Daniel S Weiss

Daniel S Weiss
University of California, San Francisco | UCSF · Department of Psychiatry

About

122
Publications
56,970
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20,798
Citations
Citations since 2016
1 Research Item
6864 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000

Publications

Publications (122)
Article
We describe an integrative psychotherapy for first responders to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack, including those who continue to be psychologically impacted by these events, most of whom meet criteria for a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Three core techniques used in this treatment are described: (a) an emphasis on meaning mak...
Article
Group therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) offers cohesion, encouragement, and support from other members in either "covering" or "uncovering" formats, referring to whether or not traumatic experiences are addressed directly. Representative of the covering format is supportive group therapy, and of uncovering format are psychodynamic gr...
Article
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Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder disproportionally affect HIV-positive women. Studies increasingly demonstrate that both conditions may predict poor HIV-related health outcomes and transmission-risk behaviors. This study analyzed data from a prevention-with-positives program to understand if socio-economic, behavioral, and health-related fa...
Article
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Women bear an increasing burden of the HIV epidemic and face high rates of morbidity and mortality. Trauma has been increasingly associated with the high prevalence and poor outcomes of HIV in this population. This meta-analysis estimates rates of psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in HIV-positive women from the United St...
Article
Crewmembers participating in long-duration space expeditions beyond the Earth–Moon environment will have more autonomy than in previous on-orbit missions or missions to the Moon. In order to study the impact of high versus low crew autonomy on crewmembers and mission control personnel we studied 6 men who were isolated for 105 days in a Mars missio...
Article
Full-text available
In a large sample of urban police officers, 18.1% of males and 15.9% of females reported experiencing adverse consequences from alcohol use and 7.8% of the sample met criteria for lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence. Female officers had patterns of alcohol use similar to male officers and substantially more than females in the general population....
Article
Full-text available
The title of this editorial conveys one of the challenges for the launch of the European Journal of Psychotraumatology (EJPT) by the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS): Abstracts of every article will appear in the major languages represented in our title. In adopting such a policy, EJPT and the ESTSS show they have faced the cha...
Article
The Critical Incident History Questionnaire indexes cumulative exposure to traumatic incidents in police by examining incident frequency and rated severity. In over 700 officers, event severity was negatively correlated (r(s) = -.61) with frequency of exposure. Cumulative exposure indices that varied emphasis on frequency and severity-using both no...
Article
Given the long distances involved and the kinds of activities planned, crewmembers participating in long-duration exploratory space missions such as an expedition to Mars will have more autonomy than in previous space missions. In order to study the impact of high versus low crew autonomy on crewmembers and the crew–mission control interaction, we...
Article
Full-text available
Cultural differences among crewmembers and mission control personnel can affect long-duration space missions. We examine three cultural contrasts: national (American vs. Russian); occupational (crewmembers vs. mission control personnel); and organizational [Mir space station vs. International Space Station (ISS)]. The Mir sample included 5 American...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on basic matters pertaining to the biopsychosocial underpinnings of psychiatry outside the wet laboratory. This covers the kinds of research reports that will have a direct impact on clinical practice and are more clinical or psychological in nature. The chapter begins with a discussion on issues of the design of studies in ter...
Article
In recent years, controversy concerning the psychological consequences of service in the Vietnam war has rearisen. In this article, the Co-Principal Investigators of the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) provide a perspective on new findings reported by B. P. Dohrenwend et al. (2006) that addresses criticisms of the NVVRS PTSD (p...
Article
Full-text available
Reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, studies from space analogue environments on Earth, and our previous research on the Mir Space Station have identified a number of psychosocial issues that can lead to problems during long-duration space missions. Three of these issues (time effects, displacement, leader role) were studied during a series of l...
Article
Levin and Nielsen (2007) presented a review of research emphasizing dreams whose content is distressing. With some broad conclusions about factors important in the understanding of distressing dreams as a springboard, the authors offered potential explanatory mechanisms for distressing dreams that range from brain structures to personality variable...
Article
Based on anecdotal reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, studies of space analog environments on Earth, and our previous research on the Mir Space Station, a number of psychosocial issues have been identified that can lead to problems during long-duration space expeditions. Several of these issues were studied during a series of missions to the I...
Article
The goal of this study was to examine whether panic mediates the relationship between fear, helplessness, and horror (PTSD criterion A2) and dissociation at the time of trauma. The study sample included 709 police officers and 317 peer-nominated civilians who had been exposed to a variety of critical incidents. Participants filled out measures of c...
Chapter
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was introduced into the world psychiatric nomenclature in 1978 (World Health Organization, 1978) with the publication of the ICD-9, documenting the cross-cultural recognition of the typical symptomatic response to exposure to traumatic life events (e.g., Horowitz, 1976). The characteristic core of the disorder i...
Article
As part of a study of psychosocial issues affecting crewmembers during missions to the International Space Station, 8 American astronauts and 9 Russian cosmonauts completed a Critical Incident Log documenting important events that confronted them while they were in space. Two raters analyzed the log entries and coded their content into one or more...
Article
This study examined whether peritraumatic dissociation serves to protect trauma-exposed individuals from experiencing high levels of peritraumatic distress or is an epiphenomenon of high levels of peritraumatic distress. The sample was comprised of 709 police officers and 317 peer-nominated civilians exposed to a variety of critical incidents. Part...
Article
This study examined whether peritraumatic dissociation serves to protect trauma-exposed individuals from experiencing high levels of peritraumatic distress or is an epiphenomenon of high levels of peritraumatic distress. The sample was comprised of 709 police officers and 317 peer-nominated civilians exposed to a variety of critical incidents. Part...
Article
The relationship of type of critical incident (CI) stressor with peritraumatic responses and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms was examined in police. Officers (N = 662) provided narratives of their most distressing CI experienced during police service and completed measures of related peritraumatic responses and posttraumatic stress disorder...
Article
Full-text available
We provide an overview of previous research conducted by our group on risk and resilience factors for PTSD symptoms in police and other first responders. Based on our work, the findings of other investigators on individual differences in risk for PTSD, and drawing on preclinical studies fear conditioning and extinction, we propose a conceptual mode...
Article
This paper compares findings from two NASA-funded studies of international long-duration missions to the Mir space station (Shuttle/Mir) and to the International Space Station (ISS). American and Russian crewmembers and mission control personnel participated. Issues examined included changes in mood and group social climate over time, displacement...
Article
The relationship of alexithymia to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology was examined cross-sectionally in 166 urban police officers surveyed between 1998 and 1999 and prospectively in 54 of these officers who participated in a follow-up survey after the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. In cross-sectional analyses, alexith...
Article
PURPOSE Cultural differences among crewmembers can jeopardize the safety and success of long-duration space station missions Differences between crewmembers and mission control personnel can strain the working relationship between these groups as well Our team has completed two large NASA-funded studies involving missions to the Mir and Internation...
Article
PURPOSE Psychosocial issues affecting people working in isolated and confined environments such as spacecraft can jeopardize mental health and mission safety Our team has completed two large NASA-funded studies involving missions to the Mir and International Space Stations where crewmembers were on-orbit for four to seven months Combining these two...
Article
The International Space Station (ISS) requires a global degree of cooperation that is unprecedented in human space flight. Cultural and language issues may affect this type of teamwork. As part of a larger study of mood and social climate among ISS personnel, we collected data on their cultural and language background. The sample of 132 included 8...
Chapter
Full-text available
Findings from meta-analyses of predictors of PTSD suggest that using variables that are both more proximal to the event and more subjective than objective, such as peritraumatic dissociative experiences or subsequent social support, enhances prediction. Our examination of the knowledge base of predicting who develops PTSD appears to corroborate the...
Article
Nearly half of U.S. adults experience at least one traumatic event in their lifetimes, yet only 10% of women and 5% of men develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Why this is so is among the most central questions in current PTSD research. This article reviews the current status of knowledge about who develops PTSD, discussing the strengths a...
Article
This study compared attention and declarative memory in a sample of combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, n = 24) previously reported to have reduced concentrations of the hippocampal neuronal marker N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), but similar hippocampal volume compared to veteran normal comparison participants (n = 23). Healthy, wel...
Article
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This study examined the relationship of self-reported histories of childhood trauma to measures of affective instability in a sample of unmedicated outpatients with various personality disorders (n=174). Childhood trauma was measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Affective instability comprises at least two dimensions: affective lability,...
Article
We examined P300 measures in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control subjects at two different time points to determine event-related potential (ERP) stability over time and the relationship of changes in ERPs to changes in symptom levels. Auditory and visual P300 was recorded in a three-condition novelty oddball task in 25 m...
Article
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Objective: Dissociative phenomena exist on a spectrum ranging from psychological absorption to highly symptomatic disruptions of identity and memory. A statistical methodology called taxometric analysis has established a set of indicators that identify patients who have pathological dissociation, a qualitatively different form of dissociative pheno...
Article
Full-text available
A review of 2,647 studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) yielded 476 potential candidates for a meta-analysis of predictors of PTSD or of its symptoms. From these, 68 studies met criteria for inclusion in a meta-analysis of 7 predictors: (a) prior trauma, (b) prior psychological adjustment, (c) family history of psychopathology, (d) percei...
Article
Full-text available
A review of 2,647 studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) yielded 476 potential candidates for a meta-analysis of predictors of PTSD or of its symptoms. From these, 68 studies met criteria for inclusion in a meta-analysis of 7 predictors: (a) prior trauma, (b) prior psychological adjustment, (c) family history of psychopathology, (d) percei...
Article
During future long-duration space missions, countermeasures need to be developed to deal with psychosocial issues that might impact negatively on crewmember performance and well-being. In our recently completed NASA-funded study of 5 U.S. astronauts, 8 Russian cosmonauts, and 42 U.S. and 16 Russian mission control personnel who participated in the...
Article
The relationship between routine work stress and psychological distress was investigated among 733 police officers in three US cities, during 1998-1999. The Work Environment Inventory (WEI) was developed to assess exposure to routine work stressors, while excluding duty-related traumatic stressors (critical incidents). The WEI and its general prope...
Article
Police officers face many stressors that may negatively impact sleep quality. This study compares subjective sleep quality in police officers with that in control subjects not involved in police or emergency services. We examined the effects of critical incident exposure (trauma exposure) and routine (nontraumatic) work environment stressors on sle...
Article
Previous magnetic resonance imaging studies of posttraumatic stress disorder reported hippocampal volume loss. The goals of this study were 1) to determine the relationship between hippocampal atrophy and posttraumatic stress disorder in the absence of alcohol abuse, and 2) to test if loss of N-acetylaspartate (a neuron marker) in the hippocampus o...
Article
Conducting psychosocial research with astronauts and cosmonauts requires special privacy and confidentiality precautions due to the high profile nature of the subject population and to individual crewmember perception of the risks inherent in divulging sensitive psychological information. Sampling from this small population necessitates subject pro...
Article
First popularized as neurasthenia in the late 1800s by American George Beard, asthenia has been viewed by Russian psychologists and flight surgeons as a major problem that affects cosmonauts participating in long-duration space missions. However, there is some controversy about whether this syndrome exists in space; this controversy is attributable...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
During International Space Station (ISS) missions, international crewmembers will be engaged in complicated activities over long periods of time. A number of interpersonal issues likely to impact on these missions must be addressed in order to ensure healthy crewmember interactions and optimal performance. A review of the literature of space analog...
Article
Full-text available
Meeting criterion A2 for the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in DSM-IV requires that an individual have high levels of distress during or after the traumatic event. Because of the paucity of valid and reliable instruments for assessing such responses, the authors developed a 13-item self-report measure, the Peritraumatic Distress...
Article
Background: Anecdotal reports from space and results from simulation studies on Earth have suggested that space crewmembers may experience decrements in their interpersonal environment over time and may displace tension and dysphoria to mission control personnel. Methods: To evaluate these issues, we studied 5 American astronauts, 8 Russian cosm...
Article
Full-text available
Important psychosocial issues involving tension, cohesion, leader support, and displacement of negative emotions were evaluated in a 4 1/2-year study involving five U.S. and four Russian Shuttle/Mir space missions. Weekly mood and group climate questionnaires were completed by five U.S. astronauts, eight Russian cosmonauts, and 42 U.S. and 16 Russi...
Article
Full-text available
We studied 655 urban police officers (21% female, 48% white, 24% black, and 28% Hispanic) to assess ethnic and gender differences in duty-related symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We obtained self-report measures of. a) PTSD symptoms, b) peritraumatic dissociation, c) exposure to duty-related critical incidents, d) general psychiatr...
Article
This study assesses the efficacy of fluvoxamine treatment on different domains of subjective sleep quality in Vietnam combat veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Medically healthy male Vietnam theater combat veterans (N = 21) completed a 10-week open label trial. Fluvoxamine treatment led to improvements in PTSD symptoms and...
Article
Anecdotal reports from space and results from simulation studies on Earth have suggested that space crewmembers may experience decrements in their mood and interpersonal environment during the 2nd half of the mission and that negative emotions may be displaced to outside monitoring personnel. To evaluate these issues, we studied 5 American astronau...
Article
Previous studies of veterans have linked posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after combat-related trauma to increased reports of health problems. It is unclear whether this association between PTSD and increased health problems generalizes to civilians who are exposed to a broader array of traumatic events. We also do not know whether trauma expos...
Article
The effect of initial trauma on the symptomatic response to a subsequent trauma was investigated in a cross-sectional study of urban bus drivers. Comparisons were made among 175 drivers (mean age 42.2 yrs) who had developed either high or low symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of the initial trauma, and a third group expos...
Article
To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-gro...
Article
Anecdotal reports from space and results from simulation studies on Earth suggest that interpersonal and cultural issues will have an impact on the interactions of crewmembers and mission control personnel during future long-duration space missions. To evaluate this impact we studied 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian missio...
Article
A number of interpersonal issues relevant to manned space missions have been identified from the literature. These include crew tension, cohesion, leadership, language and cultural factors, and displacement. Ground-based studies by others and us have clarified some of the parameters of these issues and have indicated ways in which they could be stu...
Article
Full-text available
Since posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was first recognized as a psychiatric disorder, it has generated a great deal of scientific interest. Recent studies on the neurobiology of PTSD provide evidence that PTSD is biologically distinct from other types of traumatic and nontraumatic stress responses. This paper reviews three important directions...
Article
Full-text available
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs when significant intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms are manifest for at least 1 month following exposure to a traumatic event, with at least 1 month following exposure to a traumatic event, with at least 1 month elapsed betwenn the event and the diagnossis (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual o...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with a general impairment of cognitive function that extends beyond the processing of trauma-specific stimuli. Suppression of the auditory P50 response to repeated stimuli occurs in normal subjects and reflects the central nervous system's ability to screen out repetitive stimuli, a phenomenon...
Article
This study examines the longitudinal course and predictors of stress-specific and general symptomatic distress in emergency services personnel. A three-group quasi-experimental design was used to determine the responses of 322 rescue workers to the Loma Prieta earthquake Interstate 880 Freeway collapse and to unrelated control critical incidents. S...
Article
Full-text available
This study analyzed questionnaire items that address complaints about sleep from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study, a nationally representative sample of the 3.1 million men and women who served in Vietnam. This study compared the frequency of nightmares and difficulties with sleep onset and sleep maintenance in male Vietnam theater...
Article
The Multiple Stressor Debriefing (MSD) model was used to debrief 112 American Red Cross workers individually or in groups after their participation in the 1994 Los Angeles earthquake relief effort. Two composite case examples are presented that illustrate individual and group debriefings using the MSD model. A questionnaire which evaluated workers'...
Article
A model of a 9-month exploratory psychotherapy group for male Vietnam War veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who also experienced childhood physical and sexual abuse is presented. Recent literature delineating an association between combat PTSD and earlier childhood abuse is briefly reviewed and forms the basis for a new t...
Article
Full-text available
Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent and often chronic condition, the relationship between PTSD and functioning and quality of life remains incompletely understood. The authors undertook an archival analysis of data from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. The study subjects consisted of the nationally r...
Article
Objective: This investigation assessed whether current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with impaired functioning in a nationally representative sample of female Vietnam veterans. Methods: Logistic models were used to determine the association between PTSD and outcome while adjusting for demographic characteristics and medica...