Darcy M. Bullock

Darcy M. Bullock
Purdue University | Purdue · School of Civil Engineering

PhD

About

341
Publications
41,511
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,342
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1998 - August 2016
Purdue University
Position
  • Professor
January 1993 - December 1997
Louisiana State University
Position
  • Assistant/Associate Professor

Publications

Publications (341)
Article
The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse estimated there were approximately 115,000 work zone crashes with 842 fatalities in 2019. There is broad consensus that it is important for agencies to develop near real-time risk assessment of work zone traffic operations to proactively identify improvement opportunities. Due to the huge spat...
Article
Full-text available
Work zone safety is a high priority for transportation agencies across the United States. Enforcing speed compliance in work zones is an important factor for reducing the frequency and severity of crashes. This paper uses connected vehicle trajectory data to evaluate the impact of automated work zone speed enforcement on three work zones in Pennsyl...
Article
Full-text available
Stockpile quantity monitoring is vital for agencies and businesses to maintain inventory of bulk material such as salt, sand, aggregate, lime, and many other materials commonly used in agriculture, highways, and industrial applications. Traditional approaches for volumetric assessment of bulk material stockpiles, e.g., truckload counting, are inacc...
Article
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Alternate Route Handbook proposes guidance to identify alternate routes during planned and unplanned road closures. A challenge with this process is the lack of traffic data available to decision-makers. High volume corridors experiencing unplanned closures can provide a rich case history by systematically...
Article
Full-text available
Forensic crash investigation often requires developing detailed profiles showing the location and extent of vehicle damage to identify impact areas, impact direction, deformation, and estimated vehicle speeds at impact. Traditional damage profiling techniques require extended and comprehensive setups for mapping and measurement that are quite labor...
Article
Full-text available
The United States has over 8.8 million lane miles nationwide, which require regular maintenance and evaluations of sign retroreflectivity, pavement markings, and other pavement information. Pavement markings convey crucial information to drivers as well as connected and autonomous vehicles for lane delineations. Current means of evaluation are by h...
Article
Full-text available
Collecting precise as-built data is essential for tracking construction progress. Three-dimensional models generated from such data capture the as-is conditions of the structures, providing valuable information for monitoring existing infrastructure over time. As-built data can be acquired using a wide range of remote sensing technologies, among wh...
Article
Full-text available
There are over four million miles of roads in the United States, and the prioritization of locations to perform maintenance activities typically relies on human inspection or semi-automated dedicated vehicles. Pavement markings are used to delineate the boundaries of the lane the vehicle is driving within. These markings are also used by original e...
Article
Full-text available
Typical safety improvements at signalized intersections are identified and prioritized using crash data over 3–5 years. Enhanced probe data that provides date, time, heading, and location of hard-braking events has recently become available to agencies. In a typical month, over six million hard-braking events are logged in the state of Indiana. Thi...
Article
Full-text available
Maintenance of roadside ditches is important to avoid localized flooding and premature failure of pavements. Scheduling effective preventative maintenance requires a reasonably detailed mapping of the ditch profile to identify areas in need of excavation to remove long-term sediment accumulation. This study utilizes high-resolution, high-quality po...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-based mobile mapping systems (MMS) have been utilized for extracting lane markings using deep learning frameworks. However, huge datasets are required for training neural networks. Furthermore, with accurate lane markings being detected utilizing LiDAR data, an algorithm for automatically reporting thei...
Article
Full-text available
Operations-oriented traffic signal performance measures are important for identifying the need for retiming to improve traffic signal operations. Currently, most traffic signal performance measures are obtained from high-resolution traffic signal controller event data, which provides information on an intersection-by-intersection basis and requires...
Article
Full-text available
Check out the open access publication at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s42421-020-00024-x The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) reported between 2016 and 2017, fatal crashes in work zones increased by 3%, while fatal crashes outside of work zones decreased by 1.5%. The FHWA also reported that work zones account for approximately 1...
Article
Regular pavement monitoring over highways and airport runways is vital for public agencies to ensure the safe riding of vehicles and aircrafts. Highways are mostly subject to cracking and potholes along with a few instances of debris around construction work zones. Airports are also concerned with debris but have much lower tolerance for the presen...
Article
Full-text available
Open access copy available at: tinyurl.com/y355ccwv In the United States, over 400 billion connected vehicle events are generated every month that agencies can integrate into their monitoring and investment decisions. This paper discusses some near-term opportunities and potential nationwide scalability of this data for visualizing interstate queu...
Article
Full-text available
Back of queue crashes on Interstates are a major concern for all state transportation departments. In 2020, Indiana DOT begin deploying queue warning trucks with message boards, flashers and digital alerts that could be transmitted to navigation systems such as Waze. This study reports on the deployment and impact evaluation of digital alerts on mo...
Article
Travel time is one of the most important traffic parameters for travelers, traffic managers, planners, and operators alike. Travel time estimation is a significant component of any intelligent transportation systems (ITS) operations. In countries like India, which are at a nascent stage of ITS deployment, one of the main hurdles is the lack of accu...
Conference Paper
Connected vehicles (CV) that communicate with traffic signals and notify the driver of expected signal status changes have emerged in the last few years. For fixed-time operations it is a deterministic exercise to predict the signal state for a given movement. However, under actuated-coordinated operation, there are stochastic variations of phase s...
Conference Paper
In the past 2 years dockless electric scooters, shared bikes, and electric skateboards have risen in popularity and are being integrated into the urban transportation ecosystem. As these micro-mobility devices increase in prevalence, several cities have raised concerns about their safe operating speeds and interaction with pedestrians and vehicles....
Article
Full-text available
With the rapid development of autonomous vehicles (AV) and high-definition (HD) maps, up-to-date lane marking information is necessary. Over the years, several lane marking extraction approaches have been proposed with many of them based on accurate and dense Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data collected by mobile mapping systems (...
Article
Full-text available
Roadside ditches serve an important role for draining storm water. Over time vegetation growth, natural sediment deposits, and other debris can change grade of ditches. Effectively monitoring and identifying these changes to prioritize ditch maintenance is important from both a pavement preservation perspective and prevention of localized flooding....
Article
Full-text available
With an ever-increasing network of thousands of miles of pavement laid out over highways, road networks, and airport runways, their continuous monitoring is a task of utmost importance to public agencies responsible for their maintenance. The existing approaches mostly rely on a manual detection of pavement distress based on acquired image or video...
Article
Pavement distress or pothole mapping is important to public agencies responsible for maintaining roadways. The efficient capture of 3D point cloud data using mapping systems equipped with LiDAR eliminates the time-consuming and labor-intensive manual classification and quantity estimates. This paper proposes a methodology to map potholes along the...
Article
Full-text available
Mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls rely on its weight to resist the destabilizing earth forces acting at the back of the reinforced soil area. MSE walls are a common infrastructure along national and international transportation corridors as they are low-cost and have easy-to-install precast concrete panels. The usability of such transportat...
Article
The communication between connected vehicles and traffic signal controllers is defined in SAE Surface Vehicle Standard J2735. SAE J2735 defines traffic signal status messages and a series of 16 confidence levels for traffic signal transitions. This paper discusses a statistical method for tabulating traffic signal data by phase and time of day and...
Article
Full-text available
Real-time performance measures are important for agencies to maintain their roadways during the winter season. However, infrastructure can be expensive to deploy and maintain and may be sparse in rural areas, while speed data alone may not provide enough fidelity in borderline conditions. This study looks at high-frequency vehicle data from the in-...
Article
Full-text available
Lane markings are one of the essential elements of road information, which is useful for a wide range of transportation applications. Several studies have been conducted to extract lane markings through intensity thresholding of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) point clouds acquired by mobile mapping systems (MMS). This paper proposes an intensi...
Article
The rate of fatalities at signalized intersections involving heavy vehicles is nearly five times higher than for passenger vehicles in the US. Previous studies in the US have found that heavy vehicles are twice as likely to violate a red light compared with passenger vehicles. Current technologies leverage setback detection to extend green time for...
Article
Recently, high-resolution data has emerged as an economical means of obtaining detailed information about signal operations. This has enabled the development of metrics to examine progression, such as cyclic flow profiles similar to those used in the TRANSYT model. Those profiles could further be used to predict changes to traffic flows under trial...
Article
Full-text available
Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) walls retain soil on steep, unstable slopes with crest loads. Over the last decade, they are becoming quite popular due to their high cost-to-benefit ratio, design flexibility, and ease of construction. Like any civil infrastructure, MSE walls need to be continuously monitored according to transportation asset ma...
Article
Versatile unmanned aerial system (UAS) platforms have grown significantly in popularity by virtue of their low cost relative to manned aircraft, high performance, and operational simplicity. While the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) currently regulates the operating altitudes, speeds, weights, pilot qualifications, and locations of drones, a...
Article
Mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls are extensively used in civil infrastructure projects, particularly in areas with tight right-of-way constraints. Traditional geotechnical design of MSE walls includes internal and external stability checks. The long-term performance of the entire MSE wall system is dependent upon proper construction of the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document defines the enumerations used to encode events at a 100 millisecond resolution that occur on a traffic signal controller with high resolution data loggers. The enumerations definitions were developed as part of a multi-state pooled fund study, TPF-5(377), conducted in 2018-2019 that conducted a series of stakeholder engagements and pa...
Article
Mobility of the road network is a serious problem which traffic managers all over the world are trying to resolve. India is one of the populous countries in the world. Most of the arterial and local roads of India remain highly congested causing unbearable delays; thus affecting the mobility. Addressing the mobility issues and analyzing performance...
Article
Terrestrial photogrammetry using acquired images by a hand-held camera has been used for several years to map crash scene geometry. More recently, photogrammetric reconstruction from acquired images by an unmanned aerial system (UAS) has been proposed for crash scene mapping. Over the past year, the Tippecanoe County Sherriff’s Office has participa...
Article
Full-text available
With the recent rise of e-scooters as an alternative transportation choice, it is critical to understand their utilization trend in the micro-mobility and shared use sector. This paper analyzes three months of data acquired from the City of Indianapolis to provide an overview of temporal patterns and performance metrics of the e-scooter trips. More...
Article
Second-by-second GPS trajectories, called trip traces, of vehicles moving along an arterial provide the highest fidelity measure of corridor operations. However, large samples of such contiguous trajectories are not always possible because of varying techniques to reset probe vehicle IDs for data privacy, varying probe data penetration rates, and v...
Article
Mobile wheel-based LiDAR systems are capable of collecting a dense, accurate point cloud efficiently. Such systems provide accurate geospatial information of a scene, and thus show great potential to serve as an alternative infrastructure monitoring tool. In this study, two different surveys of runway 10/28 at Purdue University Airport (KLAF) were...
Article
Accurate airport operations counts are important for determining appropriate funding allocations for airport development and improvement. Fewer than 270 of the 2,950 non-primary airports in the United States, however, have air traffic control (ATC) personnel who are available to count airport operations. Existing counting methods such as automatic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The experiments conducted in this study demonstrated the application of high-frequency vehicle data for observing winter weather road conditions. A system was deployed to collect wheel tick and brake pressure data at 100 to 200 ms time resolution. A web application was developed to display windshield wipers, hazard lights, traction control and ABS...
Article
Full-text available
This study proposes a new methodology to use route-based travel time observations to characterize transportation networks. Over 1.3 million travel time records were reduced to provide continuous network observation, comparisons in mobility between 15 cities in Alabama, and comparisons between the 50 largest cities in the United States. The Peak Hou...
Article
Automated traffic signal performance measures (ATSPMs) have been deployed with increasing frequency. At present, the existing ATSPMs are focused on the performance of individual movements or intersections. As the number of ATSPM users has increased, a need for system-level metrics has emerged. This paper proposes a method of evaluating corridor per...
Article
Extensive literature exists regarding recommendations for lane widths, merging tapers, and work zone geometry to provide safe and efficient traffic operations. However, it is often infeasible or unsafe for inspectors to check these geometric features in a freeway work zone. This paper discusses the integration of LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging)...