Dario Azzellini

Dario Azzellini
Autonomous University of Zacatecas · Unidad Académica de Estudios de Desarrollo

PhD in Sociology and PhD in Political Science
Unidad Académica de Estudios del Desarrollo, UAZ, Zacatecas, Méx.

About

128
Publications
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554
Citations
Citations since 2017
39 Research Items
397 Citations
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Introduction
Dario Azzellini, professor, researcher and documentary director, holds a PhD in political science and a PhD in sociology. His research and writing focuses on democracy, worker’s and local self-management, and social movements. He published several books, journal articles and documentaries. More at www.azzellini.net
Additional affiliations
August 2021 - August 2022
Cornell University
Position
  • Fellow
April 2020 - present
Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Docente-Investigador del doctorado de Estudios del Desarrollo
August 2019 - August 2021
Cornell University
Position
  • Visiting Scholar
Education
September 2007 - November 2012
April 2006 - May 2010
Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
Field of study
  • Political Science
October 1988 - December 1993
Freie Universität Berlin
Field of study
  • Political Science

Publications

Publications (128)
Chapter
This volume describes the various movements and parties, across all six continents, that wanted social change through state transformation. It begins with a reconstruction of social democracy's trajectories from the 1870s until the present. The evolution of socialism on different continents is illustrated through a number of national case studies....
Article
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This article examines the assumptions behind the sociology of work and industrial relations literature on online labour-based platforms. This literature has critically examined working conditions and worker resistance in platform work, but it has done so without criticising what we call the ‘metanarrative of the platform economy’. This metanarrativ...
Book
Full-text available
Edición Argentina actualizada con un prólogo de Miguel Mazzeo. Poder obrero trae la memoria –larga y corta– de experimentos de control obrero y gestión obrera, de democracia obrera, de base, directa; de formas de estructurar la autogestión y el autogobierno popular. Formas no mediatizadas, no delegativas, no centralizadas, no coercitivas, colecti...
Research
Full-text available
Working Paper 1. Fachgruppe Soziologie und Arbeitsmarktpolitik. Hochschule der Bundesagentur für Arbeit. Oktober 2021. Nachhaltige Entwicklung ist politisches Ziel der EU und ihrer Mitgliedsstaaten. CO2-Reduktion, Energie- und Mobilitätswende sind tagesaktuell. Spätestens zum Jahr 2050 soll in Europa die Treibhausgasneutralität erreicht werden, be...
Book
Full-text available
Sanayi çağı ile birlikte ücretliler sendikalarda örgütlendiler, grevlerle mücadele ettiler ve hatta üretimi patronlar olmadan kontrol etmeyi amaçlayan çeşitli özyönetim kurumları yaratarak kapitalist sistemin temel dayanaklarına meydan okuyacak kadar ileri gittiler.
Chapter
Full-text available
Workers’ control and workers’ self- management have manifested themselves in all kinds of crisis and historical changes. They proliferated in revolutions and anti- colonial struggles, during political, economic, social, and cultural crises, and as a response to capitalist restructuring. Different forms of and struggles for workers’ control and sel...
Article
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Crises under capitalism, as historical analysis proves, tend to entail a transfer of wealth from the poor to the wealthy. Inequalities between poor and wealthy, between people of color and white people, between North and South and between genders are increasing. Most scholars will agree that this is also happening on a global level as a consequence...
Article
Full-text available
Online platforms have disrupted parts of the capitalist economy, but assessing the magnitude of this effect is difficult. Much is known about major platforms, but less about the conditions under which they take over—or fail to take over—a given market. Unlike explanations emphasising slow take‐up by entrepreneurs or worker resistance, we argue that...
Book
Full-text available
Encouraging insights in the face of global turmoil: case studies from five continents illustrate the central role of organized workers in struggles against authoritarianism, fascism, and dictatorships. Across the world, authoritarianism is on the rise, as a look at Donald Trump, Recep Erdoğan, Jair Bolsonaro, Viktor Orbán, and a host of other head...
Book
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Dario Azzellini (Hrsg.) Der Autoritarismus ist weltweit auf dem Vormarsch. Donald Trump, Recep Erdoğan, Jair Bolsonaro, Viktor Orbán und viele andere Regierungschefs verdeutlichen das. In Lateinamerika gehört Putschen wieder zur Normalität und wird, genauso wie in Ägypten, international akzeptiert. In mehreren arabischen Ländern wurden Krisenprotes...
Chapter
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The social transformation promoted in Venezuela under the presidency of Hugo Chávez (1999–2013) is often characterized as “nationalist” by scholars. Critics use the label “nationalist” with a negative connotation (Hawkins 2010). Sympathizers link “Bolivarian nationalism” to the nationalist tradition of the French Revolution and see it as “informed...
Chapter
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From the year 2000 onwards in Venezuela, popular organisations, communities and even some institutions have developed various local self-government initiatives. From those experiences arose in 2005 the Communal Councils as a form of self-administration at the neighbourhood level, followed by the Communes in 2007 as the tier of self-government above...
Article
Full-text available
Online platforms have disrupted parts of the capitalist economy, with allegedly severe consequences in the world of work. It is difficult to assess the potential magnitude of this effect, however, because little is known about the conditions under which platforms take over any given market, industry or occupation. This study examines live music in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Online platforms have disrupted parts of the capitalist economy, with al-legedly severe consequences in the world of work. It is difficult to assess the potential magnitude of this effect, however, because little is known about the conditions under which platforms take over any given market, industry or occupation. This study examines live music in...
Chapter
Full-text available
My objective in this chapter is to analyse the Venezuelan mechanism of local self-government, the commune, as a utopian prefiguration. Since 2005, the Venezuelan people has organized itself into communal councils, a non-representative form of local self-government based on assemblies and direct democracy. Each communal council comprises between 150...
Chapter
Desde que empezó la crisis financiera y económica en 2008 varias empresas cerradas en Italia, Francia, Grecia, Turquía, Bosnia y Herzegovina y Croacia han sido ocupadas por sus trabajadores y trabajadoras. Comunes en América Latina, las recuperaciones de empresas constituyen una novedad en Europa, donde no habían ocurrido durante los últimos 40 año...
Chapter
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- Von der Pariser Kommune zu den zeitgenössischen Rückeroberten Betrieben unter ArbeiterInnenkontrolle - Demokratische Selbstkontrolle statt Kommando und Fremdbestimmung – ein Versuch der begrifflichen Entwirrung - RBA – Vom Protest zum sozialen Prozess - Reform und Revolution (über die Aktualität der Kritik von Rosa Luxemburg) - Einige vorläufige...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Online platforms have disrupted parts of the capitalist economy, with allegedly severe consequences in the world of work. It is difficult to assess the potential magnitude of this effect, however, because little is known about the conditions under which platforms take over any given market, industry or occupation. This study examines live music in...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter examines the extent to which certain contemporary social movements – in particular, worker-recuperated companies (WRCs) and efforts in local self-administration (Communes in Venezuela and Rojava) – advance the legacy of the council movements. While acknowledging that the present political context and circumstances are very different to...
Book
Full-text available
Betriebsbesetzungen mit dem Ziel der Produktion in Selbstverwaltung sind seit der Jahrtausend­wende aus Lateinamerika, vor allem aus Argentinien, bekannt. Im Laufe der aktuellen Krise haben Beschäftigte auch in Europa und Nordamerika erfolgreich Besetzungen von Betrieben durchgeführt, die von der Schließung bedroht waren. Sie zeigen nicht nur auf,...
Book
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The Class Strikes Back examines a number of radical, twenty-first-century workers struggles. These struggles are characterised by a different kind of unionism and solidarity, arising out of new kinds of labour conditions and responsive to new kinds of social and economic marginalisation. The essays in the collection demonstrate the dramatic growth...
Article
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En el transcurso de la historia las utopías han jugado un papel importante en la construcción de alternativas sociales. En este artículo se analiza al mecanismo de autogobierno local venezolano de las comunas como prefiguración utópica o como “utopía concreta”. Se discuten diferentes conceptos marxistas y emancipadores de utopía conectándolos con e...
Book
Full-text available
Compilación y estudio de experiencias de control obrero a lo largo de todo el planeta. Debate teórico y experiencia práctica en defensa de una práctica obrera revolucionaria. Desde los albores de la era industrial, la mejor y casi única arma de lxs trabajadorxs en la defensa de sus intereses ha sido la acción colectiva. Gracias a ella, a lo largo...
Article
Full-text available
No hay duda que los mecanismos de participación creados desde arriba y desde abajo desde el 1999 han aumentado la participación en muchos ámbitos, hasta cuestionando la división liberal de la esfera política, social y económica. Al mismo tiempo el sistema político representativo sigue vigente y en sus instituciones se reproduce la lógica representa...
Chapter
The chapter critically analyzes the different efforts in Venezuela to support and build a solidarity, social, popular and communal economy as part of what is defined as goal of a societal transformation toward a so-called ‘21st century socialism.’ It presents different initiatives from below as well as the state’s reaction and initiatives. The rang...
Chapter
Introduction Perhaps the country whose experiences have inspired solidarity economy practices more than any other is the Venezuela of President Hugo Chávez. The 1999 Constitution defined Venezuela as a ‘participatory and protagonistic’ democracy, advocating more direct participation and aimed at creating a ‘humanist and solidaristic economy’. In 20...
Book
The need to avoid dangerous climate change whilst meeting the needs of millions in the global north and south suggests that a new economic model is required. Social and solidarity economies have been suggested as an alternative to the failed models of both public and private enterprise. What can they contribute in terms of offering the hope of an e...
Book
Full-text available
In Communes and Workers' Control in Venezuela: Building 21st Century Socialism from Below, Dario Azzellini offers an account of the Bolivarian Revolution from below. While authors on Venezuela commonly concentrate on former president Hugo Chávez and government politics, this book shows how workers, peasants and the poor in urban communities engage...
Book
Full-text available
Marks’ın konsey komünizmi, anarko-sendikalizm, İtalyan operaismo’su ve diğer “heretik” sol akımlar yoluyla Paris Komünü hakkındaki yazılarını izleyen “Emeğin Alternatif Tarihi”, şimdiye kadar görmezden gelinen tarihsel ve çağdaş otonom işçi hareketlerinin uygulama ve amaçlarını açığa çıkarmaktadır. Bu kitap, işçilerin işyerlerinde süreklilik ve öng...
Article
Full-text available
Der Beitrag verknüpft die Platzbesetzungen seit 2011 mit den Betrieben unter Arbeiterkontrolle, die ab 2000 in Lateinamerika und darüber hinaus entstanden, sowie mit Formen kollektiver lokaler Selbstverwaltung. Diesen Praxen sind bei allen Unterschieden grundlegende Charakteristika gemeinsam. Sie konstruieren Räume der Produktion sozialer Alternati...
Chapter
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In this chapter, the author first lays down the historical Latin American context in which the concept of constituent and constituted power developed. Based on the work of Antonio Negri, he then illustrates the general ideas around the concept and discusses the concept of popular power, which in Latin America is closely linked to constituent power....
Chapter
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Nel pieno della crisi globale iniziata nel 2008 sono nate in Europa diverse esperienze di autogestione produttiva basate sul recupero di imprese o fabbriche abbandonate: pur trattandosi di un fenomeno consolidato e comune in America Latina, esso costituisce invece una interessante novità per quanto riguarda lo spazio euro-mediterraneo. Con questo c...
Article
Full-text available
Workers’ initiatives and government measures in Venezuela to increase workers’ participation in the management of their companies sharply contrast with institutional actions that intend to inhibit and reduce such participation. Despite this, the movement for workers’ control in Venezuela has grown in recent years and achieved some important victori...
Article
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This article argues that labour can be understood as a commons, located in the discussion of how commons can advance the transformation of social relations and society. To manage labour as a commons entails a shift away from the perception of labour power as the object of capital's value practices, towards a notion of labour power as a collectively...
Book
Full-text available
Con la presente obra, el autor estudia el proceso de transformación social en Venezuela entre 1999 y 2009. Se propone un análisis sobre la extensión de la participación popular en el Estado y en la sociedad, ubicando la mirada hacia las tensiones y contradicciones que se generan en este proceso “de dos lados” (poder constituido por un lado y poder...
Book
Full-text available
Con la presente obra, el autor estudia el proceso de transformación social en Venezuela entre 1999 y 2009. Se propone un análisis sobre la extensión de la participación popular en el Estado y en la sociedad, ubicando la mirada hacia las tensiones y contradicciones que se generan en este proceso “de dos lados” (poder constituido por un lado y poder...
Article
Full-text available
In den vergangenen zwei Jahren fand eine wahrliche Stafette der linken Wahlhoffnungen statt. In Europa wurde nach den großen sozialen Mobilisierungen 2010 bis 2013 eine lange Reihe von Kandidaten (Alexis Tsipras, Jeremy Corbyn), Parteien (Izquierda Unida, Syriza, Podemos) und Ländern (neben Griechenland und Spanien auch Portugal) zum Hoffnungsträge...
Article
Full-text available
The article deals with the takeover of workplaces so as to place them under worker's control in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and (to a lesser extent) Venezuela. The "recuperated companies under workers' control" are analyzed from the perspective of the possible revitalization of labor struggles. The article points out differences to both, to dominant...
Book
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The global financial crisis has led to radical forms of social protest and worker takeovers all over the globe. Tracing Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune through council communism, anarcho-syndicalism, Italian operaismo, and other autonomous social movements, this book uncovers the intentions and practices of workers’ struggles that continue in...
Article
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Desde que empezó la crisis financiera y económica en 2008 varias empresas cerradas en EEUU, Italia, Francia, Grecia, Turquía y Egipto han sido ocupadas por sus trabajadores y trabajadoras. Comunes en America Latina, las recuperaciones de empresas constitutyen una novedad en los países del hemisferio norte, donde no habían ocurrido durante los últim...
Book
Full-text available
Mass protest movements in disparate places such as Greece, Argentina, and the United States ultimately share an agenda—to raise the question of what democracy should mean. These horizontalist movements, including Occupy, exercise and claim participatory democracy as the ground of revolutionary social change today. Written by two international acti...
Article
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Seit Ende 2010 hat sich eine Reihe Massenproteste und Revolten in verschiedenen Ländern rund um den Globus ereignet. Trotz aller Unterschiede zwischen den diversen Bewegungen und Gesellscha!en lassen sind derart viele Parallelen zwischen Inhalten, Formen und Akteuren ausmachen, dass von einem globalen Phänomen auszugehen ist. Jede dieser Bewegungen...
Chapter
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Los paramilitares en Colombia son el brazo armado de las elites y cuentan con apoyo y ramificaciones en todas las instituciones del Estado, en todos los niveles de administración y en todos los sectores sociales2. Han sido formados con la ayuda del ejército colombiano, varias agencias secretas de Colombia y EEUU y mercenarios. Son un proyecto estra...
Book
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Seit Ende der 1990er Jahre unterliegt Venezuelas Hauptstadt Caracas einem fundamentalen Transformationsprozess. Im Zuge der „bolivarianischen Revolution“ versuchen lokale und staatliche Organe gemeinsam mit der Bevölkerung eine neue urbane Politik umzusetzen. Einst marginalisierte Bewohner_innen organisieren sich in Stadtteilräten, Nachbarschaftsve...
Chapter
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Die Jahre 2011 und 2012 waren weltweit von Aufständen, Bewegungen und Protesten gegen die multiple Krise oder Viel-fachkrise 1 geprägt. Weltweit wehren sich Millionen Menschen gegen die beschleunigte Umverteilung zugunsten des Kapitals und entwickeln gemeinsam neue Organisationsformen und kollektive direktdemokratische Praxen in Räumen und Territor...
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The current process of change underway in Venezuela is aimed at the country’s social and economic transformation. While at first the goal was to build a “solidarity-based and humanistic economy,” since 2005, it has been to overcome capitalist logic and social relations by building a “21st Century Socialism”. In January 2007, president Hugo Chavez a...
Chapter
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Der »Krieg gegen Drogen« in Kolumbien hat die mit der Drogenkriminalität verbundene Gewalt über den gesamten Kontinent verbreitet und verstärkt. Am deutlichsten sind die Folgen in Mexiko zu sehen, wo die Drogengewalt mittlerweile Ausmaße erreicht hat, die an Kolumbien in den 1980er Jahren erinnern. Ähnlich ist es in Zentralamerika. In Venezuela wie...
Article
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Cuando se habla de seguridad militar, militarización y guerra hay un aspecto que es poco o nada conocido y casi siempre subestimado: la privatización de la guerra. Las formas de conducción de las guerras están cambiando. Al lado de los ejércitos estatales surgen cada vez más compañías militares privadas (CMP), compañías de seguridad privadas (CSP),...
Book
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While the gobal Occupy movement is widely seen as unprecedented, its language and organizing practices are shaped and inspired by diverse historical precedents in the United States and around the world. Sitrin and Azzellini introduce the reader to the theory and practices of the movement and explore linkages and connections toward the dream of a co...
Book
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Die endlich entdeckte politische Form« ist das aktuell reichhaltigste und umfassendste Werk zu Arbeiterkontrolle, Fabrikräten und Selbstverwaltung von der russischen Revolution bis heute. Statt des üblichen Verlagstextes hier die Stimmen zur englischen Ausgabe (Haymarket Books, 2011): »Die endlich entdeckte politische Form ist das aktuell reichha...
Book
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Capitalism would have us believe we need our bosses. This volume reveals the history of workers who dare to disagree From the dawning of the industrial epoch, wage earners have organized themselves into unions, fought bitter strikes, and gone so far as to challenge the very premises of the system by creating institutions of democratic self-managem...
Book
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Partizipation, Demokratie und Sozialismus stehen wieder im Zentrum zahlreicher Debatten und angestrebter gesellschaftlicher Veränderungen. Vielen Befreiungs- und Demokratisierungsbewegungen, vor allem in Lateinamerika, ist gemeinsam, das Prinzip der Repräsentation abzulehnen und soziale Transformation und Sozialismus als Prozess zu verstehen. Etati...
Article
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One of the main issues in recent years for those desiring profound social transformation – especially in Latin America – has been the question of taking power. Should we to some extent collaborate with State institutions, or should we reject any involvement with them? We can define these general visions respectively, grosso modo, as “top down” (des...
Chapter
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Gladio, otherwise known as the “strategy of tension,” was a counterinsurgency policy established by Italian state secret services and economic elites with the support of fascist organizations and terror groups to oppose leftist movements and political parties. Through the use of bomb attacks and secret operations carried out by the Gladio structure...
Article
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El presente ensayo resume y analiza los diferentes esfuerzos organizacionales del gobierno bolivariano de Venezuela de alcanzar una democratización de la propiedad y administración de los medios de producción. Las diferentes iniciativas y medidas adoptadas desde el 2000 – primero reforzar el cooperativismos, luego la creación de Empresas de Producc...
Article
Full-text available
El presente ensayo resume y analiza los diferentes esfuerzos organizacionales del gobierno bolivariano de Venezuela de alcanzar una democratización de la propiedad y administración de los medios de producción. Las diferentes iniciativas y medidas adoptadas desde el 2000 – primero reforzar el cooperativismos, luego la creación de Empresas de Producc...
Article
Full-text available
El difícil camino hacia una economía solidaria, popular y socialista en Venezuela: De las cooperativas y la cogestión a la economía comunal y los consejos de trabajadores. El presente ensayo resume y analiza de manera crítica a los esfuerzos organizacionales del gobierno bolivariano de Venezuela de alcanzar una democratización de la propiedad y adm...
Article
Full-text available
The essay appraises and analyzes different organizational efforts of the Bolivarian government in Venezuela to achieve a democratization of property and management of means of production. The different approaches adopted since 2000 (first a strengthening of cooperatives, then the creation of Social production companies [EPS] and finally the Sociali...
Chapter
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The history of Italy's left after the partisan's victory against fascism until the "birth" of the new left. The Italian partisan resistance (La Resistenza) were critical in defeating fascism and the German occupying forces in northern and central Italy from 1943 to 1945. The partisan army was made up of 250,000 men and women, of whom the majority w...
Chapter
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The protests against the G8 (Group of Eight, most industrialized nations) summit in Genoa, Italy, from July 19–21, 2001, was a highpoint in the history of the “alter-globalization movement.” On July 21, after months of mobilizing across Europe, around 300,000 people took part in one of the largest “movement of movements” demonstrations in the world...
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The Disobbedienti were a group in Italy who had their greatest visibility around the G8 (most industrialized nations) summit in Genoa in 2001. The movement understood itself as explicitly extra-parliamentary and basis-democratic. The Disobbedienti, who were strongly rooted in the counter-globalization movement, regarded themselves as anti-capitalis...
Chapter
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The Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN) is a Marxist guerilla group founded in 1964 as a military‐political organization. It has been strongly influenced by the Cuban Revolution, Che Guevara, and liberation theology and was founded to use revolutionary violence to seize power. It later changed to a vision in which power seizure is not a simple ta...
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During the era of Spanish colonial slavery, Zambo Andresote was a leader of runaway slaves who staged a three‐year revolt from 1730 to 1733 against Spanish colonial rule and monopoly control over trade in all goods, including humans, by the monarchy in the Yaracuy and Falcón regions of Venezuela. The son of an indigenous mother and African father,...
Chapter
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Brigate Rosse (BR) or Red Brigades, founded in Milan in 1970, were an Italian armed communist organization. The BR formed out of neighborhood collectives and committees at the Pirelli, sitsiemens, and Michelin factories in the Milan region at the end of a mass labor upsurge from 1968 to 1969. In 1969 the committees joined together under the coordin...
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From the 1790s the Haitian Revolution and the ambition of freedom for all echoed throughout the Atlantic world, providing comfort and hope for the abolition of slavery to Africans seeking freedom, equality, and self‐determination from European colonial rule. José Leonardo Chirino, or Zambo Chirino, was eyewitness to the Haitian Revolution as a free...
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Guaicaipuro was a pre‐Columbian indigenous leader, or cacique, in the Spanish province of Venezuela in the sixteenth century who organized fierce and successful resistance against the Spanish colonialists, driving them from the region of Los Teques in the Caracas Valley and the nearby coast for nearly a decade. In the twenty‐first century, Guaicaip...
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Venezuela's democratic era can be divided into three distinct periods. The first represents its economic glory days, from the end of its last dictatorship in 1958 to the height of its oil boom years in 1978. The second period, which lasted from 1979 to 1998, was marked by decline and by popular reactions in the form of constant protests, an uprisin...
Chapter
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In 1553, the first recorded revolt by Africans enslaved by the Spanish colonial authority disrupted a gold rush in Venezuela's Buria mining region. The uprising was led by Negro Miguel, an African slave who established a maroon colony and who is now recognized as a leader in the historical struggle for racial justice in Venezuela.
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Venezuela was the second country in Latin America (after Cuba) to have a significant guerilla movement during the second half of the twentieth century. After the Venezuelan Communist Party (PCV) and other leftists had played a central role in overthrowing the dictatorship of Marcos Pérez Jímenez in 1958, the bourgeois parties excluded them from dec...
Chapter
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As a consequence of the debates provoked by the defeat of the armed struggle and the invasion of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (CSSR) by the Soviet Union, the Venezuelan Communist Party (PCV) split in 1970. The PCV had recently been legalized, but tensions within the international communist movement led to local debates. As a result, the Move...
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The beginning of the 1960s in Venezuela was marked by general discontent with the results of the overthrow of dictator Marcos Pérez Jiménez. The bourgeois parties, entrepreneurs, Catholic Church, and high‐ranking military officials had agreed to share power and had excluded the Communist Party and the leftist and progressive forces which had played...
Chapter
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When Hugo Chávez assumed the presidency in 1999, Venezuela was in a serious longstanding crisis. Capital flight and deindustrialization had led to the closure of thousands of production sites since the early 1980s. The goal became to diversify the production of the largely oil‐dependent economy, begin the further processing of natural resources, an...
Chapter
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Following the declaration of Venezuelan independence and the founding of Gran Colombia in 1819, the expectations of land redistribution to peasants were not realized and large tracts of arable land remained in the control of a small oligarchic aristocracy. Ezequiel Zamora was a fearless military leader of rebel armies that sought land redistributio...
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Founded in December 1982, the Revolutionary Bolivarian Army 200 (EBR–200), later renamed Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement 200 (MBR–200), was a clandestine civil‐military organization with the goal of overthrowing the government and building a more just system. Founding members Hugo Chávez Frías, Yoel Acosta Chirinos, and Jesús Urdaneta Hernández s...
Book
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Las formas de conducción de la guerra han cambiado. El «debilitamiento» de los Estados nacionales, evidente síntoma del sistema-mundo capitalista, ha propiciado la privatización de la violencia: las guerras están integradas a la economía de mercado, y como consecuencia lógica han terminado por convertirse en el «objetivo principal de los actores co...
Chapter
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Bolivarianism refers to Simón Bólivar (1783–1830), Venezuelan liberator and general who fought for independence throughout South America and promoted the unification of the continent. Bolivarianism occurred in various South American countries, but its heart and stronghold is in Venezuela, where most movements and the government define themselves as...
Chapter
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The formation of a mass independent left in Italy from 1962 to 1981 in response to the institutionalization of the traditional left and working‐class parties and mass organizations created a mass wave of popular unrest and government repression that turned to armed struggle and further suppression of freedoms. The new left was rooted in new social...
Article
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Recién un amigo investigador, italiano radicado en Barcelona me visitó en Caracas. Después de unos diez días me comentó entusiasmado que nunca había visto en algún país del mundo tanta gente participar, discutir, manifestar, opinar e intentando aprender más que en Venezuela. Eso sin diferencia de clase, género o pertenencia étnica. "Nunca he visto...
Article
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In den vergangenen Jahren sind in Venezuela, Bolivien und Ecuador Linksregierungen gewählt worden, die eine Wiederverstaatlichung der Erdöl- und Erdgasressourcen ihrer Länder zu ihrem wichtigsten Projekt erklärt haben. Mit dieser Politik verfolgen sie das Ziel, die Kontrolle über die Rohstoffe zurückzugewinnen und die daraus resul-tierenden Mehrein...
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Ist die Charakterisierung der 68er-Bewegungen als ‚Studentenrevolte‘ allgemein ein unzulässiger Reduktionismus, trifft dies auf Italien besonders zu. Mehr noch als in den meisten anderen Ländern entstanden in Italien autonome Massenbewegungen, die über lange Zeit in der Lage gewesen sind, für alle Lebensbereiche neue, alternative gesellschaftliche...

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