Dany Garant

Dany Garant
Université de Sherbrooke | UdeS · Department of Biology

Ph.D.

About

206
Publications
36,302
Reads
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9,335
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 2005 - present
Université de Sherbrooke
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (206)
Article
The decline of avian aerial insectivores has been greater than any other foraging guild and both climate change and agricultural intensification are leading hypotheses explaining this decline. Spring cold snaps are predicted to increase in frequency due to climate change, and factors associated with agricultural intensification (e.g., toxicological...
Article
Individual diet specialization (IDS) is widespread and can affect the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations in significant ways. Extrinsic factors (e.g., food abundance) and individual variation in energetic needs, morphology, or physiology have been suggested as drivers of IDS. Behavioral traits like exploration and boldness can also...
Article
Full-text available
Aquatic systems have been extensively altered by human structures (e.g., construction of dams/canals) and these have major impacts on the connectivity of wildlife populations through the loss and isolation of suitable habitats. Habitat loss and isolation affect gene flow and influence the persistence of populations in time and space by restricting...
Article
Full-text available
Group-living species are often organized into social dominance hierarchies, where high-ranking individuals have priority of access to resources, including estrous females. Traits associated with male dominance status should thus be correlated with reproductive success, but, with the exception of research on some primates, studies with both behavior...
Article
Understanding ageing and the diversity of life histories is a cornerstone in biology. Telomeres, the protecting caps of chromosomes, are thought to be involved in ageing, cancer risks and life-history strategies. They shorten with cell division and age in somatic tissues of most species, possibly limiting lifespan. The resource allocation trade-off...
Article
Full-text available
Epigenetic inheritance can result in plastic responses to changing environments being faithfully transmitted to offspring. However, it remains unclear how epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation can contribute to multigenerational acclimation and adaptation to environmental stressors. Brook charr ( Salvelinus fontinalis ), an economically imp...
Preprint
Understanding ageing and the diversity of life histories is a cornerstone in biology. Telomeres, the protecting caps of chromosomes, are thought to be involved in ageing, cancer risks and to modulate life-history strategies. They shorten with cell division and age in somatic tissues of most species, possibly limiting lifespan. The resource allocati...
Article
Climate change predicts the increased frequency, duration, and intensity of inclement weather periods, such as unseasonably low temperatures (i.e., cold snaps) and prolonged precipitation. Many migratory species have advanced the phenology of important life history stages, and as a result will likely be exposed to these periods of inclement spring...
Article
Aerial insectivores show worldwide population declines coinciding with shifts in agricultural practices. Increasing reliance on certain agricultural practices is thought to have led to an overall reduction in insect abundance that negatively affects aerial insectivore fitness. The relationship between prey availability and the fitness of insectivor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Epigenetic inheritance can result in plastic responses to changing environments being faithfully transmitted to offspring. However, it remains unclear how epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation can contribute to multigenerational acclimation and adaptation to environmental stressors. Brook charr ( Salvelinus fontinalis ), an economically imp...
Article
The island syndrome hypothesis (ISH) stipulates that, as a result of local selection pressures and restricted gene flow, individuals from island populations should differ from individuals within mainland populations. Specifically, island populations are predicted to contain individuals that are larger, less aggressive, more sociable, and that inves...
Article
Recruitment and dispersal are important demographic rates and studying their determinants is particularly important in the current context of global anthropogenic perturbations. In birds, and especially for migratory species, assessing these rates is challenging because of the difficulties involved in tracking individuals beyond fledging. Here we a...
Article
Full-text available
Animals are expected to select a breeding habitat using cues that should reflect, directly or not, the fitness outcome of the different habitat options. However, human‐induced environmental changes can alter the relationships between habitat characteristics and their fitness consequences, leading to maladaptive habitat choices. The most severe case...
Preprint
Understanding ageing and the diversity of life histories is a cornerstone in biology. Telomeres, the protecting caps of chromosomes, are thought to be involved in ageing, cancer risks and to modulate life-history strategies. They shorten with cell division and age in somatic tissues of most species, possibly limiting lifespan. The resource allocati...
Article
In the context of increasing global environmental changes, it has become progressively important to understand the effects of human activity on wildlife populations. Declines in several avian populations have been observed since the 1970s, especially with respect to many farmland and grassland birds, which also include some aerial insectivores. Cha...
Article
Anthropogenic waterways and canal systems have been part of the cultural and natural landscape for thousands for years. As of the late 20th century, more than 63,000-km of canals exist worldwide as transport routes for navigation, many with barriers (e.g., locks, dams) that fragment the system and decrease connectivity. Fragmentation alone can have...
Preprint
Full-text available
Climate change predicts the increased frequency, duration, and intensity of inclement weather periods, such as unseasonably low temperatures and prolonged precipitation. Many migratory species have advanced the phenology of important life history stages, and as a result are likely exposed to these periods of inclement spring weather more often, thu...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural pesticides usage has been increasing globally. These compounds have been developed to disrupt pest species physiology, but because their specificity is limited, they can also have adverse effects on non-target organisms. Recent studies have shown that the damaging toxicological effects of pesticides can be amplified in stressful enviro...
Article
Full-text available
Additive genetic variance in a trait reflects its potential to respond to selection, which is key for adaptive evolution in the wild. Social interactions contribute to this genetic variation through indirect genetic effects —the effect of an individual's genotype on the expression of a trait in a conspecific. However, our understanding of the evolu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Animals are expected to select a breeding habitat using cues that should reflect, directly or not, the fitness outcome of the different habitat options. However, human-induced environmental changes can alter the relationship between habitat characteristics and their fitness consequences, leading to a maladaptive habitat choice. The most severe case...
Article
Full-text available
Harvest can disrupt wildlife populations by removing adults with naturally high survival. This can reshape sociospatial structure, genetic composition, fitness, and potentially affect evolution. Genetic tools can detect changes in local, fine-scale genetic structure (FGS) and assess the interplay between harvest-caused social and FGS in populations...
Preprint
Full-text available
The historical rise of intensive agricultural practices is hypothesized to be related to declines of grassland and aerial insectivorous birds. Drivers of declines may also influence the overall abundance and spatial distribution of insects within agricultural landscapes. Subsequently, average energetic gain rates of birds breeding within more agro-...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aerial insectivores show worldwide population declines coinciding with shifts in agricultural practices. Increasing reliance on certain agricultural practices, is thought to have led to an overall reduction in insect abundance that negatively effects aerial insectivore fitness. The relationship between prey availability and the fitness of insectivo...
Article
Full-text available
Animals often interact aggressively when competing over limited resources. Aggressive decisions can be complex and may result from multiple sources of behavioral variation. The outcome of contests may be explained through contest theory and personality by considering conjointly plasticity and individual consistency. This integrative approach also a...
Article
Full-text available
A major challenge of evolutionary ecology over the next decades is to understand and predict the consequences of the current rapid and important environmental changes on wild populations. Extinction risk of species is linked to populations’ evolutionary potential and to their ability to express adaptive phenotypic plasticity. There is thus a vital...
Article
Full-text available
According to the island syndrome and island rule hypotheses, island isolation and reduced area lead to phenotypic shifts in ecologically relevant traits in insular populations compared to mainland ones. These hypotheses have been built up with oceanic islands in mind or islands where isolation is high and colonization rate relatively limited. This...
Article
The number of microsatellite markers currently available for the eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus provides limited capacity to achieve sufficient pedigree building for the study of their genetic structure and relatedness patterns. We developed microsatellite loci for the eastern chipmunk, a small rodent commonly found in eastern North America. More...
Article
Full-text available
Individual niche specialization can have important consequences for competition, fitness, and, ultimately, population dynamics and ecological speciation. The temporal window and the level of daily activity are niche components that may vary with sex, breeding season, food supply, population density, and predator’s circadian rhythm. More recently, e...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the interactions between parasites, hosts, and their shared environment is central to ecology. Variation in infestation prevalence may be the result of varying environmental and population characteristics; however, variations in parasitism may also depend on individual characteristics that influence both the exposure and susceptibilit...
Article
Full-text available
Phenotypic changes due to human activities are occurring at a far greater speed than those originating from natural causes in animal populations. For instance, phenotypic divergence among individuals may arise in populations supplemented with farm‐reared fish that are known to display different phenotypes from those of wild individuals because of d...
Article
Full-text available
In polygynous species, male reproductive success is predicted to be monopolized by a few dominant males. This prediction is often not supported, suggesting that ecological and alternative mating tactics influence siring success. The spatiotemporal distribution of individuals and the number of males competing for each receptive female are often over...
Article
Natural selection has been studied for several decades, resulting in the computation of thousands of selection estimates. Although the importance of environmental conditions on selection has often been suggested, published estimates rarely take into account the effects of environmental heterogeneity on selection patterns. Here, we estimated linear...
Article
Understanding the determinants of reproduction is a central question in evolutionary ecology. In pulsed resources environments, the reproduction and population dynamics of seed consumers are driven by pulsed production of seeds by trees, or mast‐seeding. In Southern Québec, eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) exclusively reproduce during the summer...
Article
Full-text available
Predation is a leading cause of nest failure in birds, which has significant consequences on their population dynamics. Rodents commonly prey on nests in deciduous forest habitats. This has important implications considering how rodent populations fluctuate with changes in resource availability, such as synchronized but intermittent tree-seed produ...
Article
Full-text available
Through social interactions, phenotypes of conspecifics can affect an individual's fitness, resulting in social selection. Social selection is assumed to represent a strong and dynamic evolutionary force that can act with or in opposition to natural selection. Few studies, however, have estimated social selection and its contribution to total selec...
Article
Full-text available
During migration, animals may experience high rates of mortality, but costs of migration could also be manifested through non-lethal carry-over effects that influence individual success in subsequent periods of the annual cycle. Using tracking data collected from light-level geolocators, we estimated total spring migration distance (from the last w...
Article
Full-text available
Life-history allocation trade-offs are dynamic over time and space according to the ecological and demographical context. Fluctuations in food availability can affect physiological trade-offs like oxidative status regulation, reflecting the balance between pro-oxidant production and antioxidant capacity. Monitoring the spatio-temporal stability of...
Poster
Full-text available
In mammals with a polygamous mating system, male reproductive success can vary with the number and social rank of competitors overlapping its home range, as well as the spatial and temporal distribution of reproductive females. Some of these ecological variables, however, are rarely considered in studies of sexual selection, which often assume that...
Article
Full-text available
Effective population size (Ne) is a measure of the genetic size of a population and a crucial parameter for wildlife population management since it is strongly related to retention of genetic diversity in time and/or to inbreeding levels. Many exploited fish populations are stocked with the purpose of increasing population sizes to sustain importan...
Article
There have been an increasing number of observations of itinerancy in migratory songbirds, where individuals move among 2 or more widely separated areas during the “stationary” nonbreeding season. Knowledge of such movements and an understanding of what drives them are important for predicting how migratory populations will respond to environmental...
Article
Full-text available
Human-driven habitat fragmentation is increasing worldwide, and consequently many wild populations are subdivided, isolated and reduced in size. These changes in population structure reduce dispersal among subpopulations, limiting gene flow, accelerating genetic differentiation, and reducing genetic diversity and effective population sizes. Habitat...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of reproductive strategies is affected by the ability of organisms to deal with future environmental conditions. When environments are temporally unpredictable, however, it is difficult to anticipate optimal offspring phenotype. Diversification of offspring phenotypes, a strategy called diversified bet-hedging, may allow parents to ma...
Article
Latitudinal differences in timing of breeding are well documented but how such differences carry over to influence timing of events in the annual cycle of migratory birds is not well understood. We examined geographical variation in timing of events throughout the year using light-level geolocator tracking data from 133 migratory tree swallows (Tac...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring oxidative stress has become increasingly valuable in ecological studies, especially when different markers are measured on the same individual. However, many of the current methods lack sensitivity for analysis of low blood volume samples, which represent a challenge for longitudinal field studies of small organisms. Small blood volumes c...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic diversity at immune genes and levels of parasitism are known to affect patterns of (dis)assortative mating in several species. Heterozygote advantage and/or good genes should shape mate choice originating from pathogen/parasite-driven selection at immune genes. However, the stability of these associations, and whether they vary with environ...
Article
The effects of introgression on parasitism in brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis were investigated in 28 lakes with various levels of stocking in Québec, Canada. No effect of genetic background on parasitism was found at the individual level. Body length seemed to explain most of the variation observed at this level, with largest fish being more inf...
Article
Full-text available
In fisheries management, intensive stocking programs are commonly used to enhance population abundance and maintain stock productivity. However, such practices are increasingly raising concerns since multiple studies documented adverse genetic and evolutionary impacts of stocking on wild populations. Improvement of stocking management relies on a b...
Article
The increasing affordability of sequencing and genotyping technologies has transformed the field of molecular ecology in recent decades. By correlating marker variants with trait variation using association analysis, large‐scale genotyping and phenotyping of individuals from wild populations has enabled the identification of genomic regions that co...
Article
Over the last decades, aerial insectivorous birds have been declining in both North America and Europe. Those declines have been hypothetically attributed to a decrease in prey availability caused by agricultural intensification, but empirical evidence remains scarce. Here, we quantify the effect of landscape composition on the abundance and divers...
Article
Determining how migratory animals are spatially connected between breeding and non-breeding periods is essential for predicting the effects of environmental change and for developing optimal conservation strategies. Yet, despite recent advances in tracking technology, we lack comprehensive information on the spatial structure of migratory networks...
Article
Full-text available
Evolutionary adaptation as a response to climate change is expected for fitness-related traits affected by climate and exhibiting genetic variance. Although the relationship between warmer spring temperature and earlier timing of reproduction is well documented, quantifications and predictions of the impact of global warming on natural selection ac...
Article
Full-text available
Using social information can benefit individuals in many ways. Responding to alarm signals can, for instance, maximize survival under predation risk. However, foraging individuals should consider the reliability of such risk-based information to balance antipredator behavior and resource acquisition. Receiver decisions could depend on personality e...
Article
The prevalence of vector-borne parasites such as haemosporidian species is influenced by several environmental factors. While the negative effects of parasitism on hosts are well documented, these can also be amplified by interactions with environmental stressors, many of which are anthropogenic. Yet, we know little about the possible effects of an...
Article
Full-text available
Breeding dispersal is a key process of population structure and dynamics and is often triggered by an individual's breeding failure. In both colonial and territorial birds, reproductive success of conspecifics (RSc) can also lead individuals to change breeding sites after a failure on a site. Yet, few studies have simultaneously investigated the in...