Daniel Mills

Daniel Mills
University of Lincoln · School of Life Sciences

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273
Publications
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Publications

Publications (273)
Preprint
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Internal affective states are closely linked to facial expressions in both human and many non-human animals. For some animal species, objective tools for facial expression analysis such as AnimalFACS are available and are only just beginning to be increasingly used. However, their use requires special expertise, training, and certification, while t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Similarly to humans, facial expressions in animals are closely linked with emotional states. However, in contrast to the human domain, automated recognition of emotional states from facial expressions in animals is underexplored, mainly due to difficulties in data collection and establishment of ground truth concerning emotional states of non-verba...
Article
Full-text available
Facial expressions in non-human animals are closely linked to their internal affective states, with the majority of empirical work focusing on facial shape changes associated with pain. However, existing tools for facial expression analysis are prone to human subjectivity and bias, and in many cases also require special expertise and training. This...
Article
Full-text available
Research with humans and other animals has suggested that preferential limb use is linked to emotionality. A better understanding of this still under-explored area has the potential to establish limb preference as a marker of emotional vulnerability and risk for affective disorders. This study explored the potential relationship between paw prefere...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to infer emotional states and their wider consequences requires the establishment of relationships between the emotional display and subsequent actions. These abilities, together with the use of emotional information from others in social decision making, are cognitively demanding and require inferential skills that extend beyond the im...
Preprint
Facial expressions in non-human animals are closely linked to their internal affective states , with the majority of empirical work focusing on facial shape changes associated with pain. However, existing tools for facial expression analysis are prone to human subjectivity and bias, and in many cases also require special expertise and training. Thi...
Article
Full-text available
Cross-sectional comparisons of well-being between dog owners and non-owners commonly generate inconsistent results. Focusing on the uniqueness of the relationship might help address this issue and provide a stronger foundation for dog-related psychotherapeutic interventions. This study aims to evaluate the impact of dog-related activities (e.g., ex...
Article
Full-text available
Frustration is a negative emotional state implicated in a range of canine behaviour problems. The Canine Frustration Questionnaire (CFQ) is the first psychometric tool developed to assess frustration tendencies in dogs based on owner report. However, to date, no published studies have assessed behavioural and physiological correlates of this trait....
Article
Full-text available
Despite the abundance of studies investigating the benefits of having a dog, the specific aspects of dog ownership that impacts human well-being are not well understood. This study used a qualitative approach to create a framework of the main dog-related activities perceived by Brazilian owners to impact their well-being and compared the findings w...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Companion animals may be a positive presence for their owners during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the welfare of a companion animal is strongly influenced by the behaviour of their owners, as well as their physical and social environment. We aimed to investigate the reported changes in companion animal welfare and behaviour and to e...
Chapter
Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is highly heterogeneous at many levels, for example with regards to the setting itself, recipients of the intervention, species involved as therapy animals and their therapeutic potential. Dogs are the most commonly involved species in this work, and there may be good reasons for this beyond their availability. Some sp...
Article
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Domestication has greatly changed the social and reproductive behavior of dogs relative to that of wild members of the genus Canis, which typically exhibit social monogamy and extended parental care. Unlike a typical gray wolf pack that consists of a single breeding pair and their offspring from multiple seasons, a group of free-ranging dogs (FRDs)...
Article
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Dogs have remarkable abilities to synergise their behaviour with that of people, but how dogs read facial and bodily emotional cues in comparison to humans remains unclear. Both species share the same ecological niche, are highly social and expressive, making them an ideal comparative model for intra- and inter-species emotion perception. We compar...
Article
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The inner brow raiser is a muscle movement that increases the size of the orbital cavity, leading to the appearance of so-called 'puppy dog eyes'. In domestic dogs, this expression was suggested to be enhanced by artificial selection and to play an important role in the dog-human relationship. Production of the inner brow raiser has been shown to b...
Article
Full-text available
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents an opportunity to explore the role of animals as sources of emotional and physical support during a period when most of the population is experiencing social and environmental challenges. We investigated how companion animal owners perceived the influence of human–animal interaction on their...
Chapter
This book contains 16 chapters that discuss mental and emotional health in the veterinary practice, ruling out physical disorders leading to behavioural changes, addressing pain in veterinary psychiatry, normal behaviour, raising mentally and emotionally healthy pets, diagnosis, learning principles and behaviour modification, psychopharmacology, pr...
Chapter
This book contains 16 chapters that discuss mental and emotional health in the veterinary practice, ruling out physical disorders leading to behavioural changes, addressing pain in veterinary psychiatry, normal behaviour, raising mentally and emotionally healthy pets, diagnosis, learning principles and behaviour modification, psychopharmacology, pr...
Chapter
This book contains 16 chapters that discuss mental and emotional health in the veterinary practice, ruling out physical disorders leading to behavioural changes, addressing pain in veterinary psychiatry, normal behaviour, raising mentally and emotionally healthy pets, diagnosis, learning principles and behaviour modification, psychopharmacology, pr...
Chapter
This book contains 16 chapters that discuss mental and emotional health in the veterinary practice, ruling out physical disorders leading to behavioural changes, addressing pain in veterinary psychiatry, normal behaviour, raising mentally and emotionally healthy pets, diagnosis, learning principles and behaviour modification, psychopharmacology, pr...
Article
Full-text available
During their domestication via artificial selection, humans have substantially modified the morphology and thus visual appearance of non-human animals. While research highlights the negative impact of these modifications on physical functioning, little is known about their impact on behavior and signaling, either toward humans or conspecifics. Chan...
Article
Full-text available
Health care and human service providers may include dogs in formal intervention settings to positively impact human physical, cognitive and psychosocial domains. Dogs working within this context are asked to cope with a multitude of variables including settings, populations, activities, and schedules. In this article, the authors highlight how both...
Preprint
Full-text available
Vision in dogs is generally considered poor compared with humans, and recent reports have reviewed some of the physiological principles underpinning dog vision, but a systematic comparison of the physiological and neurobiological features of vision in dogs compared with humans appears to be lacking. This means there is a risk of an anthropocentric...
Article
Full-text available
There is notorious inconsistency regarding mental health benefits of dog ownership, partially due to repeated cross-sectional studies comparing dog owners and non-owners, without taking into account the heterogeneity of dog-owner dyads, especially the activities with which the owners are involved. This study aimed to develop a comprehensive framewo...
Article
Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of an EDTA-based method for measuring cat blood bioamines. Methods Test 1 involved collecting blood samples from seven university laboratory cats. The samples were transferred to EDTA, heparin and plain tubes to determine concentrations of four bioamines (serotonin, dopamine, epinephri...
Article
Full-text available
Facial expressions are a core component of the emotional response of social mammals. In contrast to Darwin's original proposition, expressive facial cues of emotion appear to have evolved to be species-specific. Faces trigger an automatic perceptual process, and so, inter-specific emotion perception is potentially a challenge; since observers shoul...
Article
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Introduction: Anxiety in dogs, especially in relation to certain noises, is a common issue which can lead to clinically significant problems like noise phobias. While several scales have been used to assess sound sensitivity and reactivity, clinical monitoring has tended to depend on unvalidated methods, general assessment, and/or historical compar...
Article
Full-text available
We argue that there is currently an under-reporting of the ways in which pain can be associated with problem behavior, which is seriously limiting the recognition of this welfare problem. A review of the caseloads of 100 recent dog cases of several authors indicates that a conservative estimate of around a third of referred cases involve some form...
Article
Full-text available
Diagnoses are widely used in both human and veterinary medicine to describe the nature of a condition; by contrast, syndromes are collections of signs that consistently occur together to form a characteristic presentation. Treatment of syndromes, due to either their lack of a clear biological cause or multiple causes, necessarily remains non-specif...
Article
Individuals with visual impairments often report low quality of life (QOL), increased depression, and reduced functionality. Trained assistance dogs have been shown to help improve QOL and daily functioning of individuals affected by chronic conditions, but these studies have been largely crosssectional and QOL has not been considered in guide dog...
Chapter
This second edition of Mental Health and Well-Being in Animals is fully revised, expanded, and comprehensively updated with the most current knowledge about the full array of mental health issues seen in animals. Written by key opinion leaders, internationally-recognized experts and specialists, it is comprehensive covering basic principles to ment...
Article
Full-text available
Background Behavioural case loads may vary due to cultural differences, and so it is important to know how these differ with geography. Methods One hundred and eighty dog cases referred to a veterinary behaviourist in São Paulo (Brazil) during the period of 2008–2014 are described. Results Aggression against people was the most common behavioural...
Article
Full-text available
Facial expressions are considered sensitive indicators of emotional states in humans and many animals. Identifying facial indicators of emotion is a major challenge and little systematic research has been done in non-primate species. In dogs, such research is important not only to address fundamental and applied scientific questions but also for pr...
Article
Full-text available
The English version of the Positive and Negative Activation Scale (PANAS) is a useful tool for the assessment of dog temperament, helping to identify highly sensitive individuals that could be at risk of developing fears, phobias and anxiety problems, and potentially depressive states. This study evaluated the association between dogs’ and owners’...
Article
Background Geographical variations in feline behaviour problems exist. The occurrence of feline behaviour problems in different regions are therefore important to prepare professionals for the emerging needs of cat owners. Methods One-hundred and fifty-five feline behaviour cases that were referred to a veterinary behaviourist in São Paulo (Brazil...
Article
Full-text available
There has been little investment in exploring the impact of the child-dog relationship on the dog. Since child-dog interactions can pose potentially serious threats to a dog's physical and psychological health, as well as the wider satisfaction of the owner with their dog, we describe the development and validation of an owner-completed pet dog qua...
Article
Full-text available
Facial expression is a common channel for the communication of emotion. However, in the case of non-human animals, the analytical methods used to quantify facial expressions can be subjective, relying heavily on extrapolation from human-based systems. Here, we demonstrate how geometric morphometrics can be applied in order to overcome these problem...
Article
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Classification plays a pivotal role in our attempts to develop an understanding and expectation of animal behavior. The hypothesis underpinning traditional breed group classification of domestic dogs is that behavioral differences among breeds may be explained by selection to perform particular roles. Consequently, breed group membership may provid...
Article
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Introduction: Psychometric tools have been developed for the assessment of behavioral and affective traits in non-human animals. Frustration can be defined as an emotional reaction experienced after a given expectation is violated. Frustration is a negative emotional state and whilst it probably plays a key role in certain behavior problems in dogs...
Article
There is growing interest in the value of assistance dogs, therapy dogs, and untrained pet dogs, for supporting children with specific needs. Research in this area focuses almost exclusively on the effect of dogs on child well-being and quality of life. The lack of research reporting the role of dog’s quality of life in this dynamic limits the deve...
Article
Dogs have been shown to be able to respond to a variety of forms of verbally based referential communication from people. However, it is unclear how these abilities develop or what a word actually represents to a dog. In 2 experiments, 18 dogs were trained to respond to 2 different verbal commands independently. In 1 experiment, the 2 words were us...
Article
Full-text available
Human personality may substantially affect the nature of care provided to dependants. This link has been well researched in parents and children, however, relatively little is known about this dynamic with regards to humans’ relationships with non-human animals. Owner interactions with companion animals may provide valuable insight into the wider p...
Data
Cat owner questionnaire. Items included are relevant to all variables and analyses conducted within the paper. Questionnaire was available online via Survey Monkey from June-July of 2016. (DOCX)
Data
Cat behavioural profiles. Profiles based on PC loadings for owner reported cat behaviour. All items retained loaded at ≥ |0.4|. Negative loadings for questions are indicated in bold. (DOCX)
Data
Demographic features of the cat owner population and relevant descriptive statistics. (DOCX)
Data
Summary outputs from GLM and GLMM minimum adequate models. (DOCX)
Data
Demographic features of the cat population and relevant descriptive statistics. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Dogs' abilities to respond to concentrations of odorant molecules are generally deemed superior to electronic sensors. This sensitivity has been used traditionally in many areas; but is a more recent innovation within the medical field. As a bio-detection sensor for human diseases such as cancer and infections, dogs often need to detect volatile or...
Article
Scent detection dogs are used in a variety of contexts; however, very few dogs successfully complete their training, and many others are withdrawn from service prematurely due to both detection accuracy issues in the field and wider behavioral issues. This article aims to review our understanding of the factors affecting variation in scent detectio...
Article
In this response to the commentaries, we highlight the relevance of our approach to different challenges faced by working dogs and those working with them. We agree with Byosiere, Feng, and Rutter (2019) that sourcing dogs from nontraditional routes would be beneficial and highlight the importance of using our approach to realize the potential of t...
Article
Full-text available
Imepitoin is a low affinity partial agonist for the benzodiazepine binding site of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, and is currently used as an antiepileptic in dogs. Here we tested imepitoin for anxiolytic properties. In an in vitro model, imepitoin was capable of preventing the effect of corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) on locus coerul...
Article
Objectives: The aim of this study was to perform a case-control medical evaluation of cats from multi-cat households presenting with inappropriate latrining and spraying behavior. Methods: Owners of 18 'spraying' and 23 'latrining' cats with normal control subjects available from the same households were recruited for a case-control study. Other...
Article
Learning through the observation of others allows the transfer of information without the costs incurred during individual trial and error learning. Horses (Equus caballus) are a highly social species, which might be expected to be capable of learning from others, but experimental findings are inconsistent, and potentially confounded by social faci...
Article
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A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
Article
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With increasing threats of terrorism, police and military detection dogs are of growing importance for protecting servicemen/women and society. However, a relatively high proportion of potential working dogs fail to make full operational status, or are later withdrawn from service. To date, research has focused primarily on factors which are associ...
Article
The number of cats and dogs kept together in many parts of the industrialized world is increasing, but we know little about the typical interactions that occur between these 2 species when they live within the same home. Despite social differences, when conditions are correct, both species are capable of expressing amicability to one another. Altho...
Article
Full-text available
Many owners talk to their pets about a wide range of issues, but there is very little research that has considered the content of this, or its impact on owner wellbeing. Verbal disclosure brings a range of potential health benefits, yet a number of factors may prevent individuals from confiding in their partners or friends (confidants). As such, in...
Article
Full-text available
Adherence to the advice of medical practitioners is critical to successful treatment outcomes and has been much researched in human health, but is less well studied in the veterinary and clinical animal behavior fields. Given that the management of behavior problems often requires substantial change in established client behavior, it is likely that...