Daniel Lafond

Daniel Lafond
Thales Research and Technology Canada

PhD
Scientist at Thales Research and Technology Canada

About

78
Publications
9,731
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444
Citations

Publications

Publications (78)
Chapter
Full-text available
Modeling human expert decision patterns can potentially help create training and decision support systems when no ground truth data is available. A cognitive modeling approach presented herein uses a combination of supervised learning methods to mimic expert strategies. Yet without historical data logs on human expert judgments in a given domain, t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Operators monitoring closed-circuit television systems face many error-prone situations given the cognitive challenges they experience. The Scantracker is a prototype tool developed to support surveillance, relying on live oculometric data to trigger notifications that mitigate camera negligence, attention tunneling and vigilance decrement. To be r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The possibility to automate medical triage is appealing as it could decrease the burden on humans. In instances of mass casualty events, this could allow for much faster triage as the process would occur in parallel instead of in sequence. The greatest efficacy could be achieved with a system that relies solely on remote sensors, which would necess...
Conference Paper
While non-player opponents in commercial video games often rely on simple artificial intelligence techniques, machine learning techniques that capture human strategies could make them more engaging. Cognitive Shadow is a prototype tool that combines several artificial intelligence techniques to continuously model human decision-making patterns duri...
Article
The Cognitive Shadow is a prototype decision support tool that can notify users when they deviate from their usual judgment pattern. Expert decision policies are learned automatically online while performing one’s task using a combination of machine learning algorithms. This study investigated whether combining this system with the use of a process...
Chapter
Full-text available
Security surveillance represents a cognitively challenging task. To support surveillance operators, Thales Research and Technology Canada developed the Scantracker, which relies on real-time oculometric data to trigger notifications that mitigate camera negligence, attentional tunneling and vigilance decrement. Recently, this tool was adapted to au...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Decision making can be modeled in various ways for the design of decision-support systems. One strategy privileged for this purpose is policy capturing, i.e. using statistical techniques (and more recently machine learning) to model judgement policies. The Cognitive Shadow is a prototype tool suited for frugal learning that automatically learns a u...
Chapter
Resource-constrained project scheduling for ship refit and maintenance is a major challenge for planners. A smart scheduling solution proposed herein relies on a combination of optimization methods including constraint programming and mixed-integer linear programming. The method employs model-based AI, heuristic methods and discrete-event simulatio...
Article
Full-text available
With the burgeoning of wearable devices and passive body/brain-computer interfaces (B/BCIs), automated stress monitoring in everyday settings has gained significant attention recently, with applications ranging from serious games to clinical monitoring. With mobile users, however, challenges arise due to other overlapping (and potentially confoundi...
Article
Full-text available
Security surveillance entails many cognitive challenges (e.g., task interruption, vigilance decrements, cognitive overload). To help surveillance operators overcome these difficulties and perform more efficient visual search, gaze-based intelligent systems can be developed. The present study aimed at testing the impact of the Scantracker system—whi...
Article
Full-text available
Assessment of mental workload is crucial for applications that require sustained attention and where conditions such as mental fatigue and drowsiness must be avoided. Previous work that attempted to devise objective methods to model mental workload were mainly based on neurological or physiological data collected when the participants performed tas...
Article
The Cognitive Shadow is a prototype tool intended to support decision making by autonomously modeling human operators’ response pattern and providing online notifications to the operators about the decision they are expected to make in new situations. Since the system can be configured either in a reactive “shadowing” or a proactive “recommendation...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Future long duration space exploration missions such as travel to Mars will require higher levels of medical autonomy as communication time-delays or disruptions increase, and as an emergency return to Earth will no longer be a viable option for ensuring timely treatment. Although crew selection is proposed as the first line of defence t...
Article
Full-text available
Background Future long-duration space exploration missions, such as traveling to Mars, will create an increase in communication time delays and disruptions and remove the viability of emergency returns to Earth for timely medical treatment. Thus, higher levels of medical autonomy are necessary. Crew selection is proposed as the first line of defens...
Chapter
The training curriculum of air force cadets is currently identical for all, not taking trainees’ individual differences in skill acquisition into account. A model of physiological arousal conceptualized as “ease in flight” is proposed as an objective metric for individualization. Considering that a significant part of air force cadets training take...
Conference Paper
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been studied in the context of human behavior analysis and many features have been extracted from the inter-beat interval (RR) time series and tested as correlates of constructs such as mental workload, stress and anxiety. Such constructs are crucial in assessing quality-of-life of individuals, as well as their over...
Chapter
Thales Research and Technology Canada is developing a decision support system consisting in multiple classification models trained simultaneously online to capture experts’ decision policies based on their previous decisions. The system learns decision patterns from examples annotated by a human expert during a training phase of knowledge capture....
Chapter
Full-text available
The validity of two commercial-off-the-shelf eye trackers, including a fixed system and a mobile device, was compared in the context of a gaze-based assistant tool implemented to aid security surveillance. Participants performed a security surveillance simulation that required them to detect incidents across multiple video feeds. Aid from the Scant...
Chapter
The present work introduces a prototype intelligent cognitive assistant that continuously learns the decision pattern of the user online, instantly recognizes deviations from that pattern as potential errors and then alerts the user accordingly. We investigated the potential of this prototype system using a human-in-the-loop experiment designed to...
Chapter
Research on adaptive systems based on human psychophysiological assessments has been growing rapidly over the last decade. One fundamental component of such a system is human state assessment, on which the adaptation depends, at least partly. This is critical as the confidence of operators in such system will be determined to some extent by the acc...
Article
Full-text available
Mental workload assessment is crucial in many real life applications which require constant attention and where imbalance of mental workload resources may cause safety hazards. As such, mental workload and its relationship with heart rate variability (HRV) have been well studied in the literature. However, the majority of the developed models have...
Article
Full-text available
Workers such as police officers are exposed to many hazardous situations while performing traffic duties, which renders them vulnerable to work accidents. Such a dangerous work context can lead to high stress levels. This is conducive to performance impairment and, consequently, to high-risk situations in which safety, for both workers and road use...
Article
Full-text available
Traffic workers are vulnerable to accidents and must make critical decisions to avoid conflicts between road users. This can lead to high stress levels, which may hinder their capacity to mitigate the occurrence of hazards. Measuring stress on the field could represent an efficient solution to help pinpoint risky situations and identify factors tha...
Chapter
Full-text available
The present work investigates a cumulative part-task training method that builds up task complexity adaptively based on individual learner states. A research-oriented game entitled “Space Fortress” was used to evaluate two training conditions in a between-group design prior to a third condition involving an adaptive cumulative part task training me...
Chapter
Full-text available
Surveillance operators must scan multiple camera feeds to ensure timely detection of incidents; however, variability in scanning behavior can lead to untimely/failed detection of critical information in feeds that were neglected for a long period. Using an eye tracker to monitor screen fixations we can calculate (in real-time) the time elapsed sinc...
Conference Paper
Providing decision support to operators in command and control contexts requires careful assessment of its impacts on task performance. Here we describe a human-in-the-loop experiment using a naval air defense testbed to compare three conditions: 1) a baseline interface (DSS BASE ; 2) one that displays the temporal proximity of radar aircraft (DSS...
Article
Providing decision support to operators in command and control contexts requires careful assessment of its impacts on task performance. Here we describe a human-in-the-loop experiment using a naval air defense testbed to compare three conditions: 1) a baseline interface (DSSBASE; 2) one that displays the temporal proximity of radar aircraft (DSSTEM...
Article
Policy capturing is a judgment analysis method that typically uses linear statistical modeling to estimate expert judgments. A variant to this technique is to capture decision policies using data-mining algorithms designed to handle nonlinear decision rules, missing attributes, and noisy data. In the current study, we tested the effectiveness of a...
Article
While simple heuristics can be ecologically rational and effective in naturalistic decision making contexts, complex situations require analytical decision making strategies, hypothesis-testing and learning. Sub-optimal decision strategies – using simplified as opposed to analytic decision rules – have been reported in domains such as healthcare, m...
Conference Paper
This paper addresses critical issues and reports key findings with regards to the development of participant-generic operator functional state (OFS) models in the context of cognitive work. Conceptually, this research is concerned with the nature of the relationship between the physiological state of individuals and human performance. Participants...
Conference Paper
Cette recherche traite des méthodes pour le développement d’un mo-dèle psychophysiologique générique de la charge mentale permettant d’inférer de façon automatique l’état d’un individu en temps réel. Précisément, les résul-tats présentés ici quantifient le gain de performance de modèles entraînés à l’aide d’un échantillon de validation inter-partic...
Conference Paper
The assessment of an operator’s functional state (i.e., the multidimensional pattern of human psychophysiological conditions that mediates performance) has great potential for increasing safety and reliability of critical systems. However, live monitoring of functional state using physiological and behavioral data still faces several challenges bef...
Article
Policy capturing is a decision analysis method that typically uses linear statistical modeling to estimate the basis of expert judgments. Using more flexible data mining algorithms may yield more accurate models or instead result in poor functional estimations. The objective of this study is to test the effectiveness of a decision tree induction al...
Conference Paper
Intelligent video surveillance systems (IVSS) that can track people, identify unattended objects, and recognize activity are constantly being developed, updated, and tested against standard test stimuli. The development of these systems, however, seems to focus on technological advancements and largely ignores how automation will affect the human c...
Conference Paper
The present work describes the application of a multi-criteria assessment tool called MYRIAD to the evaluation of a methodology that was developed to improve team understanding of a complex situation. The methodology aims to support a multi-disciplinary team working collaboratively on the development of a mission plan during an expeditionary stabil...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The REcommending Cases based on cONtext (RECON) system is a prototype adaptive technology designed to support intelligence analysis using dynamic load balancing and advanced human-machine synergy. RECON combines a brain-computer interface, machine learning, and simulation in order to create an innovative case-based recommendation capability. Severa...
Conference Paper
The present paper introduces the Sensor-Hub, a prototype tool for augmenting the common operating picture and adaptability of distributed teams in safety-critical environments. The Sensor-Hub aims to facilitate the integration and interpretation of data collected directly from humans augmented with sensing capability involved in the situation to pr...
Article
The REcommending Cases based on cONtext (RECON) system is a prototype adaptive technology designed to support intelligence analysts in overcoming the problem of cognitive overload. Its central objective is to assist these analysts during the collection, processing, and analysis phases of the intelligence cycle through sense-making of both explicit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Policy capturing is an approach to decision analysis using statistical models such as multiple linear regression or machine learning algorithms to approximate the mental models of decision makers. The present work seeks to apply a robust policy capturing technique to functionally mirror expert mental models and create individually-tailored cognitiv...
Article
Full-text available
The authors report two experiments studying the requirements for effective decision making in a complex environment. The focus lies on three components of individual cognitive readiness: situation awareness (SA), problem solving, and decision making. Participants performed a simulated society management task in which they could allocate resourc...
Article
We report a study that investigates the role of situation awareness acquisition behaviors and decisional heuristics on mission success in a complex strategic decision making simulation. Thirty-two subjects completed a turn-based counter-insurgency scenario against a simulated adversary. Subjects played the role of a commander whose goal was to stab...
Article
Interactive learning environments are increasingly used to help people better deal with complex situations. One way to improve decision making effectiveness is to train systems thinking skills using interactive simulations in order to reduce the occurrence of “unintended side-effects” of interventions and catastrophic failures. We present a prototy...
Article
This study examined whether teaming up mitigates individual vulnerability to task interruptions in complex dynamic situations. Omnipresent in everyday multitasking environments, task interruptions are usually detrimental to individual performance. This is particularly crucial in dynamic command and control (C2) safety-critical contexts because of t...
Article
This article reports an experiment using the C3Fire microworld—a functional simulation of command and control in a complex and dynamic environment—in which 24 three-person teams were organized according to either a functional or multifunctional allocation of roles. We proposed a quantitative approach for estimating teamwork requirements and compari...
Conference Paper
The complex decision making experimental platform (CODEM) is intended as a shareable research tool to stimulate multidisciplinary research on complex dynamic situation management and as an environment for training and testing cognitive readiness. The experimenter can set general parameters, configure the interface, specify the model, insert events...
Conference Paper
The prevalence of surveillance and information collection technologies provides decision-makers with greater volume and complexity of information to monitor and on which to base decisions than ever before. In this ever increasing dynamic and information rich environment, the role for decision support systems (DSS) to augment cognition and situation...
Article
We investigated the effects of a decision aid designed to support the development of effective long term strategies when seeking to influence a complex adaptive system. The experiment compared a test condition with feedforward support (i.e., outcome projection) against a baseline condition both in terms of cognitive processing and goal attainment (...
Conference Paper
Omnipresent in everyday multitasking environments task interruptions are usually detrimental to individual performance. Here, we examined whether teaming up renders an individual less vulnerable to interruptions in complex and dynamic situations. We employed a microworld to simulate command and control in a crisis management situation and to examin...
Article
Omnipresent in everyday multitasking environments task interruptions are usually detrimental to individual performance. Here, we examined whether teaming up renders an individual less vulnerable to interruptions in complex and dynamic situations. We employed a microworld to simulate command and control in a crisis management situation and to examin...
Chapter
Full-text available
We present an assessment methodology to determine to what extent command and control and crisis management systems effectively support the cognitive processes that lie at the heart of these activities. The approach is focused on cognitive functions that cover the set of processes engaged by command and control and crisis management. We put forward...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The present paper describes the C 3 Fire microworld and the testing capabilities it provides for research in emergency response management. We start with a general description of C 3 Fire and report extensions that add a new subtask (search and rescue) relevant to the context of emergency response and a vocal communication system. We then describe...
Article
Full-text available
Sequence learning is essential in cognition and underpins activities such as language and skill acquisition. One classical demonstration of sequence learning is that of the Hebb repetition effect, whereby serial recall improves over repetitions on a repeated list relative to random lists. When addressing the question of which mechanism underlies th...
Article
Research in cognitive systems engineering (CSE) and decision support requires an understanding of the psychological processes involved in a given task. The purpose of the present study is to investigate how policy capturing and process tracing may help understand the decision mechanisms involved in a naval air-defense task and characterize how huma...
Article
The authors present 3 decision-tree models of categorization adapted from T. Trabasso, H. Rollins, and E. Shaughnessy (1971) and use them to provide a quantitative account of categorization response times, choice proportions, and typicality judgments at the individual-participant level. In Experiment 1, the decision-tree models were fit to reaction...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation – Computational models are increasingly used to gain insights into complex phenomena. However, better tools are needed to analyze and understand them. Research approach – We describe the IMAGE technology and an ongoing empirical evaluation of IMAGE compared to a baseline condition. Findings/Design – IMAGE provides interactive visualizati...
Article
In a serial recall task, the Hebb repetition effect occurs when recall performance improves for a sequence repeated throughout the experimental session. This phenomenon has been replicated many times. Nevertheless, such cumulative learning seldom leads to perfect recall of the whole sequence, and errors persist. Here the authors report evidence tha...
Conference Paper
Temporal awareness is key to successful decision making in a wide range of command and control situations, yet little explicit support to maintaining temporal awareness is provided by Decision Support Systems (DSS) for time-critical decisions. In the context of simulated weapon-target scheduling, the present study compared the decision support gain...
Article
Feldman [(2000). Minimization of Boolean complexity in human concept learning. Nature, 407, 630–633] has provided evidence that the complexity (subjective difficulty) of a Boolean concept is related to the length of its minimum algebraic description. The catalog of Boolean concepts [Feldman, J. (2003a). A catalog of Boolean concepts. Journal of Mat...