Daniel Scott

Daniel Scott
University of Waterloo | UWaterloo · Department of Geography and Environmental Management (Environment)

About

206
Publications
219,421
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
17,554
Citations
Introduction
Dr. Daniel Scott is a University Research Chair in Global Change and Tourism and the Director of Interdisciplinary Centre on Climate Change at the University of Waterloo (Canada). He has been a contributing author and expert reviewer for the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third, Fourth, and Fifth Assessment Reports and is currently on the Advisory Committee to the United Nations Environment Programme lead Global Partnership for Sustainable Tourism. Received the award for scholarly distinction from the Canadian Association of Geographers in 2018.
Additional affiliations
July 2012 - present
University of Waterloo
Position
  • Director of Interdisciplinary Centre on Climate Change
April 2011 - present
University of Waterloo
Position
  • Co-Director - Partnership for Canadian-Caribbean Community Climate Change Adaptation
January 2004 - present
University of Waterloo
Position
  • Canada Research Chair in Global Change and Tourism

Publications

Publications (206)
Article
Full-text available
Global leaders agree on the need to substantially decarbonize the global economy by 2050. This paper compares potential costs associated with different policy pathways to achieve tourism sector emission reduction ambitions (−50% by 2035) and transform the sector to be part of the mid-century decarbonized economy (−70% by 2050). Investment in emissi...
Article
Sustained international diplomatic efforts culminated in the signing of the Paris Climate Agreement by 196 countries in December 2015. This paper provides an overview of the key provisions of the agreement that are most relevant to the tourism sector: much strengthened and world-wide participation in greenhouse gas emission reduction ambitions, an...
Article
Climate change will have far-reaching consequence for the future of tourism. A Climate Change Vulnerability Index for Tourism (CVIT) comprised of 27 indicators provides a transparent and systematic first analysis of the differential vulnerability of the tourism sector in 181 countries. Countries with the lowest vulnerability are found in western an...
Article
Full-text available
The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is challenging the world. With no vaccine and limited medical capacity to treat the disease, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPI) are the main strategy to contain the pandemic. Unprecedented global travel restrictions and stay-at-home orders are causing the most severe disruption of the global economy since World W...
Article
Full-text available
Global climate change represents a grand challenge for society, one that is increasingly influencing tourism sector investment, planning, operations, and demand. The paper provides an overview of the core challenges climate change poses to sustainable tourism, key knowledge gaps, and the state of preparedness in the tourism sector. As we begin what...
Article
This study presents the first nationwide spatial assessment of flood risk to identify social vulnerability and flood exposure hotspots that support policies aimed at protecting high-risk populations and geographical regions of Canada. The study used a national-scale flood hazard dataset (pluvial, fluvial, and coastal) to estimate a 1-in-100-year fl...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores flood-related environmental injustices by deconstructing racial, ethnic, and sociodemographic disparities and spatial heterogeneity in the areal extent of fluvial, pluvial, and coastal flooding across Canada. The study integrates JBA Risk Management's 100-year Canada Flood Map with the 2016 national census-based socioeconomic da...
Article
Full-text available
This study integrates novel data on 100-year flood hazard extents, exposure of residential properties, and place-based social vulnerability to comprehensively assess and compare flood risk between Indigenous communities living on 985 reserve lands and other Canadian communities across 3701 census subdivisions. National-scale exposure of residential...
Article
Full-text available
Tourism industry and government demand for knowledge of the impacts of climate change on ski tourism is growing. Despite the more than 70-year history and large cultural significance of alpine skiing in Sweden, little is known about the industry's future under a changing climate. This study applies the SkiSim2 model with low to high emission scenar...
Article
Climate change is increasingly influencing tourism policy and practice and there is a growing need to assess climate risk for destinations and the potential implications for global tourism demand patterns. Climate-dependent tourism markets, such as beach tourism, are particularly sensitive to changes in climate, and understanding the future redistr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Rationale: Despite the policy shift towards a risk-based flood management paradigm in Canada, there remain minimal published studies that spatially combine flood hazards, social vulnerability, and their exposure to reveal geographical hotspots of flood risk and the driving factors behind them. This study is the first to determine where social vulne...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores socio-geographic inequalities and spatial heterogeneity in flood risk exposure to understand better the neighbourhood-level socioeconomic characteristics that significantly contribute to Canada's environmental injustices. The study used ordinary least squares (OLS) and spatial simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) regression models...
Article
Full-text available
Skiing is an important part of Norwegian culture, but as climate change leads to warmer, more variable winters, the ski industry needs to adapt. Despite the growing literature on climate change impacts on ski tourism, adaptation options, particularly beyond snowmaking, barriers and the financial and visitor experience implications remain under-rese...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is an evolving business reality influencing the sustainability of ski tourism worldwide. A new integrated model of the co-evolution of supply (27 ski areas) and demand-side (skier behaviour) climate change adaptation in the ski tourism market of Ontario, Canada is presented. Ski area operations are modeled under a high-emission 2050s...
Article
Climate indices have a long history of use to combine multi-faceted climate information for tourism resource evaluation. Traditionally, indices have been used to assess tourists’ sensitivity to destination climatic pull factors, not tourists’ sensitivity to source market climate as a push factor for seasonality-driven markets. This study addresses...
Article
Climatic resources are vitally important for tourism, driving major intra- and inter-regional travel flows for sun-sand-surf (3S) tourism around the world. The development of climate indices to measure the suitability of climate for major tourism market segments has evolved over three decades. This study provides the first application of the holida...
Article
en Climate change represents a new era for protected areas and biodiversity conservation. With the redistribution of species and unparalleled declines in biodiversity, business‐as‐usual practices are unlikely to be effective. Despite progress on many facets of establishing, protecting, and managing protected areas over the past century, some of whi...
Article
Full-text available
By using risk-adjusted price signals to transfer responsibility for property-level flood protection and recovery from governments to property owners, flood insurance represents a key tenet of the flood risk management (FRM) paradigm. The Government of Canada has worked with insurers to introduce flood insurance for the first time as a part of a bro...
Article
Full-text available
Disease outbreaks and pandemics have long played a role in societal and economic change. However, the nature of such change is selective, meaning that it is sometimes minimal and, at other times, and change or transformation may be unexpected, potentially even reinforcing contemporary paradigms. A comprehensive overview of pandemics and their effec...
Article
Full-text available
Through an empirical investigation of the historical relationship between the destination climate and tourist arrivals in the Caribbean, this study presents the first revealed preference evaluation of a climate index informed by tourists’ stated climatic preferences for coastal-beach tourism (i.e., a sun-sand-surf or 3S travel market). The goal of...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change poses complex challenges and addressing these requires increasing integration across policy domains. This research developed a framework to assess policy integration between the tourism and climate change domains by examining coverage, scope, materiality and alignment. A database of 101 policy documents was compiled, representing 61...
Article
Full-text available
The multi-billion-dollar global ski tourism industry faces significant climate risks as evidenced by a significant body of literature. Despite this a wide gap persists between leading research, common media portrayals, and ski industry climate risk perceptions; and the global ski industry generally remains ill prepared for accelerating climate chan...
Article
Although ski tourism in China is experiencing a boom, and the number of operating ski areas has significantly increased, the influence of climate change on the future development of China’s ski industry has so far largely been overlooked. This paper addresses this important gap by applying the ski season simulation model SkiSim 2.0 at 116 ski areas...
Article
Climate change risk has gained considerable attention within the ski industry and its investors. Several past studies have overlooked the adaptive capacity of snowmaking and within-season demand variation and therefore overestimated climate change impacts. This study of the Austrian ski market (208 ski areas) including snow-making found impacts are...
Article
Climate change has become a business planning reality in the ski industry, with differential impacts and adaptive capacity important for intra- and inter-regional market competitiveness. Potential climate change impacts are examined at 171 ski areas in Ontario, Québec and the US Northeast using the SkiSim2 model with regional parameterizations of s...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a national-level socioeconomic status (SES) index to measure place-based relative social vulnerability and socioeconomic inequalities across Canada. The aim is to investigate how disparities in overall socioeconomic status influence environmental justice outcomes for Canadian flood risk management planning and funding structures...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper analyzes the spatial distribution of social vulnerability to flood hazards in Canada’s three largest census metropolitan areas (CMA) - Toronto, Montréal and Vancouver. Following the Cutter’s hazard-of-place model approach, microdata from the 2016 Canadian census of the population was utilized to construct a national-scale social vulnerab...
Article
The complexity of the human-environment interface predicates the need for tools and techniques that can enable the effective translation of weather and climate products into decision-relevant information. Indices are a category of such tools that may be used to simplify multi-faceted climate information for economic and other decision-making. Clima...
Article
National parks in Canada operate under the dual mandate of conservation and visitor use, which involves balancing ecological integrity and nature-based tourism activities. Climate-induced environmental change may increase the existing tension between conservation and visitor use as major tourism resources located in protected areas are projected to...
Article
The demand for foresight on how climate change will alter the competitiveness of ski destinations continues to increase. Norway is often considered the country where modern skiing began, yet its climate change risk remains largely unknown. The SkiSim2 model is run with RCP 4.5 and 8.5 emission climate futures to analyse implications for ski season...
Article
Full-text available
The Paris Climate Agreement is based on pledges from 195 countries to substantially reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) to prevent dangerous climate change. The tourism sector has likewise pledged to reduce its GHG emissions (−70% by 2050); however, current emission trends would result in a tripling in the same timeframe. In order to underst...
Article
Full-text available
Length-of-stay (LOS) is a key parameter in destination management that determines the number of guest nights relative to arrival numbers, with concomitant repercussions for revenue generation and other performance indicators. This article investigates the development of LOS for 32 destinations in developed and emerging economies as well as Small Is...
Article
Full-text available
Weather and climate are important factors in relation to outdoor recreation and tourism. Camping and park visitation are weather sensitive activities very likely to be impacted by projected climate change. Temperature is the weather variable that has received the greatest attention within the tourism climatology literature and was the greatest pred...
Article
Full-text available
Background Floods are the most common and most expensive natural hazard, and they are expected to become more frequent as the climate changes. This article presents research that used re/insurance catastrophe models to estimate the influence of climate change on flood-related losses. The geographic focus of the study was the Canadian Maritimes—spec...
Article
Global freshwater resources are under ever-increasing pressure that is anticipated to be exacerbated by climate change. Increasing demands for water use will require tourism to improve and disclose its monitoring and reporting, particularly for water-intensive activities such as golf tourism. Using a sample of 129 courses from Ontario (Canada), thi...
Article
The Olympic Winter Games (OWG) and the Paralympic Winter Games (PWG) are showcases for winter sports. With their high dependence on weather conditions, accelerating climate change poses a challenge to these mega-events. Two indicators are used to assess the climate reliability of locations to host the Games (OWG in February, PWG in March) in the fu...
Article
Full-text available
Canada is a country in the midst of a flood management policy transition that is shifting part of the flood damage burden from the state to homeowners. This transition—as well as the large financial losses resulting from flooding—have created a window of opportunity for Canada to implement strategies that increase property owners' capacity to avoid...
Article
Full-text available
Ski tourism is a multi-billion dollar international market attracting between 300 and 350 million annual skier visits. With its strong reliance on specific climatic conditions, the ski industry is regarded as the tourism market most directly and immediately affected by climate change. A critical review of the 119 publications that have examined the...
Article
The international ski tourism industry is highly vulnerable to inter-annual climate variability and climate change. Accordingly, there is a strong need to advance our understanding of climate risk for this multi-billion tourism market that is so important to mountain regions around the world. This study addressed major limitations in the ski touris...
Article
Full-text available
Flooding, as a result of heavy rains and/or storm surges, is a persistent problem in coastal areas. Under scenarios of climate change, there are expectations that flooding events will become more frequent in some areas and potentially more intense. This poses a potential threat to coastal communities relying heavily on coastal resources, such as be...
Article
Full-text available
Transport accounts for an estimated 23% of energy-related global CO2 emissions, a large share of this for leisure and tourism purposes. Despite national and sector-specific pledges to reduce global emissions of greenhouse gases, there are no consistent policies for the transport sector, which is characterized by continued strong growth. Against thi...
Article
One of the central tenets of the flood risk management paradigm is that responsibility for flood mitigation and recovery must be shared with stakeholders other than governments, including property‐owners themselves. However, existing research suggests that this imperative is unlikely to be effective unless property‐owners demonstrate a sense of per...
Article
Full-text available
Parks and protected areas represent an important resource for tourism in Canada, in which camping is a common recreational activity. The important relationship between weather and climate with recreation and tourism has been widely acknowledged within the academic literature. Howbeit, the need for activity-specific assessments has been identified a...
Article
To accurately characterize the ski industry's risk to future climate change and varied quality of snow conditions, it is important to assess how the industry has managed and adapted to contemporary anomalously warm ski seasons. This is the first temporal climate change analogue study to use higher resolution daily performance data at the individual...
Article
Full-text available
Much research has been devoted to quantifying optimal or unacceptable climate conditions both generally and for specific tourism segments or activities over the last 10 years. This knowledge is not incorporated in the Tourism Climate Index (TCI), which has also been subject to other substantial critiques. To more accurately assess the climatic suit...
Article
Full-text available
Historical park visitation and weather data, taken at the daily time scale from 2000 to 2009 for Pinery Provincial Park in southern Ontario (Canada), were analysed as an objective measure of the weather sensitivity, temperature thresholds, and potential impacts of projected climate change for park visitation. Three seasonal weather-visitation model...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal tourism is the largest segment of global leisure tourism and it is firmly linked to the destination's natural resources-with climatic resources chief among them. Through observations and survey responses of beach users, studies have evaluated climatic resources for coastal tourism by quantifying optimal and unacceptable conditions. However,...
Article
Full-text available
Key Messages: Spatial patterns of skiers may vary as a result of snow conditions. This study examined where and how far skiers in Ontario (Canada) are willing to travel in response to local lack of snow. Majority of respondents (59-60%) would travel to five key resorts in Ontario; an additional 11-15% of respondents opted to travel to Quebec or the...
Chapter
The VINCERA (Vulnerability and Impacts of North American Forests to Climate Change: Ecosystem Response and Adaptation) project was a collaborative effort between vegetation modeling teams from the UK, Canada, and the US to investigate possible impacts of climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on the key attributes of forests an...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 40 years, tourism has developed to become a sector of global economic, social and environmental significance. This paper provides a retrospective overview of the massive expansion and evolving geography of international and domestic tourism over the last 40 years, including the factors that enabled and challenged this growth, in order...
Article
Full-text available
The Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2013�2014 was the most comprehensive analysis of anthropogenic climate change, its impacts, and potential responses. It concluded that climate change is “unequivocal” and human activities are the dominant cause. Avoidance of “dangerous” climate change will...
Article
Full-text available
Shani and Arad (2014) claimed that tourism scholars tend to endorse the most pessimistic assessments regarding climate change, and that anthropogenic climate change was a “fashionable” and “highly controversial scientific topic”. This brief rejoinder provides the balance that is missing from such climate change denial and skepticism studies on clim...
Article
Full-text available
This final response to the two climate change denial papers by Shani and Arad further highlights the inaccuracies, misinformation and errors in their commentaries. The obfuscation of scientific research and the consensus on anthropogenic climate change may have significant long-term negative consequences for better understanding the implications of...
Article
Full-text available
Shani and Arad (2014) claimed that tourism scholars tend to endorse the most pessimistic assessments regarding climate change, and that anthropogenic climate change was a “fashionable” and “highly controversial scientific topic”. This brief rejoinder provides the balance that is missing from such climate change denial and skepticism studies on clim...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing gap between tourism's rapidly growing greenhouse gas emissions and the sector's ‘aspirational’ emission reduction targets as well as the international policy consensus to reduce emissions from this and all other sectors of the economy. The transport component is the largest GHG contributor to the global tourism system. In the abs...
Article
Full-text available
Tourism is an increasingly significant contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Emissions growth in the sector is in substantial conflict with global climate policy goals that seek to mitigate climate change through deep emission reductions. This article discusses the role of various tourism sub-sectors in generating emissions, and technical...
Article
Full-text available
Tourism is affected by social, political, economic, technological and environmental changes at all scales. Population growth, redistribution of wealth, geopolitical changes and conflicts, rising fuel costs, climate change and its consequences, new technologies and work patterns, and all forms of social fashion influence who wants to travel where, f...
Article
The sustainability “problem” is a product of the human mind, born out of a unique ability to ask “why?,” to envision and pursue an aspirational future and manipulate the natural world (Schooneveldt 2010). The human capacity for “doing” is a defining legacy, currently characterized by unsustainable living strategies designed constantly and increasin...