Daniel Shain

Daniel Shain
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey | Rutgers · Center for Computational and Integrative Biology (CCIB)

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141
Publications
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Publications

Publications (141)
Article
Full-text available
Glacier ice is an extreme environment in which most animals cannot survive. Here we report the colonization of high elevation, climate-threatened glaciers along New Zealand’s southwestern coast by species of Arthropoda, Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, Rotifera and Tardigrada. Based on DNA barcoding and haplotype-inferred evidence for deep genetic variab...
Article
Alpine regions are changing rapidly due to loss of snow and ice in response to ongoing climate change. While studies have documented ecological responses in alpine lakes and streams to these changes, our ability to predict such outcomes is limited. We propose that the application of fundamental rules of life can help develop necessary predictive fr...
Article
Alpine regions are changing rapidly due to loss of snow and ice in response to ongoing climate change. While studies have documented ecological responses in alpine lakes and streams to these changes, our ability to predict such outcomes is limited. We propose that the application of fundamental rules of life can help develop necessary predictive fr...
Article
The experimental observation that an increase in calcium above micromolar concentrations results in a slowing or stopping of anaphase-A motion is evidence for an electrostatic mechanism for poleward mitotic chromosome motions. Specifically, higher concentrations of doubly-charged calcium ions screen negative charges at microtubule free “plus” ends...
Article
The worldwide distribution of microinvertebrates on glaciers, the coldest biome, is poorly known. Owing to their tolerance to hostile conditions, small size and dispersal abilities, nematodes, tardigrades and rotifers are considered cosmopolitan and together inhabit various ecosystems. In this study, we investigated their global distribution in cry...
Article
Medical leeches have been widely used in medical applications and treatments for millennia. Studies on the salivary glands of blood-sucking leeches have focused on their bioactive secretions and mechanisms of action, with little attention to ultrastructure. In this study, we examined dissected embryonic and adult Hirudo verbana salivary glands by s...
Article
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The segmented annelid worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus, is a permanent resident of temperate, maritime glaciers in the Pacific northwestern region of North America, displaying atypically high intracellular ATP levels which have been linked to its unusual ability to thrive in hydrated glacier ice. We have shown previously that ice worms contain a high...
Article
Full-text available
Glaciation accompanied our human ancestors in Africa throughout the Pleistocene. Regrettably, equatorial glaciers and snow are disappearing rapidly, and we are likely the last generation who will get to know these peculiar places. Despite the permanently harsh conditions of glacier/snow habitats, they support a remarkable diversity of life ranging...
Article
Disentangling the contemporary and historical factors underlying the spatial distributions of species is a central goal of biogeography. For species with broad distributions but little capacity to actively disperse, disconnected geographical distributions highlight the potential influence of passive, long-distance dispersal (LDD) on their evolution...
Article
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Two hundred years ago (early 1819), the French naturalist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck (1744-1829) lost his eyesight and had to cope with poverty over the last decade of his life. In the previous year (1818), Lamarck had introduced the term "Hirudinea", and described all the leech species known at that time in one of his books. Here, we recount the lif...
Article
In a recently published article (Saglam et al. 2018) the name of a new species of Hirudinea (Annelida, Clitellata) was simultaneously published in three different ways, as Helobdella serendipitious (Saglam et al. 2018: 61, 70, 71, 73), Helobdella serendipitous (ibid.: 63, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74), and as Helobdella serendipidous (ibi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Disentangling the contemporary and historical factors underlying the spatial distributions of species is a central goal of biogeography. For species with broad distributions but little capacity to actively disperse, disconnected geographic distributions highlight the potential influence of passive, long-distance dispersal (LDD) on their evolutionar...
Article
Full-text available
The glacier ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus, is among a few animals that reside permanently in glacier ice. Their adaptation to cold temperature has been linked to relatively high intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, which compensate for reductions in molecular motion at low physiological temperatures. Here, we show that ATP6—the c...
Article
Full-text available
The glossiphoniid freshwater leech, Helobdella stagnalis, was described by Linnaeus 1758 based on common European specimens. The presence of a brown, chitinous scute on the dorsal-anterior surface, as observed on leeches elsewhere in the world, has generally led to the classification of all scute-bearing members of the genus as H. stagnalis. Here w...
Article
Myzobdella lugubris is a commensal leech on crustaceans and a parasite to fishes, surviving predominantly in brackish waters throughout North America. Specimens in this study were collected within the tidal zone of the Delaware River basin (New Jersey and Pennsylvania). To compare regional M. lugubris specimens, defined characters were scored after...
Article
Full-text available
Species of medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis, H. verbana, and H. sulukii) secrete hard-shelled cocoons. When initially deposited, a cocoon is surrounded by a foam. Over a short time, the foam is transformed into a three-dimensional structure. We show here that this peripheral structure likely forms by the solidification and dehydration of a mod...
Article
Segmented worms (Annelida) are among the most successful animal inhabitants of extreme environments worldwide. An unusual group of enchytraeid oligochaetes of genus Mesenchytraeus are abundant in the Pacific northwestern region of North America and occupy geographically proximal ecozones ranging from low elevation rainforests and waterways to high...
Article
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primary objective of our paper [1] is to provide numerical support for an approach to poleward force generation for chromosome motility that is based on electrostatic attractions between bound cellular charge distributions [2]. This involves electrostatic interactions between negative charges on C-termini at free ends of microtubules and unstructur...
Article
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Background Recent experiments regarding Ndc80/Hec1 in force generation at kinetochores for chromosome motions have prompted speculation about possible models for interactions between positively charged molecules at kinetochores and negative charge at and near the plus ends of microtubules. Discussion A clear picture of how kinetochores and centros...
Article
Full-text available
Background Species of Hirudo are used extensively for medicinal purposes, but are currently listed as endangered due to population declines from economic utilization and environmental pollution. In total, five species of Hirudo are currently described throughout Eurasia, with Turkey being one of the major exporters of medicinal leech, primarily H....
Article
Clitellate annelids (e.g., segmented earthworms, leeches) secrete proteinaceous cocoons into which eggs are deposited. The process of cocoon production is characterized by the coordinated release of micro-granules from secretory cells positioned asymmetrically within the clitellum. Collectively, these assemble into a tubular cocoon sheath that is s...
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Little is known about exotic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) in Alaska outside its southeastern panhandle. This study documents the distribution of exotic earthworms in the relatively undisturbed Kenai National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR), a large, primarily wilderness refuge in southcentral Alaska. We sampled 69 sites near boat launches, along ro...
Article
Experiments have shown that intracellular pH of many cells rises to a maximum at the onset of mitosis, subsequently decreasing 0.3 to 0.5 pH units by the end of mitosis. This result, and observations that tubulin net charge depends strongly on pH, may be significant for microtubule (MT) dynamics during mitosis. In vivo studies demonstrate that MT d...
Article
Full-text available
Recent experiments revealing nanoscale electrostatic force generation at kinetochores for chromosome motions have prompted models for interactions between positively charged molecules in kinetochores and negative charge at and near the plus ends of microtubules. A clear picture of how kinetochores and centrosomes establish and maintain a dynamic co...
Preprint
Metagenomics by next generation sequencing has become an important tool for interrogating complex microbial communities. In this study we analyzed several pairs of metagenomic samples obtained by different methods and observed biases, resulting in different nucleotide composition of the sequenced reads. The pairwise sample comparison was based on t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Metagenomics by next generation sequencing has become an important tool for interrogating complex microbial communities. In this study we analyzed several pairs of metagenomic samples obtained by different methods and observed biases, resulting in different nucleotide composition of the sequenced reads. The pairwise sample comparison was based on t...
Article
Full-text available
Nanoscale electrostatic microtubule disassembly forces between positively charged molecules in kinetochores and negative charges on plus ends of microtubules have been implicated in poleward chromosome motions and may also contribute to antipoleward chromosome movements. We propose that chromosome congression can be understood in terms of antipolew...
Article
Full-text available
Clitellate annelids (i.e., oligochaetes including leeches) secrete cocoons as part of their normal reproductive cycle. Typically, the cocoon sheath is passed over the head of the leech and sealed at both ends by opercula (i.e., glue-like material secreted by the clitellum). Both the fibrous cocoon wall (CW) and opercula are chemically-related bioma...
Article
Full-text available
Cold environments, such as glaciers, are large reservoirs of microbial life. The present study employed 16S rRNA gene amplicon metagenomic sequencing to survey the prokaryotic microbiota on Alaskan glacial ice, revealing a rich and diverse microbial community of some 2,500 species of bacteria and archaea.
Article
Full-text available
Experiments have shown that the intracellular pH of many cells rises to a maximum at the onset of mitosis, subsequently decreasing 0.3 to 0.5 pH units by the end of mitosis. This result, and observations that tubulin net charge depends strongly on pH, may be critical for microtubule (MT) dynamics during mitosis. In vivo studies demonstrate that MT...
Article
Full-text available
Clitellate annelids (i.e., oligochaetes including leeches) secrete cocoons as part of their nor-mal reproductive cycle. Typically, the cocoon sheath is passed over the head of the leech and sealed at both ends by opercula (i.e., glue-like material secreted by the clitellum). Both the fibrous cocoon wall (CW) and opercula are chemically-related biom...
Article
Full-text available
The giant earthworm, Rhinodrilus priollii Righi 1967, is among the largest terrestrial invertebrates known worldwide, reaching lengths >2 m. To investigate the evolutionary history of the species and aspects of their reproductive biology, we collected R. priollii specimens from several field sites in central Amazonia. Phylogenetic analyses of 16 in...
Article
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Mitotic chromosome motions have recently been correlated with electrostatic forces, but a lingering "molecular cell biology" paradigm persists, proposing binding and release proteins or molecular geometries for force generation. Pole-facing kinetochore plates manifest positive charges and interact with negatively charged microtubule ends providing...
Article
The ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus ssp. rainierensis, is the only known annelid that survives in glacier ice. We report the locations of eight ice worm populations in south-central Alaska, including the northern- and western-most extent of known ice worm habitation. All ice worms identified in this study inhabit coastal glaciers proximal to the...
Article
Full-text available
Glacier ice worms, Mesenchytraeus solifugus (Emery, 1898) and Mesenchytraeus solifugus rainierensis Welch, 1916 (Enchytraeidae), are the only known oligochaetes adapted to life in ice. We have collected ice worm specimens from over 100 populations throughout the Pacific northwestern region of North America. Their current range extends ~2500 km alon...
Article
Diverse organisms have adapted to thrive at low temperatures (i.e., <20 °C, termed psychrophiles), colonizing the majority of earth's biosphere. In contrast with mesophiles (20–40 °C thermal range), all observed psychrophiles increase intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate concentrations as temperatures decline; this phenomenon has been described...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple sclerosis occurs as a consequence of central nervous system neuronal demyelination. Decades of research suggest that the primary suspects (e.g., viruses, genes, immune system) are associative rather than causative agents, but a surprisingly coherent relationship can be made between multiple sclerosis and fungal toxins. Specifically, certai...
Article
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Leech embryogenesis is a model for investigating cellular and molecular processes of development. Due to the unusually large size of embryonic stem cells (teloblasts; 50 - 300 μm) in the glossiphoniid leech, Theromyzon tessulatum, and the presence of identifiable stem cell precursors (proteloblasts), we previously isolated a group of genes up-regul...
Article
Full-text available
Glacier ice worms, Mesenchytraeus solifugus and related species, are the largest glacially obligate metazoans. As one component of cold temperature adaptation, ice worms maintain atypically high energy levels in an apparent mechanism to offset cold temperature-induced lethargy and death. To explore this observation at a mechanistic level, we consid...
Article
Among the relatively few terrestrial leeches known worldwide, only two (Haemopis terrestris, Haemopis septagon) are described from North America. Here we report a third terrestrial leech collected from the southern part of New Jersey, USA. Tissue samples were obtained from 14 individuals representing three populations, and morphological characters...
Chapter
Introduction Reproductive Biology Clitellum and CGCs Cocoon Production Brooding Behavior within Glossiphoniidae Cocoon Structure: Surface Topology and Ultrastructural Properties Evolution of Clitellate Cocoons and Their Secretion Biomaterials Applications
Article
Cocoons of the leech, Theromyzon tessulatum, are secreted underwater and sealed by two opercula (plugs) that are asymmetrically positioned on the upper aspect of the cocoon membrane. The opercula are protein-based, but their amino acid composition appears to differ from the surrounding cocoon membrane. Fluid deposited inside the cocoon by the paren...
Article
One distinguishing feature of clitellate annelids is the presence of specialized segments comprising the clitellum, whose primary function is to secrete a cocoon. Using histological analyses, we have documented cell types (I-V) and cellular processes associated with cocoon secretion in the aquatic leech, Theromyzon tessulatum. Our data indicate tha...
Article
Glacier ice worms, Mesenchytraeus solifugus and related species, are the only known annelids that survive obligately in glacier ice and snow. One fundamental component of cold temperature adaptation is the ability to polymerize tubulin, which typically depolymerizes at low physiological temperatures (e.g., <10 degrees C) in most temperate species....