Daniel M Wolpert

Daniel M Wolpert
University of Cambridge | Cam · Department of Engineering

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235
Publications
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Publications

Publications (235)
Article
Full-text available
Motor adaptation can be achieved through error-based learning, driven by sensory prediction errors, or reinforcement learning, driven by reward prediction errors. Recent work on visuomotor adaptation has shown that reinforcement learning leads to more persistent adaptation when visual feedback is removed, compared to error-based learning in which c...
Preprint
Neurobiological investigations of perceptual decision-making have furnished the first glimpse of a flexible cognitive process at the level of single neurons (Shadlen & Newsome, 1996; Shadlen & Kiani 2013). Neurons in the parietal and prefrontal cortex (Kim & Shadlen, 1999; Romo, Hernandez & Zainos, 2004; Hernandez, Zainos & Romo, 2002; Ding & Gold,...
Article
Full-text available
Asbtract Humans spend a lifetime learning, storing and refining a repertoire of motor memories. For example, through experience, we become proficient at manipulating a large range of objects with distinct dynamical properties. However, it is unknown what principle underlies how our continuous stream of sensorimotor experience is segmented into sepa...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to predict the dynamics of objects, linking applied force to motion, underlies our capacity to perform many of the tasks we carry out on a daily basis. Thus, a fundamental question is how the dynamics of the myriad objects we interact with are organized in memory. Using a custom-built three-dimensional robotic interface that allowed us...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ability to predict the dynamics of objects, linking applied force to motion, underlies our capacity to perform many of the tasks we carry out on a daily basis. Thus, a fundamental question is how the dynamics of the myriad objects we interact with are organized in memory. Using a custom-built three-dimensional robotic interface that allowed us...
Article
Full-text available
The brain is capable of processing several streams of information that bear on different aspects of the same problem. Here we address the problem of making two decisions about one object, by studying difficult perceptual decisions about the color and motion of a dynamic random dot display. We find that the accuracy of one decision is unaffected by...
Preprint
Full-text available
Humans spend a lifetime learning, storing and refining a repertoire of motor memories. However, it is unknown what principle underlies the way our continuous stream of sensorimotor experience is segmented into separate memories and how we adapt and use this growing repertoire. Here we develop a principled theory of motor learning based on the key i...
Preprint
Full-text available
The brain is capable of processing several streams of information that bear on different aspects of the same problem. Here we address the problem of making two decisions about one object, by studying difficult perceptual decisions about the color and motion of a dynamic random dot display. We find that the accuracy of one decision is unaffected by...
Preprint
Full-text available
In daily tasks, we are often confronted with competing potential targets and must select one to act on. It has been suggested that, prior to target selection, the human brain encodes the motor goals of multiple, potential targets. However, this view remains controversial and it has been argued that only a single motor goal is encoded, or that motor...
Article
Skillful manipulation requires forming memories of object dynamics, linking applied force to motion. Although it has been assumed that such memories are linked to objects, a recent study showed that people can form separate memories when these are linked to different controlled points on an object (Heald et al. 2018). In that study, participants co...
Article
Full-text available
It is well-established that people can factor into account the distribution of their errors in motor performance so as to optimize reward. Here we asked whether, in the context of motor learning where errors decrease across trials, people take into account their future, improved performance so as to make optimal decisions to maximize reward. One gr...
Article
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The adaption of movement to changes in the environment varies across life span. Recent evidence has linked motor adaptation and its reduction with age to differences in "explicit" learning processes. We examine differences in brain structure and cognition underlying motor adaptation in a population-based cohort (n = 322, aged 18-89 years) using a v...
Article
Full-text available
Rationality principles such as optimal feedback control and Bayesian inference underpin a probabilistic framework that has accounted for a range of empirical phenomena in biological sensorimotor control. To facilitate the optimization of flexible and robust behaviors consistent with these theories, the ability to construct internal models of the mo...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of objects is fundamental to cognition and is defined by a consistent set of sensory properties and physical affordances. Although it is unknown how the abstract concept of an object emerges, most accounts assume that visual or haptic boundaries are crucial in this process. Here, we tested an alternative hypothesis that boundaries are n...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive decision-making is known to be sensitive to the values of potential options, which are the probability and size of rewards associated with different choices. Here, we examine whether rapid motor responses to perturbations of visual feedback about movement, which mediate low-level and involuntary feedback control loops, reflect computation...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge about a tool’s dynamics can be acquired from the visual configuration of the tool and through physical interaction. Here, we examine how visual information affects the generalization of dynamic learning during tool use. Subjects rotated a virtual hammer-like object while we varied the object dynamics separately for two rotational directio...
Article
Skillful manipulation requires forming and recalling memories of the dynamics of objects linking applied force to motion. It has been assumed that such memories are associated with entire objects. However, we often control different locations on an object, and these locations may be associated with different dynamics. We have previously demonstrate...
Article
Full-text available
Sensorimotor learning typically shows generalization from one context to another. Models of sensorimotor learning characterize this with a fixed generalization function that couples learning between contexts. Here we examine whether such coupling is indeed fixed or changes with experience. We examine the interaction between motor memories for novel...
Data
Data information. A Matlab script containing details about the data table. (M)
Data
Adaptation and kinematic error data. Data is stored in a Matlab table with the following columns: ‘TrialNumber’ indicating the list of trials, ‘Out_Ret_Trials’ indicating the Out (1) and Return (2) trial numbers, ‘PostBreakTrials’ specifying the trails that immediately followed a rest break (these trial were excluded from analysis), ‘Field’ indicat...
Article
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A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
Article
Full-text available
During reaching movements in the presence of novel dynamics, participants initially co-contract their muscles to reduce kinematic errors and improve task performance. As learning proceeds, muscle co-contraction decreases as an accurate internal model develops. The initial co-contraction could affect the learning of the internal model in several way...
Article
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Abnormal initiation and control of voluntary movements are among the principal manifestations of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the processes underlying these abnormalities and their potential remediation by dopamine treatment remain poorly understood. Normally, movements depend on the integration of sensory information with the predicted conse...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Motor imagery, that is the mental rehearsal of a motor skill, can lead to improvements when performing the same skill. Here we show a powerful and complementary role, in which motor imagery of different movements after actually performing a skill allows learning that is not possible without imagery. We leverage a well-studied motor learnin...
Data
Example of the sequence of events within a short block of trials.
Article
Full-text available
Skilled sensorimotor interactions with the world result from a series of decision-making processes that determine, on the basis of information extracted during the unfolding sequence of events, which movements to make and when and how to make them. Despite this inherent link between decision-making and sensorimotor control, research into each of th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Motor imagery, that is the mental rehearsal of a motor skill, can lead to improvements when performing the same skill. Here we show a powerful and complementary role, in which motor imagery of movements after actually performing a skill allows learning that is not possible without imagery. We leverage a well-studied motor learning task in which sub...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate decisions require knowledge of prior probabilities (e.g., prevalence or base rate), but it is unclear how prior probabilities are learned in the absence of a teacher. We hypothesized that humans could learn base rates from experience making decisions, even without feedback. Participants made difficult decisions about the direction of dynam...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ability to adapt one’s movements to changes in the environment is fundamental in everyday life, but this ability changes across the lifespan. Although often regarded as an ‘implicit’ process, recent research has also linked motor adaptation with ‘explicit’ learning processes. To understand how these processes contribute to differences in motor...
Article
Full-text available
Skilful object manipulation requires learning the dynamics of objects, linking applied force to motion1,2. This involves the formation of a motor memory3,4, which has been assumed to be associated with the object, independent of the point on the object that one chooses to control. Importantly, in manipulation tasks, different control points on an o...
Article
Full-text available
Current models of sensorimotor control posit that motor commands are generated by combining multiple modules which may consist of internal models, motor primitives or motor synergies. The mechanisms which select modules based on task requirements and modify their output during learning are therefore critical to our understanding of sensorimotor con...
Data
Model parameters and 95% confidence limits. Parameters for the CDM and ETM when fit to datasets obtained from the different experiments. In the first dataset (top 2 main rows for CDM and ETM), experiments 1, 2 and 3 were concurrently fit with all free model parameters. In the second dataset (bottom 2 main rows for CDM and ETM), experiments 4 and 5...
Data
Experiments 1 and 2 (exposure at 0°). A. The paradigm for experiments 1 and 2 (E0° condition). After an initial exposure block at 0° (yellow background), subjects performed alternating probe blocks presented at one of five orientations between 0° and 180° (green background) followed by re-exposure blocks at 0° (blue background). B. Experiment 1 in...
Data
Experiments 4 and 5 (95% confidence limits on model fits). Trial-series plots show experimental data (black) and fits for the error-tuned model (ETM) with 95% confidence limits (red line with pink shading) obtained from a bootstrap analysis (see main text for details). A. Experiment 4 (see Fig 5B in the main text for details). B, C. Experiment 5 (E...
Data
Experiments 1, 2 and 3 (95% confidence limits on model fits). Trial-series plots show experimental data (black) and fits for the error-tuned model (ETM) with 95% confidence limits (red line with pink shading) obtained from a bootstrap analysis (see main text for details). A, B. Experiment 1 (E180° and E0° conditions; see Fig 3B in the main text for...
Data
Experimental data. Data for all experiments, conditions and subjects (Matlab MAT-file and m-file description) are available in the ZIP-file. (ZIP)
Preprint
Full-text available
Accurate decisions require knowledge of prior probabilities (e.g., prevalence or base rate) but it is unclear how prior probability is learned in the absence of a teacher. We hypothesized that humans could learn base rates from experience making decisions, even without feedback. Participants made difficult decisions about the direction of dynamic r...
Article
Full-text available
When presented with competing potential reach targets and required to launch a movement before knowing which one will be cued as the target, people initially reach in the average target direction. Although this spatial averaging could arise from executing a weighted average of motor plans for the potential targets, it could also arise from planning...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptation to novel dynamics requires learning a motor memory, or a new pattern of predictive feedforward motor commands. Recently we demonstrated the up-regulation of rapid visuomotor feedback gains early in curl force field learning, which decrease once a predictive motor memory is learned. However, even after learning is complete, these feedback...
Article
Full-text available
Real-world tasks typically consist of a series of target-directed actions and often require choices about which targets to act on and in what order. Such choice behavior can be assessed from an optimal foraging perspective whereby target selection is shaped by a balance between rewards and costs. Here we evaluated such decision-making in a rapid mo...
Article
Full-text available
Many decisions arise through an accumulation of evidence to a terminating threshold. The process, termed bounded evidence accumulation (or drift diffusion), provides a unified account of decision speed and accuracy, and it is supported by neurophysiology in human and animal models. In many situations, a decision maker may not communicate a decision...
Article
Full-text available
Many decisions arise through an accumulation of evidence to a terminating threshold. The process, termed bounded evidence accumulation (or drift-diffusion), provides a unified account of decision speed and accuracy, and it is supported by neurophysiology in human and animal models. In many situations, a decision maker may not communicate a decision...
Article
Full-text available
(Cell Reports 18, 1619–1626; February 14, 2017) In the originally published version of this article, the y axis of the scatterplot in Figure 3C, also shown in the Graphical Abstract, showed the initial direction of two-target trials on Day 1 and not the initial direction of two-target trials on Day 2, as indicated in the legend and text. Our new Fi...
Article
Full-text available
Mounting neural evidence suggests that, in situations in which there are multiple potential targets for action, the brain prepares, in parallel, competing movements associated with these targets, prior to implementing one of them. Central to this interpretation is the idea that competing viewed targets, prior to selection, are rapidly and automatic...
Article
Full-text available
Human movements are prone to errors that arise from inaccuracies in both our perceptual processing and execution of motor commands. We can reduce such errors by both improving our estimates of the state of the world and through online error correction of the ongoing action. Two prominent frameworks that explain how humans solve these problems are B...
Data
Trajectory and velocity profiles. Full movement trajectory (A) and velocity profiles in the adjustment phase (B) for a representative subject, for respectively High-Left uncertanty (left), Low uncertainty (middle), and High-Right uncertainty (right) targets. Thick lines are mean trajectories and velocity profiles, thin lines are individual trials (...
Data
Subjects’ datasets. MATLAB (MathWorks) file containing all sixteen subjects’ datasets for training and test session. (MAT)
Data
Additional analyses and models. Extended definitions and derivations: posterior over center of mass; posterior distribution of estimated center of mass; optimal target after adjustment with inverted Gaussian loss. Model fitting. Alternative observer models: quadratic error loss; power-law adjustment loss; miscalibrated observer model. Debriefing qu...
Article
Full-text available
Movement planning is thought to be primarily determined by motor costs such as inaccuracy and effort. Solving for the optimal plan that minimizes these costs typically leads to specifying a time-varying feedback controller which both generates the movement and can optimally correct for errors that arise within a movement. However, the quality of th...
Data
This supplementary material includes: 1) Full details of the derivation with the resultant update rules for the optimal controller and the Kalman gains. 2) Specific properties of the optimal controller for a system with decoupled dynamics. 3) The model of two dimensional arm movement and corresponding parameters used in our simulation. 4) Sensitivi...
Article
Full-text available
Demanding tasks often require a series of decisions to reach a goal. Recent progress in perceptual decision-making has served to unite decision accuracy, speed, and confidence in a common framework of bounded evidence accumulation, furnishing a platform for the study of such multi-stage decisions. In many instances, the strategy applied to each dec...
Data
Document S1. Figures S1–S5, Tables S1 and S2, and Supplemental Experimental Procedures
Article
Full-text available
Demanding tasks often require a series of decisions to reach a goal. Recent progress in perceptual decision-making has served to unite decision accuracy, speed, and confidence in a common framework of bounded evidence accumulation, furnishing a platform for the study of such multi-stage decisions. In many instances, the strategy applied to each dec...
Article
Full-text available
Recent theories of limb control emphasize motor cortex as a dynamical system, with planning setting the initial neural state, and execution arising from the self-limiting evolution of the intrinsic neural dynamics. Therefore, movements that share an initial trajectory but then diverge might have different neural states during the execution of the i...