archived project
Research area creating synergies between / spin-off research project focusing on the development of integrated sustiability assessment models within a circular regenerative economy http://envs.au.dk/en/research/strategic-growth-areas/sga-resource/