Daniel Truhn

Daniel Truhn
RWTH Aachen University · Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

About

125
Publications
24,439
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1,149
Citations
Citations since 2017
106 Research Items
999 Citations
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (125)
Preprint
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Background: Deep learning (DL) can extract predictive and prognostic biomarkers from routine pathology slides in colorectal cancer. For example, a DL test for the diagnosis of microsatellite instability (MSI) in CRC has been approved in 2022. Current approaches rely on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Transformer networks are outperforming CNN...
Article
Objective: Magnetic resonance imaging is the standard imaging modality to assess articular cartilage. As the imaging surrogate of degenerative joint disease, cartilage thickness is commonly quantified after tissue segmentation. In lack of a standard method, this study systematically compared five methods for automatic cartilage thickness measureme...
Preprint
The success of Deep Learning applications critically depends on the quality and scale of the underlying training data. Generative adversarial networks (GANs) can generate arbitrary large datasets, but diversity and fidelity are limited, which has recently been addressed by denoising diffusion probabilistic models (DDPMs) whose superiority has been...
Article
Background Supine chest radiography for bedridden patients in intensive care units (ICUs) is one of the most frequently ordered imaging studies worldwide. Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of a neural network-based model that is trained on structured semiquantitative radiologic reports of bedside chest radiographs. Materials and Method...
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The text-guided diffusion model GLIDE (Guided Language to Image Diffusion for Generation and Editing) is the state of the art in text-to-image generative artificial intelligence (AI). GLIDE has rich representations, but medical applications of this model have not been systematically explored. If GLIDE had useful medical knowledge, it could be used...
Preprint
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Artificial intelligence (AI) methods are revolutionizing medical image analysis. However, robust AI models require large multi-site datasets for training. While multiple stakeholders have provided publicly available datasets, the ways in which these data are labeled differ widely. For example, one dataset of chest radiographs might contain labels d...
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Purpose Application of MRF to evaluate the feasibility of 2D Dixon blurring-corrected MRF (2DDb-cMRF) to differentiate breast cancer (BC) from normal fibroglandular tissue (FGT). Methods Prospective study on 14 patients with unilateral BC on 1.5 T system/axial T2w-TSE sequence, 2DDb-cMRF, B1 map, dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) T1-w GE-series. Mea...
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Disease-modifying management aims to prevent deterioration and progression of the disease, and not just to relieve symptoms. We present a solution for the management by a methodology that allows the prediction of progression risk and morphology in individuals using a latent extrapolation approach. To this end, we combined a regularized generative a...
Preprint
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Recent advances in computer vision have shown promising results in image generation. Diffusion probabilistic models in particular have generated realistic images from textual input, as demonstrated by DALL-E 2, Imagen and Stable Diffusion. However, their use in medicine, where image data typically comprises three-dimensional volumes, has not been s...
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Background Computational pathology uses deep learning (DL) to extract biomarkers from routine pathology slides. Large multicentric datasets improve performance, but such datasets are scarce for gastric cancer. This limitation could be overcome by Swarm Learning (SL). Methods Here, we report the results of a multicentric retrospective study of SL f...
Article
Background/purpose: The primary cause of mortality in colorectal cancer is metastatic disease. We investigated the ability of a machine learning (ML) algorithm to stratify overall survival (OS) of patients undergoing curative resection for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Methods: Patients undergoing curative liver resection for CRLM between...
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Artificial Intelligence (AI) can support diagnostic workflows in oncology by aiding diagnosis and providing biomarkers directly from routine pathology slides. However, AI applications are vulnerable to adversarial attacks. Hence, it is essential to quantify and mitigate this risk before widespread clinical use. Here, we show that convolutional neur...
Preprint
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has a multitude of applications in cancer research and oncology. However, the training of AI systems is impeded by the limited availability of large datasets due to data protection requirements and other regulatory obstacles. Federated and swarm learning represent possible solutions to this problem by collaboratively tr...
Article
Background So far, typical findings for COVID-19 in computed tomography (CT) have been described as bilateral, multifocal ground glass opacities (GGOs) and consolidations, as well as intralobular and interlobular septal thickening. On the contrary, round consolidations with the halo sign are considered uncommon and are typically found in fungal inf...
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to assess traumatic and non-traumatic conditions of the knee. Due to its complex and variable anatomy, the posterolateral corner (PLC)—often referred to as the joint’s dark side—remains diagnostically challenging. We aimed to render the diagnostic evaluation of the PLC more functional by combining M...
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Artificial intelligence (AI) can predict the presence of molecular alterations directly from routine histopathology slides. However, training robust AI systems requires large datasets for which data collection faces practical, ethical and legal obstacles. These obstacles could be overcome with swarm learning (SL), in which partners jointly train AI...
Article
Artificial intelligence (AI) can extract visual information from histopathological slides and yield biological insight and clinical biomarkers. Whole slide images are cut into thousands of tiles and classification problems are often weakly-supervised: the ground truth is only known for the slide, not for every single tile. In classical weakly-super...
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Objectives Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraceptive devices (LNG-IUDs) are designed to exhibit only local hormonal effects. There is an ongoing debate on whether LNG-IUDs can have side effects similar to systemic hormonal medication. Benign background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) in dynamic contrast–enhanced (DCE) MRI has been establish...
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Artificial Intelligence (AI) can support diagnostic workflows in oncology by aiding diagnosis and providing biomarkers. AI applications are therefore expected to evolve from academic prototypes to commercial products in the coming years. However, AI applications are vulnerable to adversarial attacks, such as malicious interference with test data ai...
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For T2 mapping, the underlying mono-exponential signal decay is traditionally quantified by non-linear Least-Squares Estimation (LSE) curve fitting, which is prone to outliers and computationally expensive. This study aimed to validate a fully connected neural network (NN) to estimate T2 relaxation times and to assess its performance versus LSE fit...
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Machine learning results based on radiomic analysis are often not transferrable. A potential reason for this is the variability of radiomic features due to varying human made segmentations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide comprehensive inter-reader reliability analysis of radiomic features in five clinical image datasets and to asse...
Preprint
Full-text available
The text-guided diffusion model GLIDE (Guided Language to Image Diffusion for Generation and Editing) is the state of the art in text-to-image generative artificial intelligence (AI). GLIDE has rich representations, but medical applications of this model have not been systematically explored. If GLIDE had useful medical knowledge, it could be used...
Article
Full-text available
Abnormal torsion of the lower limbs may adversely affect joint health. This study developed and validated a deep learning-based method for automatic measurement of femoral and tibial torsion on MRI. Axial T2-weighted sequences acquired of the hips, knees, and ankles of 93 patients (mean age, 13 ± 5 years; 52 males) were included and allocated to tr...
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder affecting substantial proportions of the global population, primarily the elderly. Despite its individual and socioeconomic burden, the onset and progression of OA can still not be reliably predicted. Aiming to fill this diagnostic gap, we introduce an unsupervised learning scheme based on gener...
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Artificial Intelligence (AI) can extract clinically actionable information from medical image data. In cancer histopathology, AI can be used to predict the presence of molecular alterations directly from routine histopathology slides. However, training robust AI systems requires large datasets whose collection faces practical, ethical and legal obs...
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Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) is a lipid droplet protein with various metabolic functions. However, studies investigating PLIN2 in the context of inflammation, especially in systemic and acute inflammation, are lacking. Hence, we assessed the relevance of serum PLIN2 in critically ill patients. We measured serum PLIN2 serum in 259 critically ill patients (16...
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Liver cirrhosis poses a major risk for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This retrospective study investigated to what extent radiomic features allow the prediction of emerging HCC in patients with cirrhosis in contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). A total of 51 patients with liver cirrhosis and newly detected HCC lesions (...
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Deep Learning is a powerful tool in computational pathology: it can be used for tumor detection and for predicting genetic alterations based on histopathology images alone. Conventionally, tumor detection and prediction of genetic alterations are two separate workflows. Newer methods have combined them, but require complex, manually engineered comp...
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Stress MRI brings together mechanical loading and MRI in the functional assessment of cartilage and meniscus, yet lacks basic scientific validation. This study assessed the response-to-loading patterns of cartilage and meniscus incurred by standardized compartmental varus and valgus loading of the human knee joint. Eight human cadaveric knee joints...
Preprint
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Artificial intelligence (AI) can extract subtle visual information from digitized histopathology slides and yield scientific insight on genotype-phenotype interactions as well as clinically actionable recommendations. Classical weakly supervised pipelines use an end-to-end approach with residual neural networks (ResNets), modern convolutional neura...
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Standard clinical MRI techniques provide morphologic insights into knee joint pathologies, yet do not allow evaluation of ligament functionality or joint instability. We aimed to study valgus stress MRI, combined with sophisticated image post-processing, in a graded model of medial knee joint injury. To this end, eleven human cadaveric knee joint s...
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Unmasking the decision making process of machine learning models is essential for implementing diagnostic support systems in clinical practice. Here, we demonstrate that adversarially trained models can significantly enhance the usability of pathology detection as compared to their standard counterparts. We let six experienced radiologists rate the...
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Deep neural networks recently showed high performance and gained popularity in the field of radiology. However, the fact that large amounts of labeled data are required for training these architectures inhibits practical applications. We take advantage of an unpaired image-to-image translation approach in combination with a novel domain specific lo...
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While providing the reference imaging modality for joint pathologies, MRI is focused on morphology and static configurations, thereby not fully exploiting the modality’s diagnostic capabilities. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of stress MRI combining imaging and loading in differentiating partial versus complete anterior cruciate li...
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Biomechanical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of articular cartilage, i.e. its imaging under loading, is a promising diagnostic tool to assess the tissue's functionality in health and disease. This study aimed to assess the response to static and dynamic loading of histologically intact cartilage samples by functional MRI and pressure-controlled i...
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Background: Traumatic cartilage injuries predispose articulating joints to focal cartilage defects and, eventually, posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Current clinical-standard imaging modalities such as morphologic MRI fail to reliably detect cartilage trauma and to monitor associated posttraumatic degenerative changes with oftentimes severe prognosti...
Article
Abtract Background Articular cartilage degeneration is the hallmark change of osteoarthritis, a severely disabling disease with high prevalence and considerable socioeconomic and individual burden. Early, potentially reversible cartilage degeneration is characterized by distinct changes in cartilage composition and ultrastructure, while the tissue...
Chapter
Recent advances in deep learning have shown the capability to accurately segment cardiac structures in magnetic resonance images. However, while these models provide a good segmentation performance for the specified datasets, their generalization with respect to unseen data across different MRI scanners, vendors or clinics is still under investigat...
Article
Purpose: To develop and validate a deep learning-based method for automatic quantitative analysis of lower-extremity alignment. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, bilateral long-leg radiographs (LLRs) from 255 patients that were obtained between January and September of 2018 were included. For training data (n = 109), a U-Net co...
Article
Full-text available
Computer vision (CV) has the potential to change medicine fundamentally. Expert knowledge provided by CV can enhance diagnosis. Unfortunately, existing algorithms often remain below expectations, as databases used for training are usually too small, incomplete, and heterogeneous in quality. Moreover, data protection is a serious obstacle to the exc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Unmasking the decision-making process of machine learning models is essential for implementing diagnostic support systems in clinical practice. Here, we demonstrate that adversarially trained models can significantly enhance the usability of pathology detection as compared to their standard counterparts. We let six experienced radiologists rate the...
Chapter
We present a multistage method for deep semantic segmentation of bone structures based on a landmark-based shape regression and subsequent local segmentation of relevant areas. Our solution covers the entire pipeline from 2D-based pre-segmentation, a method for fast deep 3D shape regression and subsequent patch-based 3D semantic segmentation for fi...
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Cartilage functionality is determined by tissue structure and composition. If altered, cartilage is predisposed to premature degeneration. This pathomimetical study of early osteoarthritis evaluated the dose-dependent effects of collagenase-induced collagen disintegration and proteoglycan depletion on cartilage functionality as assessed by serial T...
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Water, collagen, and proteoglycans determine articular cartilage functionality. If altered, susceptibility to premature degeneration is increased. This study investigated the effects of enzymatic proteoglycan depletion on cartilage functionality as assessed by advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques under standardized loading. Lateral...
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Identifying image features that are robust with respect to segmentation variability is a tough challenge in radiomics. So far, this problem has mainly been tackled in test–retest analyses. In this work we analyse radiomics feature reproducibility in two phases: first with manual segmentations provided by four expert readers and second with probabil...
Article
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under mechanical loading, commonly referred to as stress MRI, allows the evaluation of functional properties of intra- and periarticular tissues non-invasively beyond static assessment. Quantitative MRI can identify physiological and pathological responses to loading as indication of, potentially treatable, early de...
Preprint
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Generative adversarial networks using a cycle-consistency loss facilitate unpaired training of image-translation models and thereby exhibit a very high potential in manifold medical applications. However, the fact that images in one domain potentially map to more than one image in another domain (e.g. in case of pathological changes) exhibits a maj...
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Objective Beyond static assessment, functional techniques are increasingly applied in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Stress MRI techniques bring together MRI and mechanical loading to study knee joint and tissue functionality, yet prototypical axial compressive loading devices are bulky and complex to operate. This study aimed to design...
Article
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Background: To evaluate whether machine learning algorithms allow the prediction of Child-Pugh classification on clinical multiphase computed tomography (CT). Methods: A total of 259 patients who underwent diagnostic abdominal CT (unenhanced, contrast-enhanced arterial, and venous phases) were included in this retrospective study. Child-Pugh sco...
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Meniscus pathology may promote early osteoarthritis. This study assessed human meniscus functionality (i.e. its response to loading) ex vivo based on quantitative T1, T1ρ, and T2 mapping as a function of histological degeneration and loading. Forty-five meniscus samples of variable degeneration were harvested from the lateral meniscus body region o...
Chapter
Clinical studies have shown that skeletal muscle mass, sarcopenia and muscle atrophy can be used as predictive indicators for morbidity and mortality after various surgical procedures and in different medical treatment methods. At the same time, the major psoas muscle has been has been used as a tool to assess total muscle volume. From the image pr...
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Purpose To investigate whether sarcopenia and myosteatosis correlate with the degree of hypertrophy (DH) and kinetic growth rate (KiGR) of the future liver remnant (FLR) in patients with colorectal liver metastases undergoing portal vein embolization (PVE) in preparation for right hepatectomy. Materials and Methods Forty-two patients were included...
Preprint
Full-text available
Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to change medicine fundamentally. Here, expert knowledge provided by AI can enhance diagnosis by comprehensive and user independent integration of multiple image features. Unfortunately, existing algorithms often stay behind expectations, as databases used for training are usually too small, incomplete...
Preprint
Full-text available
Identifying image features that are robust with respect to segmentation variability and domain shift is a tough challenge in radiomics. So far, this problem has mainly been tackled in test-retest analyses. In this work we analyze radiomics feature stability based on probabilistic automated segmentation hypotheses. Based on a public lung cancer data...