Daniel Zwick

Daniel Zwick
State Archaeology Department of Schleswig-Holstein · Archaeology

Maritime Archaeology / Ph.D. M.A. B.A.
https://archaeologia-navalis.org

About

33
Publications
16,987
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33
Citations
Introduction
Archaeologist specialised in Maritime and Historical Archaeology at the universities of Southampton (B.A., M.A.) and Kiel (Ph.D.), European scientific diver, traditional sailor, with international work experience. I have worked at the State Archaeology Department of Schleswig-Holstein (ALSH) as BalticRIM-coordinator in 2017-2020 and still carry out research on three 17th-century shipwrecks from the Wadden Sea. Moreover, I am an editor in the MaSS-database project of the Dutch Heritage Agency.
Additional affiliations
October 2017 - present
Archäologisches Landesamt Schleswig-Holstein (State Archaeology Department of Schleswig-Holstein)
Position
  • Project Manager
Description
  • Coordination and implementation of the BalticRIM-Project in Schleswig-Holstein. More information (in English): http://balticrim.eu/ More information (in German): https://www.schleswig-holstein.de/DE/Landesregierung/ALSH/balticRIM/int_projekte_node.html
October 2016 - September 2017
Archäologisches Landesamt Schleswig-Holstein (State Archaeology Department of Schleswig-Holstein)
Position
  • Archaeologist
Description
  • Fieldwork & research on two post-medieval shipwrecks, preparation of the INTERREG-application for the BalticRIM-Project, contributing to the UNESCO World Heritage application for Hedeby & Danevirke, and mapping "interest areas" with ArcGIS.
February 2013 - December 2014
Archäologisches Museum Hamburg (Archaeology Museum Hamburg)
Position
  • Maritime archaeologist (freelancer)
Description
  • Involvement in the Schloßstraße excavation for the documentation of (possibly) reused ship-timber and caulking clamps (sintels) on an occasional basis.
Education
November 2008 - November 2016
Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel / Syddansk Universitet (Odense) / Vikingeskibsmuseet (Roskilde)
Field of study
  • Archaeology (with a focus on Maritime & Historical Archaeology)
October 2004 - September 2005
University of Southampton
Field of study
  • Maritime Archaeology
October 2002 - June 2004
University of Southampton
Field of study
  • Archaeology

Publications

Publications (33)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While most of this volume’s contributions trace Hanseatic influences throughout the North Atlantic, this paper examines a possible counter-influence in the shape of a medieval shipwreck discovered in Bremen in 2007, the construction of which is reminiscent of the Scandinavian shipbuilding tradition. With its radially cleft planks, inlaid wool caulk...
Article
Full-text available
Published in: Archäologische Nachrichten Schleswig-Holstein 25, 2019, 152-163
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In October 2016 a previously unknown shipwreck emerged at the southern spit of the island of Sylt as a consequence of an ongoing coastal erosion process. Aside from its double-layered carvel planking, several other features reminiscent of 17th-century Dutch shell-first shipbuilding were observed. With a terminus post quem of 1690, this is the lates...
Chapter
Full-text available
In diesem populärwissenschaftlichen Beitrag lege ich eine Übersicht zu meinen bisherigen Forschungen an Wrackfunden im Nordfriesischen Wattenmeer dar. CORRECTIO: Die Datierungen der Wracks in der Vergleichsübersicht der Abbildung 13 sind z.T. falsch dargestellt. Umgebaute Klinkerfahrzeuge: Darss FPL77 (1590+), Debki (1618+), Gdynia W36 (1596+). Do...
Article
Full-text available
We present a case study of multi-coil frequency-domain electromagnetic (FD-EMI) prospection of a wooden ship wreckage from the 17th century. The wreckage is buried in a sandbar in the German part of the tidal flat area of the North Sea. Furthermore, the wreckage was excavated in advance and covered again after investigation. This ground truthing ba...
Article
Full-text available
Published in the November 2021 issue of the Dutch Heritage Agency's newsletter: Tijdschrift van de Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed (full download: https://www.cultureelerfgoed.nl/publicaties/publicaties/2021/01/01/tijdschrift-rijksdienst-voor-het-cultureel-erfgoed-nr.-4-van-2021) +++ Translated by Robert de Hoop +++ Abstract: Onlangs zijn er...
Conference Paper
This conference paper discusses the local implementation of the BalticRIM Project in Schleswig-Holstein with an emphasis on synergy effects to other sectors and the Blue Growth potential of integrating the maritime and underwater cultural heritage into maritime spatial planning. This paper was published in a special issue of the "Archäologische Nac...
Article
Full-text available
This book review was published in "Bonner Jahrbücher" vol. 219 (2019) and deals with Prof. Manfred Rech's publication of the Schlachte wreck from Bremen, Germany.
Article
While most of this volume’s contributions trace Hanseatic influences throughout the North Atlantic, this paper examines a possible counter-influence in the shape of a medieval shipwreck discovered in Bremen in 2007, the construction of which is reminiscent of the Scandinavian shipbuilding tradition. With its radially cleft planks, inlaid wool caulk...
Article
Full-text available
korrigierte Version: in der Druckfassung wurden die Legenden Symbole vertauscht
Article
Full-text available
This paper is about a late 17th-century “Double Dutch” construction in the North Frisian Wadden Sea, which was discovered in October 2016 at the southern spit of the island of Sylt as a consequence of an ongoing coastal erosion process. For about 300 years it had been covered by a sand dune, but in October the dune has retreated and the wreck lay u...
Thesis
Full-text available
This is the cumulative doctoral thesis of Dr. Daniel Zwick based on five peer-reviewed articles and a main part, which is monographic in character (although this thesis is not officially a monographic thesis). The doctoral project was based at the University of Kiel and took place in cooperation with the University of Southern Denmark (Syddansk Uni...
Article
Full-text available
In this synthesis archaeological and historical research strands are combined in order to gain a more holistic understanding on the different influences shipbuilders along the Atlantic coast where subject to and the different ways innovations were implemented, appropriated and combined with native shipbuilding traditions. A major emphasis of this s...
Research
Full-text available
This diagram is for educational purposes. Please feel free to use it on the condition to cite this author. It will be included as illustration 2 in the following publication: Zwick, D., forthcoming: Interpreting a Scandinavian-built shipwreck from Bremen in the context of late medieval clinker constructions and timber trade in northern Europe. In:...
Chapter
Full-text available
It has often been noted that archaeologists are adept at borrowing theory but not very good at building it. This applies particularly to evolutionary theory for conceptual lineages; the appropriated use thereof within archaeology is highly contested – particularly in its nautical branch – despite its metaphorical popularity and widespread use. Reje...
Chapter
Full-text available
The 13th-century route description from Utlängan to Tallinn - colloquially known as King Valdemar's Itinerary - is one of the oldest and most exiting written sources on navigation in the Baltic Sea. While the Latin transcription was certainly not meant as a practical navigation guide, its content has been undoubtedly provided by seafarers and pilot...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The limes Saxoniae along with its natural boundary – the Elbe River – remained a stable cultural frontier zone until the year 1147, when Danish and German princes subdued the Slavic lands east of the Elbe with a joint maritime-terrestrial campaign. This was the first papally authorized crusade “contra Sclavos ceterosque paganos habitantes versus Aq...
Book
Full-text available
Shipwrecks are one of the primary type-sites for maritime archaeology. This volume brings together authors whose research focuses on Northern Europe and the Baltic Sea in particular. The environmental conditions of this sea have made it the most signifiacant repository for sunken watercraft anywhere in the world and it has figured significantly in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Network analysis is increasingly used in archaeological and historical studies to explain social links in a spatiotemporal context, as reflected in the recently published volume "Raumbildung durch Netzwerke?" (= spatial formation through networks). In my contribution a nautical perspective is taken to illuminate the nature of maritime networks in t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Published in a conference volume on "wooden constructions", this case study examines the manufacture, timber use and conversion techniques in three distinctively constructed shipwrecks from the medieval period in Bremen, Germany. Shipwrecks tend to be primarily interpreted by either (mis)attributing a historical type or a shipbuilding tradition, wh...
Article
Full-text available
In this report new findings and interpretations on the late medieval Beluga Ship are presented, which was discovered 2007 in Bremen, Germany. Particularly new dendrological results have shed an interesting light on the inconspicuous remains, which samples fall into two groups: an earlier of high quality timber cut in Livonia in the course of the 14...
Article
Interim results of the excavation of the late medieval 'Beluga Ship'.
Article
This popular scientific newsletter report covers an underwater and foreshore survey carried out 2006 on an ancient fishtrap in Uyeasound on Unst, the northernmost island of the Shetlands. It is believed that it might date back to the Viking Age. Significantly, Unst is the first British territory to have become colonized by a sedentary Norse populat...

Questions

Questions (3)
Question
I am looking for comparisons for a carvel-built shipwreck dating around 1700. It has a very peculiar feature: Some treenails are doubled, i.e. driven through the ship bottom/sides (plank-frame-ceiling) in pairs. They are slightly wedged against each other. My first guess is that the second ones were inserted/rebored later in order to reinforce (and thereby wedge-in) old treenail-fastenings that have become loose & leaky. Is anybody aware of comparable finds or a possible explanation?
Question
The study of archaeological objects is essentially based on the recognition that there are conceptual lineages (= typologies) in material culture: things cannot reproduce, but ideas can, and the latter become fossilized in the former. Yet models of conceptual evolution are almost universally rejected as it seems. My question is twofold: (1) have you also come across this apparent contradiction in your respective field of study and (2) has this cognition altered the way you think about dynamics for change?
I recently addressed this topic within the context of interpreting shipwrecks, published in my article entitled “Conceptual Evolution in Ancient Shipbuilding: An Attempt to Reinvigorate a Shunned Theoretical Framework". Watercraft are some of the most complex structures, yet some peculiar constructional features survive centuries or even millenia, even when they became functionally obsolete. I found concepts within the cognitive sciences very appealing to address these phenomena, like the cultural virus theory or the conformist bias, which will have certainly played a role for shipwright apprentices. Also the way change was brought about is a very „noisy“ process. When other ship designs were copied from visual representations, it was often only the analogous aspects that were reconstructed, while the vessel itself was built in the "same DNA", using the techniques and methods of the own tradition, a process that could be almost described as evolutionary convergence. I found many indications that would support meme-theory, but I am not entirely convinced whether this opens up new avenues of interpretation, as we all were - no doubt - at least subconsciously aware of this dynamic by using typologies.
Question
Are you aware of any research on paleoclimatic reconstruction of prevailing winds and currents in the Medieval Warm Period in the Baltic Sea and North Sea?

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Projects

Projects (5)
Project
In February and May 2017, respectively, two wreck fragments were discovered off the shoals of Hallig Hooge in the North Frisian Wadden Sea. The area is strongly affected by tidal currents and the possibilities for archaeological research is restricted by the remoteness, the narrow time frame of receding tides, and the swiftness by which wreck remains in this area are reclaimed by the sea. The peculiar construction, which combines a lapstrake construction in the lower part of the hull and flush-laid planking in the upper part, is a feature known only in Swedish and Norwegian shipbuilding since the mid 16th-century up to the early 20th century and is primarily associated with small-scale shipping in rural communities. The dendrochronological samples taken from the frames and planks also point to a possible Swedish origin. Interestingly, with a terminus post quem of 1617, the wreck dates into the period of the Thirty Years War, in which Sweden as a major Protestant power was heavily invested, partially with own territorial claims within the German Empire. The fragmented nature of the wrecksite, scattered across a stretch between the shoal of Japsand and Hallig Hooge, points to a particularly dramatic ship-loss, which may be associated to the historical event of the Burchadi Flood on 11.-12. October 1634. According to written sources, several dykes broke and several ships were washed ashore, often ending up in the streets of the Hallig settlements. The research on this wreck is still ongoing and will be published shortly in German and English.
Project
CONFERENCE PAPER: A Late 17th-century “Double Dutch” Construction in the North Frisian Wadden Sea: The Case of the Hörnum Odde Wreck on the Island of Sylt, Germany @ International Symposium of Boat and Ship Archaeology (ISBSA), Marseille, 24.10.2018. http://isbsa.org/ ABSTRACT: On 3rd October 2016, an unknown shipwreck emerged at the southern spit of the island of Sylt as a consequence of an ongoing coastal erosion process. For about 300 years it had been covered by a sand dune, but in October the dune has retreated and the wreck lay unsheltered in a high energy intertidal zone and was only accessible at low tide in offshore winds. It was investigated by the responsible authority – the State Archaeology Department of Schleswig-Holstein (ALSH) – and the difficult site conditions necessitated a swift investigation before the wreck could be reclaimed by the sea, employing a SAPOS survey, structure-from-motion modelling, dendrochronological sampling as well as manual recording. The study of the construction revealed several characteristics diagnostic for the “Dutch flush” method, a shell-first variant of the carvel method, as still practised in the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in the 17th century and described by contemporaries like Nicolaas Witsen and Cornelis van Yk, e.g. the use of spijkerpennen (wooden plugs), a slender frame-system, floor-timbers that were not interconnected with futtocks, and massive planks bend over fire. Moreover, the wreck featured a double oak planking – known as “Double Dutch” – and the partially intersecting treenails that are concomitant with the addition of the second layer. With a terminus post quem of 1690, this is the latest “Double Dutch” hitherto known, casting doubt on the long-held belief that this way of construction was a fleeting phenomenon of the early 17th century. While the floor-timbers in the midship section were largely made of pine, which could not be extracted for analysis, the provenance of the oaken planks and floor-timbers indicate an origin from the Vistula region for the former and Brandenburg for the latter. These are typical logging areas from were Dutch shipbuilders imported timber. Only very few wrecks with a “Double Dutch” construction are known today and most of these wrecks have been identified as ships of the Dutch East India Company. However, there are indications that also other ships featured a double-planked hull, like Dutch whalers heading to Spitsbergen, or Danish sandskuder, specialised in landing operations in the intertidal zone of the Danish Wadden Sea, so the ship’s ultimate identification remains an exciting enigma. FORTHCOMING PUBLICATIONS: Zwick forthcoming: D. Zwick, A late 17th-century “Double Dutch” construction in the North Frisian Wadden Sea. The case of the Hörnum Odde wreck on the island of Sylt, Germany. PUBLISHED WORK: Zwick & Klooß, 2018: D. Zwick & S. Klooß, Das frühneuzeitliche Schiffswrack von Hörnum Odde, Sylt. In: Skyllis 17.2, 2017,204-216. Zwick et al 2018: D. Zwick, J. Fischer, S. Klooß and H. Menzel. Das Wrack am Strand von Hörnum Odde, Sylt. In: Archäologische Nachrichten Schleswig-Holstein 2017, 2018, 148-153. Zwick 2018: D. Zwick, 300 Jahre unter der Düne verborgen: Das rätselhafte Schiffswrack von Hörnum Odde. In: Sölring Foriining Jahresbericht 2017/2018.
Archived project
Published work: Zwick 2019: D. Zwick, Interpreting a Scandinavian-built shipwreck from Bremen in the context of late medieval clinker constructions and timber trade in northern Europe. In: N. Mehler and M. Gardiner (eds.), German Trade in the North Atlantic 1400-1700: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Stavanger: Arkeologisk Museum Stavanger Skrifter. Zwick 2017: D. Zwick, A 15th-century shipwreck with Scandinavian features from Bremen, Germany. In: J. Gawronski, A. van Holk and J. Schokkenbroek (eds.), Ships and Maritime Landscapes. 13th International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology 8-12 October 2012, Amsterdam. Groningen: Barkhuis. Zwick 2010: D. Zwick, Neues vom ‘Beluga Schiff’ – ein Bremer Klinkerwrack aus dem 15. Jahrhundert. In: Nachrichtenblatt Arbeitskreis Unterwasserarchäologie 16: 62-71. Zwick 2008: D. Zwick, Das Beluga‐Wrack vom Bremer Teerhof. Vorläufige Untersuchungsergebnisse. In: Bremer Archäologische Blätter 7: 145-151.