Daniel Schneider

Daniel Schneider
Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering IESE | IESE · Department of Embedded Systems Quality Assurance

Dr.-Ing.

About

85
Publications
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Introduction
Daniel Schneider heads the Department of Embedded Systems Quality Assurance at the Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering (IESE). The department is mostly working in the field of functional safety and model-based safety engineering. Research is being done on modular safety, safety of open adaptive systems, safety of highly automated and autonomous systems, safety of systems with AI components, and safety-security coengineering.

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
In recent years it has become more and more evident that openness and adaptivity are key characteristics of next-generation distributed systems. The reason for this is not least due to the advent of computing trends like ubiquitous computing, ambient intelligence, and cyber-physical systems, where systems are usually open for dynamic integration an...
Conference Paper
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) provide enormous potential for innovation but a precondition for this is that the issue of dependability has been addressed. This paper presents the concept of a Digital Dependability Identity (DDI) of a component or system as foundation for assuring the dependability of CPS. A DDI is an analyzable and potentially execu...
Article
Full-text available
Connected cars, freely configurable operating rooms, or autonomous harvesting fleets: dynamically emerging open systems of systems will shape a new generation of systems opening up a vast potential for new kinds of applications. In light of the hard-to-predict structure and behavior of such systems, assuring their safety will require some disruptiv...
Article
Automotive systems will exhibit increased levels of automation as well as ever tighter integration with other vehicles, traffic infrastructure, and cloud services. From safety perspective, this can be perceived as boon or bane - it greatly increases complexity and uncertainty, but at the same time opens up new opportunities for realizing innovative...
Article
Full-text available
The last few years have seen a dramatic increase in the capabilities of artificial intelligence (AI) systems, introducing new risks and potential benefits at the same time. In the military context, these are discussed as enablers of a new generation of »autonomous« weapons systems and the related concept of a future »hyper-war«. Especially in Germa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Coexistence or even cooperation of autonomous mobile robots (AMR) and humans is a key ingredient for future visions of production, warehousing and smart logistic. Before these visions can become reality one of the fundamental challenges to be tackled is safety assurance. Existing safety concepts have significant drawbacks, they either physically se...
Preprint
Full-text available
The use of Unmanned Arial Vehicles (UAVs) offers many advantages across a variety of applications. However, safety assurance is a key barrier to widespread usage, especially given the unpredictable operational and environmental factors experienced by UAVs, which are hard to capture solely at design-time. This paper proposes a new reliability modeli...
Preprint
Full-text available
Machine Learning~(ML) has provided promising results in recent years across different applications and domains. However, in many cases, qualities such as reliability or even safety need to be ensured. To this end, one important aspect is to determine whether or not ML components are deployed in situations that are appropriate for their application...
Preprint
Full-text available
Reliability estimation of Machine Learning (ML) models is becoming a crucial subject. This is particularly the case when such \mbox{models} are deployed in safety-critical applications, as the decisions based on model predictions can result in hazardous situations. In this regard, recent research has proposed methods to achieve safe, \mbox{dependab...
Article
Dynamic changes within the cyberspace are greatly impacting human lives and our societies. Emerging evidence indicates that without an ethical overlook on technological progress, intelligent solutions created to improve and enhance our lives can easily be turned against humankind. In complex AI-socio-technical ecosystems where humans, AI (Artificia...
Chapter
Solutions to specific challenges within software engineering activities can greatly benefit from human creativity. For example, evidence of trust derived from creative virtual evaluation scenarios can support the trust assurance of fast-paced runtime adaptation of intelligent behavior. Following this vision, in this paper, we introduce a methodolog...
Chapter
The production sector is experiencing significant transformations driven by comprehensive digitalization, interconnection, and further automation advances. One sub-sector that can benefit significantly from these trends is the production of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs). ATMPs show promise for treating different serious conditions, bu...
Conference Paper
Digital transformation fundamentally changes established practices in public and private sector. Hence, it represents an opportunity to improve the value creation processes (e.g., “industry 4.0”) and to rethink how to address customers' needs such as “data-driven business models” and “Mobility-as-a-Service”. Dependable, collaborative and autonomous...
Preprint
The open and cooperative nature of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) poses new challenges in assuring dependability. The DEIS project (Dependability Engineering Innovation for automotive CPS. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 732242, see http://www.deis-pro...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) provide enormous potential for innovation but a precondition for this is that the issue of dependability has been addressed. This paper presents the concept of a Digital Dependability Identity (DDI) of a component or system as foundation for assuring the dependability of CPS. A DDI is an analyzable and potentially execu...
Chapter
Full-text available
Traditionally, integration and quality assurance of embedded systems are done entirely at development time. Moreover, since such systems often perform safety-critical tasks and work in human environments, safety analyses are performed and safety argumentations devised to convince certification authorities of their safety and to certify the systems...
Book
This book constitutes refereed proceedings of the Workshops of the 17th European Dependable Computing Conference, EDCC: Second Worskhop on Dynamic Risk Management for Autonomous Systems, DREAMS 2021, Third Workshop on Dependable Solutions for Intelligent Electricity Distribution Grids, DSOGRI 2021, 13th Workshop on Software Engineering for Resilien...
Conference Paper
We advance the ability to design reliable Cyber- Physical Systems of Systems (CPSoSs) by integrating artificial intelligence to the engineering methods of these systems. The current practice relies heavily on independent validation of software and hardware components, with only limited evaluation during engineering integration activities. Furthermo...
Book
This book constitutes refereed proceedings of the Workshops of the 16th European Dependable Computing Conference, EDCC: Workshop on Articial Intelligence for Railways, AI4RAILS 2020, Worskhop on Dynamic Risk Management for Autonomous Systems, DREAMS 2020, Workshop on Dependable Solutions for Intelligent Electricity Distribution Grids, DSOGRI 2020,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) harbor the enormous potential for societal improvement in terms of safety, comfort and economic efficiency. However, these benefits will only be unlocked if the safety of these systems can be assured with a sufficient level of confidence. Traditional safety engineering and assurance approaches alone cannot address the C...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) harbor the enormous potential for societal improvement in terms of safety, comfort and economic efficiency. However, these benefits will only be unlocked if the safety of these systems can be assured with a sufficient level of confidence. Traditional safety engineering and assurance approaches alone cannot address the C...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ensuring appropriate dependability of modern industrial systems is becoming more and more challenging due to the raising complexity of modern embedded systems and the introduction of connectivity, possibly leading to ad-hoc creation of systems' configuration. State-of-the-art dependability analysis techniques, applied during design phase, provide l...
Preprint
Full-text available
Trust is a major aspect in the relationship between humans and autonomous safety-critical systems, such as autonomous vehicles. Although human errors may cause higher risks, failures of autonomous systems are more strongly perceived by the general population, which hinders the adoption of autonomous safety-critical systems. It is therefore necessar...
Preprint
Context: Across different domains, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are used more and more in safety-critical applications in which erroneous outputs of such ANN can have catastrophic consequences. However, the development of such neural networks is still immature and good engineering practices are missing. With that, ANNs are in the same position...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Creating a sound argumentation of why a system is sufficiently safe is a major part of the assurance process. Today, compiling a safety case and maintaining its validity after changes are time-consuming manual work performed by safety experts based on their experience and knowledge. This work is further complicated when supplier components need to...
Chapter
Creating a sound argumentation of why a system is sufficiently safe is a major part of the assurance process. Today, compiling a safety case and maintaining its validity after changes are time-consuming manual work performed by safety experts based on their experience and knowledge. This work is further complicated when supplier components need to...
Chapter
As in many embedded systems domains, in modern healthcare we experience increasing adoption of (medical) cyber-physical systems of systems. In hospitals, for instance, different types of medical systems are integrated dynamically to render higher-level services in cooperation. One important task is the realization of smart alarms as well as, in a s...
Data
Presentation slides belonging to the linked conference paper
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cooperative Automated Systems enable new kinds of applications and services. Corresponding visions stretch across virtually any domain of embedded systems and it is obvious that there lies a huge potential for economic, ecologic and societal improvements and success. However, to unlock this potential we first need to overcome diverse engineering ch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Future automotive systems will exhibit ever-higher grades of automation up to the point of autonomy. The full potential in automation can only be unlocked when combining it with the capability of cooperation, leading to the vision of comprehensively networked cooperative autonomous systems (CAS). To enable a safe CAS cooperation at runtime, we intr...
Chapter
Full-text available
Medical cyber-physical systems (MCPS) combine independent devices at runtime in order to render new patient monitoring/control functionalities, such as physiological closed loops for controlling drug infusion and optimization of alarms. MCPS and their relevant system contexts are highly variable, which detrimentally affects the application of estab...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Component Fault Trees (CFTs) were invented in 2003 as a compositional extension to fault trees to better reflect the technical architecture of a system in its safety analysis model. Since then, a lot of research has been contributed regarding semantic extensions, evaluation techniques, and tighter linking between system and safety models. This pape...
Conference Paper
Modern cyber-physical systems (CPS) integrate more and more powerful computing power to master novel applications and adapt to changing situations. A striking example is the recent progression in the automotive market towards autonomous driving. Powerful artificial intelligent algorithms must be executed on high performant parallelized platforms. H...
Chapter
The open and cooperative nature of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) poses new challenges in assuring dependability. The DEIS project (Dependability Engineering Innovation for automotive CPS. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 732242, see http://www.deis-pro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The verification and validation (V&V) of autonomous systems is a complex and difficult task, especially when artificial intelligence is used to achieve autonomy. However, without proper V&V, sufficient evidence to argue safety is not attainable. We propose in this work the use of a Safety Supervisor (SSV) to circumvent this issue. However, the desi...
Conference Paper
Future automotive systems will exhibit increased levels of automation as well as ever tighter integration with other vehicles, traffic infrastructure, and cloud services. From safety perspective, this can be perceived as boon or bane - it greatly increases complexity and uncertainty, but at the same time opens up new opportunities for realizing inn...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Numerous industrial sectors are investing in Cyber-Physical-Systems (CPS). CPS provide their functionality by the interaction of various subsystems which are usually developed by different suppliers and are expected to cooperate safely. The open and cooperative nature of CPS poses a significant challenge for industrial sectors with stringent depend...
Chapter
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) provide their functionality by the interaction of various subsystems. CPS usually operate in uncertain environments and are often safety-critical. The constituent systems are developed by different stakeholders, who – in most cases – cannot fully know the composing parts at development time. Furthermore, a CPS may recon...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since more than two years the Artemis/Ecsel project EMC2 is running and provides significant results. EMC2 stands for “Embedded Multi-Core Systems for Mixed Criticality Applications in Dynamic and Changeable Real-Time Environments”. In this paper we report recent progress on technical work in the different workpackages and use cases. We highlight p...
Article
Traditionally, safety engineering has been a matter of tables and textual documents and even of pen and paper. Even in the age of computerization, this did has not really changed significantly, as the state of the practice in safety engineering is nowadays dominated by Excel sheets and Word files. Nevertheless, a range of computer-aided safety anal...
Conference Paper
Over the last 20 years, embedded systems have evolved from closed, rather static single-application systems towards open, flexible, multi-application systems of systems. While this is a blessing from an application perspective, it certainly is a curse from a safety engineering perspective as it invalidates the base assumptions of established engine...
Conference Paper
We are currently witnessing a 3rd industrial revolution, driven by ever more interconnected distributed systems of systems, running under the umbrella term of cyber-physical systems (CPS). In the context of this paradigm, different types of computer-based systems from different application domains collaborate with each other in order to render high...
Book
Over the last decade, it has become increasingly evident that nextgeneration systems will be strongly distributed, networked heterogeneous systems of systems. New corresponding computing paradigms have been coined along the way, such as Ubiquitous Computing, Ambient Intelligence, and, more recently, Cyber-Physical Systems. It is expected that such...
Chapter
Full-text available
A self-adaptive software system modifies its behavior at runtime in response to changes within the system or in its execution environment. The fulfillment of the system requirements needs to be guaranteed even in the presence of adverse conditions and adaptations. Thus, a key challenge for self-adaptive software systems is assurance. Traditionally,...
Chapter
Open adaptive systems are the basis for a promising new generation of embedded systems with huge economic potential. In many application domains, however, the systems are safety-critical and an appropriate safety assurance approach is still missing. In recent years, models at runtime have emerged as a promising way to systematically engineer adapti...
Chapter
In recent years, the term cyber-physical systems has emerged to characterize a new generation of embedded systems. In cyber-physical systems, embedded systems will be open in the sense that they will dynamically interconnect with other systems and will be able to dynamically adapt to changing runtime contexts. Such open adaptive systems provide a h...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years, we have witnessed a strong trend towards more openness and adaptivity in many application domains of computer-based systems. In this context, the assurance of a sufficient level of safety poses serious challenges because traditional engineering and assurance approaches are usually not applicable without further ado. In order to mee...
Chapter
Full-text available
Self-adaptive software systems modify their behaviour at runtime in response to changes in the system or its environment. The fulfilment of the system requirements and reachability of the system goals needs to be guaranteed even in the presence of adaptations. Thus, a key challenge for self-adaptive software systems is assurance. Traditionally, con...
Conference Paper
In the Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) domain, specific systems have been developed and applied to enable people with specific needs, such as elderly or disabled people, to live longer independently in their familiar residential environments. In order to support the development of such systems, a range of AAL platforms have been developed in recent y...
Conference Paper
In recent years it has become more and more evident that openness and adaptivity are key characteristics of next generation distributed systems. The reason for that is not least the advent of computing trends like Ubiquitous Computing, Ambient Intelligence, and Cyber Physical Systems, where systems are usually open for dynamic integration and able...
Conference Paper
In recent years it has become more and more evident that the ability of systems to adapt themselves is an increasingly important requirement. This is not least driven by emerging computing trends like Ubiquitous Computing, Ambient Intelligence, and Cyber Physical Systems, where systems have to react on changing user needs, service/device availabili...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article presents a novel approach to facilitating fault tree analysis during the development of software-controlled systems. Based on a component-oriented system model, it combines second-order probabilistic analysis and automatically generated default failure models with a level-of-detail concept to ensure early and continuous analysability o...
Conference Paper
With the advent of new computing paradigms, such as Ubiquitous Computing, Ambient Intelligence, and Cyber Physical Systems, promising application domains like Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) and Car2Car have emerged. One key concern in these application domains is that systems are required to dynamically adapt in reaction to changes within the system...
Conference Paper
Resilience has been successfully realized in automotive systems to increase system reliability at reasonable costs. Using dynamic adaptation, the system adapts to runtime errors - caused by internal system faults or adverse environmental situations like critical driving situations - in order to provide the best possible functionality and to guarant...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article presents a novel approach to facilitating fault tree analysis during the development of software-controlled systems. Based on a component-oriented system model, it combines second-order probabilistic analysis and automatically generated default failure models with a level-of-detail concept to ensure early and continuous analysability o...
Conference Paper
In the wake of current computing trends like Ubiquitous Computing, Ambient Intelligence and Cyber Physical Systems, new application domains like Car2Car emerged. One key characteristic of these new application domains is their openness with respect to dynamic integration of devices and components. It is obvious that traditional safety assurance tec...
Conference Paper
Upcoming application domains, from ambient assisted living to car2car, show the need for openness, flexibility and safety in next generation embedded systems. Whilst there are several approaches tackling the dynamic reconfiguration and integration of components, there has not been much research done on safety of such systems. As many of the applica...