Daniel Wright

Daniel Wright
University of Nevada, Las Vegas | UNLV · Department of Educational Psychology and Higher Education

PhD

About

215
Publications
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Publications

Publications (215)
Article
Full-text available
Value-added models (VAMs) of student test scores are used within education because they are supposed to measure school and teacher effectiveness well. Much research has compared VAM estimates for different models, with different measures (e.g., observation ratings), and in experimental designs. VAMs are considered here from the perspective of graph...
Article
Full-text available
Students are often placed in groups to facilitate learning. Understanding the cognitive processes involved when students learn from others is important for creating group situations that facilitate learning. Research from cognitive psychology predicts who will learn most from whom and in what situations. It also provides a set of methods that educa...
Article
Full-text available
Response times can be modeled along with response accuracy to estimate ability. Models that do not use response times were compared with three models that do. The predictive accuracy of the models were assessed using leave-out-one-item cross-validation where for a $k$ item test each method is used $k$ times with $k-1$ items to create ability estima...
Article
Full-text available
Comparing groups of people, each with two sets of scores, is often done either by covarying the initial score to predict the final score (Ancova) or by subtracting the initial score from the final score (gain score). These can give different results, what is known as \emph{Lord's paradox}. The Ancova approach is used in many U.S.~States to argue th...
Technical Report
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Power analysis packages and tables report power for single test statistics, like the overall F value from a oneway ANOVA. Often researchers are interested in multiple hypotheses. Power analysis for multiple hypothesis studies is discussed, an example provided, and an R function called pwAnova, which provides estimates of power for studies with mult...
Article
Full-text available
MAP Growth (MAP) and Smarter Balanced assessment (SBA) are two of the most common standardized assessments used in Pre-Kindergarten to Grade 12 education in the United States. We show how scores on MAP relate to scores on SBA for third grade students. Previous studies examining the relationship between MAP Growth and SBA have been conducted by the...
Chapter
Available at: https://www.thebritishacademy.ac.uk/documents/3750/Psychological-Influences-on-COVID-19-Preventive-Behaviour-and-Vaccine-Hesitancy.pdf
Preprint
Social science research is key for understanding and for predicting compliance with COVID-19 guidelines, and much of this research relies on survey data. While much focus is on the survey question stems, less is on the response alternatives presented that both constrain responses and convey information about the assumed expectations of the survey d...
Presentation
Full-text available
https://www.unlv.edu/event/scholarship-practice-data-decisions-what-can-go-wrong
Presentation
Full-text available
Beginning with Wainer's (1984) bad graphs paper, I have been doing a lecture, most years since 1993 on how to do a bad presentation with data. I was asked for a copy, so thought I'd put it here. Tell me if you use it. Also, part of it won't make sense without know what I am saying. Again, email if you want to know.
Presentation
Full-text available
This is the draft of a presentation I will give next week as part of the UK Simulation Summer School. So if you have suggestions, please send me! Tickets are still available, go here: https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/using-simulation-before-implementing-policies-in-education-w-dan-wright-tickets-153709696841 A video will likely be made. I plan on ma...
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that some fathers and birth partners can experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after witnessing a traumatic birth. Birth-related PTSD may impact on many aspects of fathers’ and birth partners’ life, including relationship breakdown, self-blame and reducing plans for future children. Despite the potential impact on birth...
Article
Researchers have several options available to analyze data from interventions when participants have not been randomly allocated into conditions. Among these are the gain score, ANCOVA, and propensity matching procedures. Each of these attempts to account for pre-treatment differences among the conditions, but they do so differently. These procedur...
Article
Full-text available
Trust in science is important, and Open Education Studies aims to publish trusted research. Two issues are addressed here: access to the data on which the research is based and how these data are analyzed. Some guidelines from other entities are discussed. As a new journal our guidelines should be influenced by the opinions of readers and authors,...
Article
Full-text available
Trust in science is important, and Open Education Studies aims to publish trusted research. Two issues are addressed here. Access to the data on which the research is based and how these data are analyzed. Some guidelines from other entities are discussed. As a new journal our guidelines should be influenced by the opinions of readers and authors,...
Article
The success of education with technology research is in part because the field draws upon theories and methods from multiple disciplines. However, drawing upon multiple disciplines has drawbacks because sometimes the methodological expertise of each discipline is not applied when researchers conduct studies outside of their research training. The f...
Chapter
Full-text available
This is the draft of the supplementary materials for a chapter (Wright & Wells' Creating Latent Variables, to be published in Breakwell, Wright, & Barnett, 2020). The chapter is submitted, but we are still finalizing this document, so comments are welcomed. It focuses on how we created the numbers and plots in the chapter using R, and adds hopefull...
Article
Full-text available
Value added models (VAMs) have been used in education to measure the effectiveness of schools based on student test scores. Much research has questioned the use of these procedures. Here it is shown that this measure is systematically biased against schools that serve students from historically poor performing groups in some situations. Other situa...
Article
Full-text available
When students respond rapidly to an item during an assessment, it suggests that they may have guessed. Guessing adds error to ability estimates. Treating rapid responses as incorrect answers increases the accuracy of ability estimates for timed high-stakes summative tests like the ACT. There are fewer reasons to guess rapidly in non-timed formative...
Article
Full-text available
There is much discussion about and many policies to address achievement gaps in education among groups of students. The focus here is on a different gap and it is argued that it also should be of concern. Speed gaps are differences in how quickly different groups of students answer the questions on academic assessments. To investigate some speed ga...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Educational and developmental psychologists often examine how groups change over time. Two analytic procedures - analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and the gain score model - each seem well suited for the simplest situation, with just two groups and two time points. They can produce different results, what is known as Lord's paradox. Aim...
Article
Humans and animals share a unique bond. Professionals are capitalizing on the human–animal bond by incorporating animals into therapy, forensic interviews, and the courtroom. However, the mnemonic consequence for including dogs in forensic interviews has not been empirically evaluated. In the current study, we examined whether the use of dogs incre...
Code
This is the knitr file to construct the pdf submitted. You will need LaTeX and R, and various packages for each, to compile, but you can read this as a text file and see the R code.
Code
This is the knitr (.Rnw) file that shows the LaTeX and R used to create the final submitted version of Speed Gaps (Wright, in press ... either late 2019 or early 2020). You would need LaTeX and R, and various packages for these, to compile this file into a TeX (then pdf) file, but even without these it shows you the R code. You also would need the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Response times on formative and summative assessments can help inform us about student learning, strategies, and abilities. Differences in response latencies, by groups, are important because these may highlight ways to lessen achievement gaps. A simple method (treating all rapid responses as errors) is shown to improve ability estimates for format...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is much discussion about and many policies to address achievement gaps in education among groups of students. The focus here is on a different gap and it is argued that it also should be of concern. Speed gaps are differences in how quickly different groups of students answer questions on academic assessments. In order to investigate some spe...
Preprint
Full-text available
The success of education with technology research is in part because the field draws upon theories and methods from multiple disciplines. However, drawing upon multiple disciplines has drawbacks because sometimes the methodological expertise of each discipline is not applied when researchers conduct studies outside of their research training. The f...
Preprint
Full-text available
The accuracy of statistical models depends on the contexts in which they are used (or the data model). Accuracy can be defined in many ways including the reliability, fairness, and validity of estimates. Simulating data models for many replications, applying statistical models to the resulting data sets to create estimates of the key statistics, an...
Article
Full-text available
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects 4% of women after birth yet there are very few questionnaire measures of postpartum PTSD that have been validated in this population. In addition, none of the available questionnaires assess postpartum PTSD in accordance with criteria specified in the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Man...
Poster
Full-text available
There is much interest in using student test scores to measure the effectiveness of education institutions and individual instructors. There are three pillars of good measurement: reliability, fairness, and validity. Much of the research has shown these methods can be reliable. This poster (and accompanying materials) focus on the fairness and vali...
Article
Full-text available
Educational software offers the potential for greatly enhanced student learning. The current availability and political will for trying new approaches means that there is currently much interest in and expenditure on technology for education. After reviewing some of the relevant issues , a framework that builds upon Marr and Poggio's (1977) levels...
Preprint
Full-text available
Comparing groups of people, each with two sets of scores, is often done either by covarying the initial score to predict the final score (Ancova) or by subtracting the initial score from the final score (gain score). These can give different results, what is known as Lord's paradox. The Ancova and closely related approaches are used in many US stat...
Article
Full-text available
Academic growth is often estimated using a random slope multilevel model with several years of data. However, if there are few time points, the estimates can be unreliable. While using random slope multilevel models can lower the variance of the estimates, these procedures can produce more highly erroneous estimates—zero and negative correlations w...
Preprint
Full-text available
When students respond rapidly to an item during an assessment, it suggests that they have guessed. Guessing adds error to ability estimates. Treating rapid responses as errors increases the accuracy of ability estimates for timed high-stakes tests. There are fewer reasons to guess rapidly in non-timed low-stakes tests, like those used as part of ma...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring school effectiveness using student test scores is controversial and some methods used for this can be inaccurate in some situations. Betebenner's Student Growth Percentile (SGP) model (\citeyear{Betebenner2009}) and a multilevel gain score model are evaluated. The SGP model conditions on previous test scores thereby unblocking a backdoor...
Presentation
Full-text available
Thanks to Sian Williams, co-author on the paper from which this talk originally came from, and Howard Wainer for inspiration from a few of his works, but in particular ”How to Display Data Badly” (AmStat). This talk gets updated about once a year. It is a fun talk to deliver.
Article
Full-text available
Many education policies require estimating whether students in different grades are on track for achieving certain educational standards. One approach for constructing these cut scores is to estimate the values on tests that predict reaching targets on subsequent tests. Whether a student is deemed on target can affect the student’s course counselli...
Article
People often discuss events they have seen and these discussions can influence later recollections. We investigated the effects of factual, emotional, and free retelling discussion on memory recollections of individuals who have witnessed an event. Participants were shown a video, made an initial individual recall, participated in one of the three...
Data
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Article
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In courts in the United Kingdom understanding of memory phenomena is often assumed to be within the ‘common knowledge’ of the average juror. Many studies suggest that this is not a safe assumption, demonstrating that even professional groups sometimes express beliefs that are not in accordance with the scientific consensus. To test this assumption...
Article
Full-text available
Although psychologists frequently use statisti-cal procedures, they are often unaware of the statisticians most associated with these procedures. Learning more about the people will aid understanding of the techniques. In this article, I present a list of 10 prominent statisticians:. I then discuss their key contributions and impact for psychology,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Measurement is critical in postnatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because symptoms may be influenced by normal postnatal phenomena such as physiological changes and fatigue. Objective: This study examined: (1) whether hyperarousal symptoms differ between women who have traumatic or nontraumatic births; (2) whether the construct...
Article
Little is known about the reliability of eyewitness memory among adolescents as most memory research has focused primarily on adults and young children. A number of studies recently have emerged outlining conditions where memory suggestibility increases from early childhood to adulthood. These developmental reversals are found in semantic associati...
Article
Full-text available
The proportion of men and women workers varies among occupation types. There are several factors that may contribute to occupational segregation by gender. Using a large U.S. sample (n = 2149), we examine the extent to which occupational segregation can be attributed to gender differences in empathizing and systematizing: psychological dimensions w...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the impact of likability on memory accuracy and memory conformity between two previously unacquainted individuals. After viewing a crime, eyewitnesses often talk to one another and may find each other likable or dislikable. One hundred twenty-seven undergraduate students arrived at the laboratory with an unknown confederate and...
Article
In recent years, there have been a number of new developments in identification procedures in the UK, with one of the main changes being a shift from live to video parades. The general public needs to be aware of how identification procedures are conducted, so that they can make informed decisions about whether to get involved in the Criminal Justi...
Article
The proportion of males and females varies among occupation types. There are several factors that may contribute to occupational segregation by gender. Using a large U.S. sample (n = 2149), we examine the extent to which occupational segregation can be attributed to men and women’s differing levels of empathizing and systematizing: psychological di...
Article
Full-text available
Procedures for eyewitness identification of suspects in the United Kingdom must adhere to the Police and Criminal Evidence (PACE) Act Codes of Practice. These Codes stipulate what methods can and cannot be used, what must be said to eyewitnesses before the procedure, and how procedures must be constructed. Our approach has been two fold. The first...
Article
Since the Cognitive Interview (CI) was developed, many experiments have been published, but only two have investigated its efficacy in real criminal cases. Here, a Modified CI (MCI) is tested with real interviews in an inquisitor justice system. Several moderators and the interviewers' attitudes towards the CI/MCI are also examined. Eighty‐one witn...
Data
The effect of the power dynamic between co-witnesses on memory conformity for images was investigated. Participantconfederate pairs were first presented with 50 images on a computer and then were randomly assigned to one of three social power role combinations analogous to those present in the workplace: manager and subordinate, subordinate and man...
Article
Full-text available
Pairs of participants were shown photographs which varied in terms of valence from negative to positive, and two days later, together, they were given a memory recognition test. When the first person responded the second person saw the response. This affected how the second person responded, what is called memory conformity. The memory conformity e...
Article
Full-text available
Eyewitness identification decisions from 1,039 real lineups in England were analysed. Identification procedures have undergone dramatic change in the United Kingdom over recent years. Video lineups are now standard procedure, in which each lineup member is seen sequentially. The whole lineup is seen twice before the witness can make a decision, and...
Article
Memory conformity for images was examined using a mixed factorial design. Participants were presented with 50 images then later completed an old/new recognition test on these plus 50 fillers. Some received post-event information (PEI) attributed to a co-witness that was introduced either soon after the original 50 images were presented or 2 days la...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined whether recalling an event with a co-witness influences children's recall. Individual 3-5-year-olds (n = 48) watched a film with a co-witness. Unbeknown to participants, the co-witness was watching an alternative version of the film. Afterwards both the co-witness and the participant answered questions about the film together (p...
Article
Full-text available
After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. Th...
Article
Full-text available
A large number of people completed one of two versions of the empathizing quotient (EQ) and systemizing quotient (SQ). One version had the negatively phrased items all re-worded. These re-worded items were answered more rapidly than the original items, and for the SQ produced a more reliable scale. Subjects gave self-assessments of empathizing and...
Data
A distribution-free and ordinal measure of effect size. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
More than a century of psychology research has shown that memory is fallible. People’s memory can be influenced by information encountered after an incident has been witnessed—so-called postevent information, or PEI. In everyday life, one of the most common ways to encounter PEI is when individuals who have shared the same experience discuss this w...
Article
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When discrete response models arc estimated with multilevel, or clustered, data, there is much interest in the distribution of the residuals. With logistic regression it is usually assumed that these residuals are binomially distributed. A common real world situation is where the multilevel data structure is sparse, with relatively few individual c...
Article
Full-text available
When two or more people witness an event together, the event report from one person can influence others' reports. In the current study we examined the role of age and motivational factors on peer influence regarding event reports in adolescents and young adults. Participants (N=249) watched a short video of a robbery then answered questions with n...
Article
Full-text available
An online survey was conducted to examine psychological therapists’ experiences of, and beliefs about, cases of recovered memory, satanic/ritualistic abuse, Multiple Personality Disorder/Dissociative Identity Disorder, and false memory. Chartered Clinical Psychologists (n=183) and Hypnotherapists (n=119) responded. In terms of their experiences, Ch...
Article
Full-text available
People's reports are affected by what others say. The current study compared memory conformity effects of people who interacted with a confederate, and of bystanders to that interaction. A second goal was to observe if memory conformity occurs in a naturalistic setting. A male confederate approached a group of people at the beach and had a brief in...
Article
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Responses to behavioural frequency questions in surveys and questionnaires form the bases for much social and behavioural research. The choice of response alternatives for these questions can affect responses. By embedding questions in national surveys, we demonstrate that the way in which response alternatives affect responses depends on whether t...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose. The quality of memories after the presentation of misinformation was explored. Three different types of stimuli were used: a peripheral object, a characteristic of a (different) peripheral object and a central detail. These were chosen in order to achieve different levels of the misinformation effect. Methods. One hundred and eight univers...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates two competing social psychological explanations of a question order (context) effect in surveys. Using the topic of the public's understanding of science, the effect of answering knowledge questions on reported interest in science is measured using a split ballot field experiment in a national survey. The consistency explana...
Article
A Multilevel model is a statistical tool for analysing data that has a hierarchical data structure (in other words, data are nested within contexts). This paper describes what a multilevel model is, how it is described mathematically, the advantages of using this data analysis technique, and some practical issues to consider. We then move on to des...
Article
The goals of the present study were to examine how context impacts perceptions of children, and the extent to which context interacts with a child's age and gender to alter adults perceptions of children. Specifically, we examine how perceptions of honesty (i.e. knowing the difference between truth and lie, being trusted by adults, being reliable,...
Article
Psychologists estimate the precision of their statistics both to conduct hypothesis tests and to construct confidence intervals. The methods traditionally used for this are available only for a small set of statistics (e.g., the mean and transformations of it) and often make unrealistic assumptions about the variables' distributions. These assumpti...
Article
Full-text available
When groups of people remember an event, the order in which they discuss their memories is important. In three experiments, a response order effect was shown in which participants believed the first speaker to be more accurate and more confident than a subsequent speaker. Further, participants were more likely to report as their own memory what the...
Article
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Juror and jury research is a thriving area of investigation in legal psychology. The basic ANOVA and regression, well-known by psychologists, are inappropriate for analysing many types of data from this area of research. This paper describes statistical techniques suitable for some of the main questions asked by jury researchers. First, we discuss...
Article
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Many statistics packages print skewness and kurtosis statistics with estimates of their standard errors. The function most often used for the standard errors (e.g., in SPSS) assumes that the data are drawn from a normal distribution, an unlikely situation. Some textbooks suggest that if the statistic is more than about 2 standard errors from the hy...
Article
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The goal of this research was to examine whether memories for actions can be affected by information reported by another person. In two studies, pairs of participants performed 48 of a set of 96 actions. In Study 1, both members of the pairs performed the same actions, and in Study 2, they performed different actions. One week later, the members of...
Article
Full-text available
When two people view the same event and later try to remember it together, what one person says affects what the other person reports. A model is presented which predicts that this memory conformity effect will be moderated, in different ways, by two components of social anxiety. People with higher fear of negative evaluation should be more influen...