Daniel P Zitterbart

Daniel P Zitterbart
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | WHOI · Department of Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering

PhD Physics

About

84
Publications
17,531
Reads
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1,535
Citations
Citations since 2017
39 Research Items
891 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Additional affiliations
March 2021 - present
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
November 2017 - March 2021
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Position
  • Researcher
October 2015 - November 2017
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (84)
Article
Full-text available
1. Long-term photographic recordings of animal populations provide unique insights in ecological and evolutionary processes. However, image acquisition at remote locations under harsh climatic conditions is highly challenging. 2. We present a robust, energetically self-sufficient and remote-controlled observatory designed to operate year-round in...
Article
During breeding, king penguins do not build nests, however they show strong territorial behaviour and keep a pecking distance to neighbouring penguins. Penguin positions in breeding colonies are highly stable over weeks and appear regularly spaced, but thus far no quantitative analysis of the structural order inside a colony has been performed. In...
Article
Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are highly adapted to the harsh conditions of the Antarctic winter: they are able to fast for up to 134 days during breeding. To conserve energy, emperor penguins form tight groups (huddles), which is key for their reproductive success. The effect of different meteorological factors on the huddling behaviour,...
Article
Full-text available
The sound energy from marine mammal populations vocalizing over extended periods of time adds up to quasi-continuous “choruses,” which create characteristic peaks in marine sound spectra. An approach to estimate animal distribution is presented, which uses chorus recordings from very sparse unsynchronized arrays in ocean areas that are too large or...
Article
Full-text available
Marine mammals are under growing pressure as anthropogenic use of the ocean increases. Ship-strikes of large whales and loud underwater sound sources including airguns for marine geophysical prospecting and naval mid-frequency sonar are criticized for their possible negative effects on marine mammals. Competent authorities regularly require the imp...
Article
Full-text available
Systematic long-term studies on ecosystem dynamics are largely lacking from the East Antarctic Southern Ocean, although it is well recognized that they are indispensable to identify the ecological impacts and risks of environmental change. Here, we present a framework for establishing a long-term cross-disciplinary study on decadal timescales. We a...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT In shallow-water environments, low-frequency acoustic signals exhibit dispersive propagation due to interactions with the sea surface and seabed. The received signal can then be modeled as a set of propagating modes. Single-hydrophone modal dispersion has been used to range baleen whale vocalizations and estimate shallow-w...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing commercial and recreational use of the world’s oceans has led to growing concerns about vessel and marine mammal encounters. For endangered species such as the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis , reducing the number of vessel strikes is key to improving their protection. In this study, we developed an agent-based model to as...
Article
Full-text available
To protect the unique and rich biodiversity of the Southern Ocean, conservation measures such as marine protected areas (MPAs) have been implemented. Currently, the establishment of several additional protection zones is being considered based on the known habitat distributions of key species of the ecosystems including emperor penguins and other m...
Article
Full-text available
An increasing number of marine animals are equipped with biologgers, to study their physiology, behaviour and ecology, often for conservation purposes. To minimise the impacts of biologgers on the animals’ welfare, the Refinement principle from the Three Rs framework ( Replacement , Reduction , Refinement ) urges to continuously test and evaluate n...
Article
Full-text available
Microplastic (<5 mm; MP) pollution has been an emerging threat for marine ecosystems around the globe with increasing evidence that even the world's most remote areas, including Antarctica, are no longer unaffected. Few studies however, have examined MP in Antarctic biota, and especially those from Antarctic regions with low human activity, meaning...
Article
Full-text available
The Critically Endangered status of North Atlantic right whales Eubalaena glacialis (NARWs) warrants the development of new, less invasive technology to monitor the health of individuals. Combined with advancements in remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS, commonly ‘drones’), infrared thermography (IRT) is being increasingly used to detect and co...
Preprint
Full-text available
Systematic long-term studies on ecosystem dynamics are largely lacking for the East Antarctic Southern Ocean, although it is well recognized that such investigations are indispensable to identify the ecological impacts and risks of environmental change. Therefore, here we develop a framework for establishing a long-term cross-disciplinary study and...
Article
Full-text available
Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) has been used to study the ocean for decades across several fields to answer biological, geological and meteorological questions such as marine mammal presence, measures of anthropogenic noise in the ocean, and monitoring and prediction of underwater earthquakes and tsunamis. While in previous decades the high cost...
Article
Full-text available
A convolutional neural network (CNN) was trained to identify multi-modal gunshots (impulse calls) within large acoustic datasets in shallow-water environments. South Atlantic right whale gunshots were used to train the CNN, and North Pacific right whale (NPRW) gunshots, to which the network was naive, were used for testing. The classifier generaliz...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT This study presents an analysis of the low frequency (250–350 Hz) ambient noise (after individual transient signals are removed) recorded on the Chukchi shelf during the CANAPE experiment from October 2016 to July 2017. Ambient noise drivers are evaluated by correlating noise levels with external oceanographic data includi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Increasing commercial and recreational use of the world's ocean leads to growing concerns on vessel and marine mammal encounters. For endangered species, like the North Atlantic right whale (NARW), vessel strikes can be responsible for the majority of the recorded deaths. Reducing the number of vessel strikes is key to improve North Atlantic right...
Article
Full-text available
Very high‐resolution satellite (VHR) imagery is a promising tool for estimating the abundance of wildlife populations, especially in remote regions where traditional surveys are limited by logistical challenges. Emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri were the first species to have a circumpolar population estimate derived via VHR imagery. Here we ad...
Preprint
Full-text available
An increasing number of marine animals are equipped with biologgers, to study their physiology, behaviour and ecology, often for conservation purposes. To minimise the impacts of biologgers on the animals′ welfare, the Refinement principle from the Three Rs framework (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) urges to continuously test and evaluate new a...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the study of a passive acoustic dataset recorded on the Chukchi Shelf from October 2016 to July 2017 during the Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE). The study focuses on the low-frequency (250–350 Hz) ambient noise (after individual transient signals are removed) and its environmental drivers. A specificity o...
Preprint
Full-text available
To protect the unique Southern Ocean biodiversity, conservation measures like marine protected areas (MPAs) are implemented based on the known habitat distribution of ecologically important species. However, distribution models focus on adults, neglecting that immatures animals can inhabit vastly different areas. Here, we show that current conserva...
Article
Full-text available
Finding prey is essential to survival, with marine predators hypothesised to track chemicals such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS) while foraging. Many predators are attracted to artificially released DMS, and laboratory experiments have shown that zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton accelerates DMS release. However, whether natural DMS concentrations ar...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Low-frequency acoustic signals in shallow water are highly impacted by interactions with the sea surface and seabed. The acoustic field is then conveniently described by modal theory, and the received signal can be modeled by a set of modes that propagate dispersively. It is now well established that the time-frequency dis...
Article
Full-text available
Camera traps for motion-triggered or continuous time-lapse recordings are readily available on the market. For demanding applications in ecology and environmental sciences, however, commercial systems often lack flexibility to freely adjust recording time intervals, suffer from mechanical component wear, and can be difficult to combine with auxilia...
Article
Full-text available
Impulsive sounds generated during seismic surveys have elicited behavioral responses in marine mammals and could cause hearing impairment or injury. Mitigating exposure to seismic sound often relies on real-time marine mammal detection. Detection performance is influenced by detection method, environmental conditions, and observer experience. We co...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the dynamics of baleen whale respiratory cycles, especially the mechanics and activity of the blowholes and their interaction with seawater. In this study, the duration of complete respiration cycles (expiration/inhalation events) were quantified for the first time in two species: North Atlantic right whale (NARW) and humpback...
Article
Full-text available
We argue the need to improve climate change forecasting for ecology, and importantly, how to relate long-term projections to conservation. As an example, we discuss the need for effective management of one species, the emperor penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri. This species is unique amongst birds in that its breeding habit is critically dependent upon...
Article
Full-text available
Camera images and video recordings are simple and non-invasive tools to investigate animals in their natural habitat. Quantitative evaluations, however, often require an exact reconstruction of object positions, sizes, and distances in the image. Here, we provide an open source software package to perform such calculations. Our approach allows the...
Article
Full-text available
An automated device has been developed to measure aqueous dimethyl sulfide (DMSaq), its precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), and atmospheric gaseous dimethyl sulfide (DMSg). In addition to having a role in the oceanic atmosphere, DMS and DMSP have recently gained substantial interest within biosciences and are suspected as chemoattractants...
Article
Full-text available
Loud sound emitted during offshore industrial activities can impact marine mammals. Regulations typically prescribe marine mammal monitoring before and/or during these activities to implement mitigation measures that minimise potential acoustic impacts. Using seismic surveys under low visibility conditions as a case study, we review which monitorin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Scientific applications often require an exact reconstruction of object positions and distances from digital images. Therefore, the images need to be corrected for perspective distortions. We present CameraTransform, a python package that performs a perspective image correction whereby the height, tilt/roll angle and heading of the camera can be au...
Article
King penguin colonies present an acoustically rich environment due to the highly vocal nature of these birds and the large abundance of birds within a colony (100.000 + ). Individual identification in adults and chicks is based on vocal signals. Penguins can recognize the call of their partner or chick even among thousands of calling individuals. H...
Conference Paper
Marine mammals in the Arctic are threatened by a changing climate and increasing human activity in the region. International laws protect these animals, however detecting and identifying them is not always easy. We have developed a multimodal approach using an omnidirectional thermal camera system, and an optical band stereo system operating in par...
Conference Paper
Localizing sources of underwater sound is a well studied field that is utilized by several scientific and naval communities. The scope of localization might differ dramatically, from the necessity to localize targets with a sub-meter accuracy to estimation of the position of an object on a kilometer scale. Advances in data storing capabilities duri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cetacean density can be estimated from passively-collected acoustic data via received calls attributed to the species of interest. Acoustic equipment can be used to gather data continuously for long periods, at high sampling rates, and over multiple channels, resulting in vast datasets. Humans are assumed to be the gold-standard for extracting feat...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the natural variability of ambient sound in the Southern Ocean, an acoustically pristine marine mammal habitat. Over a 3-year period, two autonomous recorders were moored along the Greenwich meridian to collect underwater passive acoustic data. Ambient sound levels were strongly affected by the annual variation of the sea-ice c...
Conference Paper
Maintaining total awareness when maneuvering an ice-breaking vessel is key to its safe operation. Camera systems are commonly used to augment the capabilities of those piloting the vessel, but rarely are these camera systems used beyond simple video feeds. To aid in visualization for decision making and operation, we present a scheme for combining...
Article
Full-text available
Optical recordings are ubiquitous in current scientific research. As recording and storing images and videos have become simpler and cheaper over the past years, new and more efficient tools are needed to analyze the growing amount of data. While current scientific image analysis tools focus on medical 3D datasets, a tool for efficiently handling l...
Article
Full-text available
Distribution and movement patterns of Antarctic blue whales Balaenoptera musculus intermedia at large temporal and spatial scales are still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to explore spatio-temporal distribution patterns of Antarctic blue whales in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, using passive acoustic monitoring data....
Article
Full-text available
Defining reliable demographic models is essential to understand the threats of ongoing environmental change. Yet, in the most remote and threatened areas, models are often based on the survey of a single population, assuming stationarity and independence in population responses. This is the case for the Emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri, a flags...
Article
Full-text available
Sperm whales are present in the Canary Islands year-round, suggesting that the archipelago is an important area for this species in the North Atlantic. However, the area experiences one of the highest reported rates of sperm whale ship-strike in the world. Here we investigate if the number of sperm whales found in the archipelago can sustain the cu...
Data
Data imported into Distance program. (DOCX)
Data
Data imported into simulation model. (DOCX)
Data
Line-transect g(0) estimaions. (DOCX)
Data
Estimates of g(0). Estimates of g(0) for acoustic line transect surveys of female/immature sperm whales as a function of vessel speed and effective strip width. The black cross marks the ESHW (4.168 km) and survey speed (6.4 knots) for this survey, resulting in an estimated g(0) of 0.92. (EPS)
Article
Full-text available
Passive acoustic monitoring is an important tool in marine mammal studies. However, logistics and finances frequently constrain the number and servicing schedules of acoustic recorders, requiring a trade-off between deployment periods and sampling continuity, i.e., the implementation of a subsampling scheme. Optimizing such schemes to each project&...
Article
Full-text available
Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri Gray) are the only vertebrate species that breed during the Antarctic winter. From the beginning of the breeding season in April until fledging of the chicks in January, emperor penguins rely on the stability of sea (fast) ice. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has recently listed the s...
Article
Full-text available
Seismic surveys are frequently a matter of concern regarding their potential negative impacts on marine mammals. In the Southern Ocean, which provides a critical habitat for several endangered cetacean species, seismic research activities are undertaken at a circumpolar scale. In order to minimize impacts of these surveys, pre-cruise planning requi...
Article
Full-text available
Emperor penguins breed during the Antarctic winter and have to endure temperatures as low as ‑50 °C and wind speeds of up to 200 km h‑1. To conserve energy, they form densely packed huddles with a triangular lattice structure. Video recordings from previous studies revealed coordinated movements in regular wave-like patterns within these huddles. I...
Article
Full-text available
Loud hydroacoustic sources, such as naval mid-frequency sonars or airguns for marine geophysical prospecting, have been increasingly criticized for their possible negative effects on marine mammals and were implicated in several whale stranding events. Competent authorities now regularly request the implementation of mitigation measures, including...
Data
Schematic of the STA/LTA algorithm. The example shows the V-shaped blow of a humpback whale. The black curve shows the short term contrast average (STA), the red curve the long term contrast average (LTA) computed from the sequence of snippets above. Blue and pink windows indicate the number of images used to calculate STA and LTA respectively. The...
Data
Absolute (A) and relative (B) error estimation of image and binocular based distance calculation. It is assumed that the vertical position of a whale in the thermal image is determined with an accuracy of ±1 pixel and with ¼ reticule accuracy using binoculars. Due to the spherical triangulation used to calculate the distance, this results in a dist...
Conference Paper
Detecting whales at sea by visual observation for mitigation purposes is inherently difficult and personal intensive while restricted to daylight hours. These caveats are overcome by the system described herein, which employs a state-of-the-art thermographic infrared scanner in conjunction with a learning computer algorithm to automatically and rel...
Article
In recent times, the knowledge of citizens about species has decreased more and more. Reversing this loss of knowledge is central to raising the awareness of the importance of biodiversity and its benefits to humans through ecosystem services. As modern mobile devices (smartphones and tablets) are broadly used by people, the project anymals.org (ht...
Article
Full-text available
Most countries require monitoring of marine mammals near seismic surveys in order to estimate potential impacts and/or to trigger appropriate mitigations measures. Typically, monitoring involves the use of visual observations by trained personnel, which are generally limited by periods of daylight with good visibility (e.g. not foggy etc.); even in...
Article
Shipborne, quasi-continuous visual marine mammal observations for mitigation or research require, while being restricted to daylight hours, the utmost concentration by observers as well as large teams when conducted during month-long cruises. To overcome such limitations, the use of thermal imaging has first been examined in the context of offshore...
Article
Full-text available
For Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), huddling is the key to survival during the Antarctic winter. Penguins in a huddle are packed so tightly that individual movements become impossible, reminiscent of a jamming transition in compacted colloids. It is crucial, however, that the huddle structure is continuously reorganized to give each pengui...
Article
Visual detection of whales during seismic surveys for mitigation purposes is a labor intensive and exhaustive task, feasible only during daylight hours. These constraints are overcome by the MAPS Marine Mammal Perimeter Surveillance system, which employs a ship-borne, 360°, cooled thermal imager in conjunction with a newly developed automated whale...
Article
Full-text available
The cytoskeletal protein vinculin contributes to the mechanical link of the contractile actomyosin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through integrin receptors. In addition, vinculin modulates the dynamics of cell adhesions and is associated with decreased cell motility on two-dimensional ECM substrates. The effect of vinculin on cell...
Article
The cytoskeletal adaptor protein vinculin and the non-receptor tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK) modulate the dynamics of integrin-based cell adhesions via different mechanisms. Vinculin contributes to the mechanical link of actin filaments to ligand-bound integrin receptors, connecting the contractile actomyosin cytoskeleton to the extra...