Daphne J Fairbairn

Daphne J Fairbairn
University of California, Riverside | UCR · Department of Biology

BSc (Hons), PhD

About

146
Publications
43,879
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10,746
Citations
Citations since 2017
2 Research Items
2948 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
Additional affiliations
June 2001 - present
University of California, Riverside
Position
  • Professor (Full)
July 1982 - May 2001
Concordia University Montreal
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (146)
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Despite substantial progress for women in science, women remain underrepresented in many aspects of the scholarly publication process. We examined how the gender diversity of editors and reviewers changed over time for six journals in ecology and evolution (2003–2015 for four journals, 2007–2015 or 2009–2015 for the other two), and how sev...
Article
Estimation of mating preferences is a prerequisite for understanding how sexual selection through mate choice shapes both mating systems and sexual dimorphisms. Most studies of mating preferences assay mate choice using either a no choice or a binary choice design. Binary choice trials typically employ either an artificial signal or some fixed diff...
Article
Sexual dimorphisms are traits that differ consistently between males and females within a given species. They evolve in response to selection that favors different trait values in the two sexes. This article discusses why the trait values that maximize fitness often differ between sexes and how the genome responds to this selection to produce disti...
Article
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), in which one sex is larger than the other, has remained understudied in social insects, particularly bees. Using weight and linear structural measurements, we quantified the magnitude of SSD and its variation across nests in three species of corbiculate bees, two belonging to the highly eusocial Apini (Apis mellifera)...
Article
We assess karyotypic variation in the heteropteran infraorder Gerromorpha. Counts of autosomes, m-chromosomes and sex chromosomes are obtained from literature reports for 51 species, including 35 in the family Gerridae. Placing these data on recently derived phylogenies reveals that XX/X0 sex determination is ancestral to the clade containing the G...
Article
The evolution of mate choice is a function of the heritability of preference. Estimation in the laboratory is typically made by presenting a female with a limited number of males. We show that such an approach produces a downwardly biased estimate, which we term the heritability of choice. When preference is treated as a threshold trait then less b...
Article
Full-text available
Populations often contain discrete classes or morphs (e.g., sexual dimorphisms, wing dimorphisms, trophic dimorphisms) characterized by distinct patterns of trait expression. In quantitative genetic analyses, the different morphs can be considered as different environments within which traits are expressed. Genetic variances and covariances can the...
Article
Full-text available
This article extends and adds more realism to Lande's analytical model for evolution under mate choice by using individual-based simulations in which females sample a finite number of males and the genetic architecture of the preference and preferred trait evolves. The simulations show that the equilibrium heritabilities of the preference and prefe...
Data
Appendix S2. Population size and drift.
Data
Table S1. Details on the parameter combinations used.
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Appendix S1. Mutation rate.
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Appendix S4. Effect of initial parameter values.
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Appendix S6. Line of equilibria and conditions for runaway selection.
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Appendix S3. Natural selection on males.
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Appendix S5. Parameter combinations.
Article
Melanism is an important component of insect cuticle and serves numerous functions that enhance fitness. Despite its importance, there is little information on its genetic basis or its phenotypic and genetic correlation with fitness-related traits. Here, we examine the heritability of melanism in the wing dimorphic sand cricket and determine its ph...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between traits that compete for resources is influenced by variance in the acquisition and allocation of resources. The difficulty of accurately measuring these underlying physiological processes has hampered studies of resource-based trade-offs. Here, we explore the ability of principal components analysis (PCA) to extract axes co...
Article
Theory predicts that correlational selection on two traits will cause the major axis of the bivariate G matrix to orient itself in the same direction as the correlational selection gradient. Two testable predictions follow from this: for a given pair of traits, (1) the sign of correlational selection gradient should be the same as that of the genet...
Article
Using quantitative genetic theory, we develop predictions for the evolution of trade-offs in response to directional and correlational selection. We predict that directional selection favoring an increase in one trait in a trade-off will result in change in the intercept but not the slope of the trade-off function, with the mean value of the select...
Article
Full-text available
Bumblebees and other eusocial bees offer a unique opportunity to analyze the evolution of body size differences between sexes. The workers, being sterile females, are not subject to selection for reproductive function and thus provide a natural control for parsing the effects of selection on reproductive function (i.e., sexual and fecundity selecti...
Article
The evolutionary trajectories of trade-offs are ultimately governed by the evolution of the underlying physiological processes of the acquisition and subsequent allocation of resources. In this study, we focused directly on acquisition and allocation as traits and estimated their genetic architecture in the trade-off between flight capability and r...
Article
This study combines path analysis with quantitative genetics to analyse a key life history trade-off in the cricket, Gryllus firmus. We develop a path model connecting five traits associated with the trade-off between flight capability and reproduction and test this model using phenotypic data and estimates of breeding values (best linear unbiased...
Article
Full-text available
1. Researchers frequently take repeated measurements of individuals in a sample with the goal of quantifying the proportion of the total variation that can be attributed to variation among individuals vs. variation among measurements within individuals. The proportion of the variation attributed to variation among individuals is known as repeatabil...
Article
Full-text available
Most ectotherms follow the temperature-size rule meaning that individuals growing up under cool conditions are larger as adults than those growing up in warm conditions. This pattern is difficult to explain because growth is usually slower in the cold meaning it takes longer to reach a larger adult size. One potential explanation for this pattern i...
Article
The use of electrophoretic data in fisheries research is generally based upon the assumption that isozyme variability reflects genetic variability. This assumption is often based mainly upon nonsignificant χ2 values obtained when observed distributions of phenotypes are compared to those predicted by given genetic models with alleles segregating in...
Article
Gulland's method for fitting the Schaefer model is examined using data from 19 groundfish stocks. The relationship between catch per unit effort and averaged effort may arise from statistical artifacts due to the method itself or from the way the fisheries develop. The prevalence of these artifacts in the actual data suggest that this method cannot...
Article
Full-text available
Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) from the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the Bering Sea were analyzed for allele and genotype frequencies at 16 electrophoretically detectable protein loci. Thirteen of these loci were monomorphic, with identical mobilities in all samples. One locus (MDH-1) was polymorphic onl...
Article
Genetic variability at two protein loci (phosphoglucomutase and superoxide dismutase) was assessed both within and among three major management areas for witch flounder (Glyptocephalus cynoglossus) in the Newfoundland region. The genetic analysis revealed population subdivision within each of the major management areas, giving a total of six subpop...
Article
Full-text available
Animal sperm show remarkable diversity in both morphology and molecular composition. Here we provide the first report of intense intrinsic fluorescence in an animal sperm. The sperm from a semi-aquatic insect, the water strider, Aquarius remigis, contains an intrinsically fluorescent molecule with properties consistent with those of flavin adenine...
Article
Full-text available
Copulations lasting much longer than required to effect insemination are common throughout the Insecta, but their adaptive significance remains obscure. We address the hypothesis that prolonged copulations benefit male Aquarius remigis (Hemiptera, Gerridae) by influencing sperm use and storage following insemination. We describe the gynatrial compl...
Article
Full-text available
In the water strider Aquarius remigis (Say), sexual selection favours males with longer genitalia. We used video analysis plus light and scanning electron microscopy to examine the structure, movement, and articulation of the genitalia as a first step in determining the functional basis of this selection. Male A. remigis are characterized by long,...
Article
Full-text available
Demographic processes associated with the onset of breeding in spring are examined in a population of deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus. Many mice of both sexes disappear from the population at this time. The disappearance of males appears to result from the dispersal of light-weight, subordinate animals. The disappearance of females, however, appe...
Article
Female deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) near Vancouver, British Columbia, were found to have a bimodal pattern of breeding. This paper compares the success of females that attempted to breed in the early peak of breeding with that of females that did not breed until the later breeding peak. While the average success was about the same for the two...
Article
Full-text available
This study compares the population ecology of Gerris remigis (Hemiptera: Gerridae) in two habitats: a cool mountain stream, representing the characteristic habitat of this species, and the atypical habitat of a small, warm pond. Neither habitat supported breeding populations of any other gerrid species. The populations on the two sites were found t...
Article
Many models of life history evolution assume trade-offs between major life history traits; however, these trade-offs are often not found. The Y model predicts that variation in acquisition can mask underlying allocation trade-offs and is a major hypothesis explaining why negative relationships are not always found between traits that are predicted...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the ways to model experimental evolution. There are three approaches to modeling the evolution of quantitative traits: (1) population-based models, (2) Mendelian-based models, and (3) variance-components models. The chapter focuses on variance-components models and discusses how to implement them for both single...
Article
Migratory tendency in insects is a complex trait, composed of a suite of correlated behavioural, physiological, morphological and life history traits. We investigate the genetic and physiological basis of the coevolution of this suite of traits using laboratory lines of the wing dimorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus, selected for increasing and decreas...
Article
Discerning the adaptive significance of migratory strategies poses significant challenges, not the least of which is measuring migratory capability in natural populations. We take advantage of a visible migratory dimorphism to study variation in migratory capability in the stream-dwelling water strider, Aquarius remigis. Theory predicts loss of mig...
Article
In this paper, we test the hypothesis that male sand crickets, Gryllus firmus, experience a trade-off between flight capability and reproductive potential expressed as reduced testis weight in flight-capable morphs. We used a half-sib design with 130 sires, three dams per sire and an average of 5.66 males per dam family, for a total of 2206 F1 offs...
Article
1. The hypothesis that the migratory tendency of macropters is correlated with proportion macropterous in wing-polymorphic insects is tested by comparing the migration of macropters of three species of waterstriders (Heteroptera, Gerridae) under natural conditions. 2. Migration of marked individuals among four permanent and seventeen ephemeral wate...
Article
1Energetic trade-offs are those compromises that appear when the energy budget of an individual's life history closely matches or exceeds the net available energy in the environment in a given moment. In these situations, two or more functions can compete and organisms face physiological decisions in order to survive and reproduce.2In insects, one...
Article
1. This paper tests the hypothesis that selection for dispersal ability within a species influences not only the occurrence and extent of wing reduction but also the tendency or ability of the macropterous individuals to fly. 2. Flight thresholds of four species of waterstriders (Hemiptera; Gerridae) were assessed using a tethered flight technique....
Article
. 1Gerris remigis Say (Hemiptera; Gerridae) is primarily apterous, but populations with up to 33% macropters have been reported. The macropters seldom fly, and field studies have revealed no detectable differences between wing morphs in movement or survival at any time of year.2In this paper, life history traits of macropterous and apterous G. remi...
Article
. 1The hypothesis that wing dimorphism reflects dimorphism for dispersal ability is tested in two populations of stream-dwelling waterstriders, Gerris remigis Say, in southern Quebec, Canada.2Movements were assessed directly by recaptures of marked adults, and indirectly by comparisons of residence times and patterns of disappearance of macropterou...
Article
Changes in size, whether ontogenetic or phylogenetic, tend to be associated with changes in shape. This allometry can arise through two different evolutionary mechanisms: (1) selection acting primarily on overall size may be associated with changes in shape because of physiological and mechanical constraints or differential responses of different b...
Book
Full-text available
This book is an edited compendium of twenty chapters addressing the evolution, adaptive significance, and genetic and developmental basis of differences between the sexes in body size and morphology. General concepts and methodologies are introduced in Chapter 1, which also includes an overview of variation in sexual size dimorphism (SSD) with emph...
Chapter
This chapter describes a series of studies examining the adaptive significance of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in the water strider, Aquarius remigis. The data reveal that SSD is negligible until the adult stage, and there is no evidence of sexual bimaturation, ecological niche divergence, or sex-specific selection prior to reproductive maturity. H...
Chapter
Full-text available
This introductory chapter opens by describing general patterns of variation in sexual size dimorphism (SSD), with emphasis on several taxa (plants, fishes, and aquatic invertebrates) not included in the survey chapters that follow. It also highlights recently documented examples of extreme SSD, such as Lamprologus callipterus, a shell-brooding cich...
Article
Predicting evolutionary change is the central goal of evolutionary biology because it is the primary means by which we can test evolutionary hypotheses. In this article, we analyze the pattern of evolutionary change in a laboratory population of the wing-dimorphic sand cricket Gryllus firmus resulting from relaxation of selection favoring the migra...
Article
Male genital morphology in insects and arachnids is characterized by static hypoallometry and low intrapopulational levels of phenotypic variation relative to other male traits. The one-size-fits-all model of genital evolution attributes these patterns to stabilizing sexual selection. This model relies on the assumption that the observed patterns o...
Article
Full-text available
Trade-offs are a core component of many evolutionary models, particularly those dealing with the evolution of life histories. In the present paper, we identify four topics of key importance for studies of the evolutionary biology of trade-offs. First, we consider the underlying concept of 'constraint'. We conclude that this term is typically used t...
Article
Full-text available
A prominent interspecific pattern of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is Rensch's rule, according to which male body size is more variable or evolutionarily divergent than female body size. Assuming equal growth rates of males and females, SSD would be entirely mediated, and Rensch's rule proximately caused, by sexual differences in development times,...
Article
Full-text available
Because areas suitable for growth and reproduction are often ephemeral, a primary selective force in the evolution of migratory behavior in insects is the need to colonize new habitats. However, both migration itself and flight capability reduce present reproductive success. Thus the long-term fitness benefit of migration, the colonization of new h...
Article
Full-text available
A prominent interspecific pattern of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is Rensch’s rule, according to which male body size is more variable or evolutionarily divergent than female body size. Assuming equal growth rates of males and females, SSD would be entirely mediated, and Rensch’s rule proximately caused, by sexual differences in development times,...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual dimorphism (SD) is a defining feature of gonochorous animals and dioecious plants, but the evolution of SD from an initially monomorphic genome presents a conundrum. Theory predicts that the evolution of SD will be facilitated if genes with sex-specific fitness effects occur on sex chromosomes. We review this theory and show that it generate...
Article
Full-text available
Within any given clade, male size and female size typically covary, but male size often varies more than female size. This generates a pattern of allometry for sexual size dimorphism (SSD) known as Rensch's rule. I use allometry for SSD among populations of the water strider Aquarius remigis (Hemiptera, Gerridae) to test the hypothesis that Rensch'...
Article
While congruent evidence indicates that sexual selection is the most likely selective force explaining the rapid divergence of male genital morphology in insects, the mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear. In particular, little attention has been paid to precopulatory sexual selection. We examine sexual selection for mating success on...
Article
Full-text available
Hypotheses for the adaptive significance of extreme female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) generally assume that in dimorphic species males rarely interfere with each other. Here we provide the first multivariate examination of sexual selection because of male-male competition over access to females in a species with 'dwarf' males, the orb-weav...
Article
Full-text available
Mate search plays a central role in hypotheses for the adaptive significance of extreme female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in animals. Spiders (Araneae) are the only free-living terrestrial taxon where extreme SSD is common. The "gravity hypothesis" states that small body size in males is favoured during mate search in species where males h...
Article
Full-text available
During their quest to maximize fertilization success, males may be under sexual selection through male–male competition, female choice and/or sexual conflict over mating frequency. In many orb-weaving spiders, mating interactions are characterized by sexual cannibalism, which has been hypothesized to drive the evolution of male morphology and matin...
Article
Full-text available
Males of some cannibalistic species of spiders and insects appear to sacrifice themselves by allowing the female to eat them, and the adaptive significance of such drastic terminal reproductive investment has recently been demonstrated for a spider. Typically, the female has to kill the male, but it has been suggested that males of some species in...
Article
Full-text available
▪ Abstract Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is common in both plants and animals, and current evidence suggests that it reflects the adaptation of males and females to their different reproductive roles. When species are compared within a clade, SSD is frequently found to vary with body size. This allometry is detected as β ≠ 1, where β is the slope of...
Article
Quantitative genetic theory assumes that trade-offs are best represented by bivariate normal distributions. This theory predicts that selection will shift the trade-off function itself and not just move the mean trait values along a fixed trade-off line, as is generally assumed in optimality models. As a consequence, quantitative genetic theory pre...
Article
We addressed the general hypothesis that life history differences among eastern populations of the North American water strider, Aquarius remigis (Heteroptera: Gerridae), along a north-south gradient are manifestations of genetic differentiation due to natural selection. We raised offspring of two field-caught populations from each of three latitud...
Article
Sexual size dimorphism is assumed to be adaptive and is expected to evolve in response to a difference in the net selection pressures on the sexes. Although a demonstration of sexual selection is neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the evolution of sexual size dimorphism, sexual selection is generally assumed to be a major evolutionary forc...
Article
The relationship between mating success and paternity success is a key component of sexual selection but has seldom been estimated for species in which both sexes mate with many partners (polygynandry). We used a modification of Parker's sterile male technique to measure this relationship for the water strider Aquarius remigis in 47 laboratory popu...
Article
The concept of phenotypic trade-offs is a central element in evolutionary theory. In general, phenotypic models assume a fixed trade-off function, whereas quantitative genetic theory predicts that the trade-off function will change as a result of selection. For a linear trade-off function selection will readily change the intercept but will have to...
Article
The relationship between mating success and paternity success is a key component of sexual selection but has seldom been estimated for species in which both sexes mate with many partners (polygynandry). We used a modification of Parker's sterile male technique to measure this relationship for the water strider Aquarius remigis in 47 laboratory popu...
Article
Lande’s (1980b, Evolution34: 292–305) equations for predicting the evolution of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) through frequency-dependent sexual selection, and frequency-independent natural selection, were tested against results obtained from a stochastic genetic simulation model. The SSD evolved faster than predicted, due to temporary increases in...
Article
Lynch (1999) proposed a method for estimation of genetic correlations from phenotypic measurements of individuals for which no pedigree information is available. This method assumes that shared environmental effects do not contribute to the similarity of relatives, and it is expected to perform best when sample sizes are large, many individuals in...
Chapter
The theory that organisms become adapted to their environment through the process of natural selection has become so ingrained in modern biological thought, and more generally in Western culture of the late 20th century, that it is surely one of the great scientific paradigms of the present era. Evolution and adaptation were both well-accepted conc...
Article
Evolutionary Ecology simultaneously unifies conceptual and empirical advances in evolutionary ecology and provides a volume that can be used as either a primary textbook or a supplemental reading in an advanced undergraduate or graduate course. The focus of the book is on current concepts in evolutionary ecology, and the empirical study of these co...
Article
Copulations lasting much longer than required to effect insemination are common throughout the Insecta, but their adaptive significance remains obscure. We address the hypothesis that prolonged copulations benefit male Aquarius remigis (Hemiptera, Gerridae) by influencing sperm use and storage following insemination. We describe the gynatrial compl...
Article
The opportunity for selection (I) is defined as the variance in relative fitness and sets the upper limit for the intensity of selection on any given trait. For Poisson or binomial fitness variables such as mating success or survival, I is mathematically dependent upon both mean fitness and sample size. Covariation with both mean mating success (x̄...
Article
Full-text available
We tested the hypothesis that wing muscle size and triglyceride production mediate a life- history trade-off between wing morph (or flight capability) and early fecundity. Roff et al. recently selected for lower number of eggs laid in the first week by Gryllus firmus (sand cricket) and reported a correlated increase in long-winged (and presumably f...
Article
The opportunity for selection, I, defined as the variance in relative fitness, has been called an estimate of the 'total amount of selection'. However, while a non-zero I is a necessary condition for selection, it is not a sufficient one. We investigated the relationship between I and the magnitude of standardized linear and non-linear selection gr...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), the difference in body size between males and females, is common in almost all taxa of animals and is generally assumed to be adaptive. Although sexual selection and fecundity selection alone have often been invoked to explain the evolution of SSD, more recent views indicate that the sexes must experience different lif...
Article
— Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), the difference in body size between males and females, is common in almost all taxa of animals and is generally assumed to be adaptive. Although sexual selection and fecundity selection alone have often been invoked to explain the evolution of SSD, more recent views indicate that the sexes must experience different l...
Article
We estimated selection on adult body size for two generations in two populations of Aquarius remigis, as part of a long-term study of the adaptive significance of sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Net adult fitness was estimated from the following components: prereproductive survival, daily reproductive success (mating frequency or fecundity), and repr...
Article
Full-text available
Fecundity selection is often suggested as the main causal factor underlying the prevalence of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD), but this assumption has not been empirically tested. We selected female Drosophila melanogaster for increased or decreased fecundity (eggs laid over a single 18-h period, between days 5 and 7 posteclosion) for 20...
Article
Full-text available
Fecundity selection is often suggested as the main causal factor underlying the prevalence of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD), but this assumption has not been empirically tested. We selected female Drosophila melanogaster for increased or decreased fecundity (eggs laid over a single 18-h period, between days 5 and 7 posteclosion) for 20...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitative genetic methods have been used to examine selection responses in domesticated organisms but there are few cases of their application to predict changes in natural populations: there are, to our knowledge, no cases in which correlated responses to selection have been predicted. In the present paper we use quantitative genetic parameters...
Article
Quantitative genetic methods have been used to examine selection responses in domesticated organisms but there are few cases of their application to predict changes in natural populations: there are, to our knowledge, no cases in which correlated responses to selection have been predicted. In the present paper we use quantitative genetic parameters...
Article
The quantitative genetic basis of traits can be determined using a pedigree analysis or a selection experiment. Each approach is valuable and the combined data can contribute more than either method alone. Analysis using both sib analysis and selection is particularly essential when there are likely to be nonlinearities in the functional relationsh...
Article
Phenotypic characters may covary negatively because they are in a trade-off or positively because they contribute to a single function. Genetic correlations can be used to test the validity and generality of these functional relationships by indicating the level of genetic integration and checking the conditions under which they are expressed. Phen...
Article
Full-text available
The monopolization of resources plays an important theoretical role in the literature on competition for food and mates. We used 12 groups of male water striders (Aquariusremigis) to: (1) test the general prediction that monopolization of both food and mates decreases as the temporal clumping of resources increases, (2) compare the efficiency of tw...

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