Daniel Gopher

Daniel Gopher
Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | technion · Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Management

Professor

About

148
Publications
23,147
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Publications

Publications (148)
Article
Full-text available
Dual task performance is one of the most frequently used paradigm in the evaluation of coping with concurrent task demands. The Breakfast Task experimented in this paper, was originally developed as a general indicator of coping ability with high demand executive control and attention management requirements. It is a computer-based simulation, in w...
Preprint
Background: Developing efficient cognitive training for the older population is a major public health goal due to its potential cognitive benefits. A promising training target is executive control, critical for multitasking in everyday life. The aim of this pilot study was to establish the feasibility and acceptability of the Breakfast Task trainin...
Article
Full-text available
The current study explored the influence of confidence rating on visual acuity. We used brief exposures of the Landolt gap discrimination task, probing the primary visual ability to detect contrast. During 200 practice trials, participants in the Confidence Rating group rated their response-confidence in each trial. A second (Time Delay) group rece...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the mutual influence of cortical neuroenhancement and allocation of spatial attention on perception. Specifically, it explored the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on visual acuity measured with a Landolt gap task and attentional precues. The exogenous cues were used to draw attention either to th...
Article
Objectives Recent work has identified different aspects of executive function that may underlie cognitive changes associated with age. The current study used a multifactorial design to investigate age sensitivity in the ability to shift between different task sets and the interaction of this ability with several specific aspects of executive contro...
Article
Background: Physicians caring for children with serious acute neurologic disease must process overwhelming amounts of physiological and medical information. Strategies to optimize real time display of this information are understudied. Objectives: Our goal was to engage clinical and engineering experts to develop guiding principles for creating...
Conference Paper
This study focused on the benefits of feedback augmentation for multi-session training of a complex motor-cognitive skill of indoor rowing in virtual environment. Specifically, we compared the effectiveness of augmented information feedback provided per training trial either visually, haptically or visual-haptically to the non-augmented condition,...
Article
Full-text available
Task analysis for the development of a virtual reality (VR) training system requires analysis and identification of the operator’s interactions with the real-world system and of the objectives of training and the trainee’s skill acquisition requirements. A task analysis approach for developing VR training simulators is presented that is based on an...
Article
Full-text available
The stiffness properties of an environment are perceived during active manual manipulation primarily by processing force cues and position-based tactile, kinesthetic, and visual information. Using a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) stiffness discrimination task, we tested how the perceiver integrates stiffness-related information based on senso...
Article
Full-text available
The aim was to develop a reporting system for collecting human factors problem reports to establish a database to guide activities for improving health care quality and patient safety. The current error and incident report systems do not provide sufficient and adequate coverage of the factors contributing to impaired safety and care quality. They f...
Article
Multimodal, immersive, virtual reality (VR) techniques open new perspectives for perceptual-motor skill trainers. They also introduce new risks and dangers. This paper describes the benefits and pitfalls of multimodal training and the cognitive building blocks of a multimodal, VR training simulators.
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of the design, implementation and evaluation of a platform for rowing training in Virtual Reality called SPRINT. The paper discusses how various aspects of the rowing skill can be analyzed and trained over a single common methodology and system platform. The result is a vision for new directions in the domain of spor...
Article
Full-text available
This study focused on the selection and preliminary evaluation of different types of modal and information feedback in virtual environment to facilitate acquisition and transfer of a complex motor-cognitive skill of rowing. Specifically, we addressed the effectiveness of immediate information feedback provided visually as compared to sensory haptic...
Article
Full-text available
Perception of compliant objects demands integration of haptic and visual position information with force information. Multisensory interactions are ubiquitous in perception, even at early processing stages, and thus can potentially play a role in learning. In this study we explored humans' improvement on uni-sensory stiffness discrimination as a fu...
Article
Full-text available
Multimodal, immersive, virtual reality (VR) techniques open new perspectives for perceptual-motor skill trainers. They also introduce new risks and dangers. This paper describes the benefits and pitfalls of multimodal training and the cognitive building blocks of a multimodal, VR training simulators.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to evaluate transfer of training from a virtual reality environment that captures visual and temporal-spatial aspects of juggling, but not the motor demands of juggling. Transfer of skill to real juggling was examined by comparing juggling performance of novices that either experienced both the virtual training protoco...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the feasibility of using the Space Fortress (SF) game, a complex video game originally developed to study complex skill acquisition in young adults, to improve executive control processes in cognitively healthy older adults. The study protocol consisted of 36 one-hour game play sessions over 3 months with cognitive evaluations befor...
Article
The present discussion panel addresses the need and possible approaches for providing integrative and inclusive human factors design of medical work units. An associated question is whether such a design perspective can be achieved without the instantiation of in house human factors teams. While recognition of the general importance and possible co...
Article
The present research addresses the issue of reliance on decision support systems for the long-term (DSSLT), which help users develop decision-making strategies and long-term planning. It is argued that providing information about a system's future performance in an experiential manner, as compared with a descriptive manner, encourages users to incr...
Article
Full-text available
The use of Virtual Environment (VE) for training sports is quite natural when considering strategic or cognitive aspects. Using VE for sensori-motor training is more challenging, in particular with the difficulty of transferring the task learned in the virtual-world to the real. Of special concern for the successful transfer is the adequate combina...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined if and how cognitively healthy older adults can learn to play a complex computer-based action game called the Space Fortress (SF) as a function of training instructions [Standard vs. Emphasis Change (EC); e.g., Gopher et al., 1989] and basic motor ability. A total of 35 cognitively healthy older adults completed a 3-month SF tra...
Chapter
Multimodal, immersive, virtual reality (VR) techniques open new perspectives for perceptual-motor skill trainers. They also introduce new risks and dangers. The chapter describes the benefits and pitfalls of multimodal training and the cognitive building blocks of a multi modal, VR training simulators..
Article
Contemporary preoperative team briefings conducted to improve patient safety focus mainly on supplying identification details regarding the patient and the surgical procedure. Drawing on cognitive theory principles, in this study a briefing protocol was developed that presents a broader perspective model of the patient and the planned procedure. In...
Article
Variations in continuous and discrete flight demands were investigated in a simulated flight mission measuring peripheral arterial tone (PAT) from the tip of the finger. A total of 12 participants performed a computer-simulated agricultural flight task. They were required to fly over a specific lane of a simulated corn field (continuous task) and c...
Article
Full-text available
Cotemporary efforts for improving healthcare safety are almost exclusively dependent on the study of adverse events as their primary information source. Investigations of adverse events have had an important role and contribution to the recognition of the magnitude of the healthcare problem, but are of a limited scientific value. Error investigatio...
Article
Surgical procedures are complex tasks performed by teams. Their success depends on individual competency and good team coordination. Performance on both individual and team level can greatly benefit from having a shared information basis of patient details, medical status, and planned surgical procedure. Team briefing prior to surgery may pave the...
Article
We describe the human factors analysis and redesign of the radiotherapy paper chart used at the radiotherapy unit of Rambam Medical Center. The chart is a paper form used by multiple team members. It is the main record of relevant information and treatment orders. It also serves as the major follow up and quality control tool. As such, the chart is...
Article
Full-text available
Industrial engineering methods are very successful in coping with well-structured systems and processes. However, when it comes to analysing, planning and controlling systems which contain unstructured processes, managers and engineers are faced with a much more difficult task. This is especially true in systems where teams and individuals have a s...
Article
We ran two experiments to investigate whether peripheral arterial tone reflects changes in mental effort. Finger pulse wave amplitude, interpulse interval, and pulse variability in the mid- and high-frequency bands were recorded by means of a newly developed finger plethysmograph during both rest and cognitive performance. Using a modified version...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last two decades there has been a growing recognition in the need for a systematic study of adverse events, errors and difficulties in health care. The systematic investigation of this topic and the resultant database have grown and diversified exponentially. We believe that the time has come to evaluate the achievements of this first wave...
Article
Previous research shows that success in touch-typing training does not ensure its continuation into everyday use. It is postulated that an important contributor to this problem is melioration--that is, maximizing local rates of reinforcement. In the context of typing, melioration implies an intuitive tendency to choose typing strategies that lead t...
Chapter
Attention is the scientific term primarily used to describe all processes and mechanisms that govern the subjective constraints imposed by the human organism on the flow and interpretation of external and internal information, and on the organization and selection of responses, in the service of goal-directed behavior. In some cases, attention can...
Article
We report on our observations in the operating room, where we examined the work activity in hopes of understanding why human errors can occur even with simple tasks (e.g., loading a syringe with the wrong solution). We employed a human factors analysis guided by our understanding of human cognition (memory, attention, action planning, etc.) with th...
Article
We investigated variations in continuous and discrete flight demands in a simulated flight mission employing a novel physiological measure of invested effort, Peripheral Arterial Tone (PAT). Twelve male subjects performed a computer-simulated agricultural flight task. They were required to fly over a specific lane of a field (continuous task) and c...
Article
There is a general consensus that melatonin possesses time-dependent hypnotic effects, but there is no information yet whether it has residual effects on neurobehavioral performance, especially after daytime administration. In the present study we investigated the possible residual effects of 3 mg melatonin on performance relevant to flight and on...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments are presented that examine the efficiency of training methods that force trainees to explore the possible strategy space. Both experiments used a 2-dimensional search task. Experiment 1 studies a method that enforces exploration by preventing repetitions within short sequences. It shows that the effect of this "enhanced exploration"...
Article
Two experiments are presented that examine the efficiency of training methods that force trainees to explore the possible strategy space. Both experiments used a 2-dimensional search task. Experiment 1 studies a method that enforces exploration by preventing repetitions within short sequences. It shows that the effect of this "enhanced exploration"...
Conference Paper
We describe a new approach to the study of simulator fidelity and training efficiency. It is based on comparing learning curves of novice trainees and domain experts in a simulator. The major claim is that if a simulator represents a relevant environment for the training of the operational task, domain experts performance should show a major advant...
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments assessed the relative efficiency of graphic and tabular displays for detecting changes in periodic sine functions, simulating a dynamic process. In all three experiments, line graphs had an advantage over tables for response times, for correct detections and identifications, and for false alarms. However, this advantage depended o...
Article
The determinants and costs of control were studied in 6 experiments examining the performance costs of changing stimulus dimension (digit value/number of elements) or attention strategies (speed/accuracy) on the first trial after task transition. Costs were compared for task shift and reconsideration only. Preparation ability was studied by present...
Conference Paper
The relative efficiency of graphic and tabular displays for detecting changes in the amplitude of periodic sine functions, simulating a dynamic process, was assessed. Line graphs had an advantage over tables for the detection of changes and for the correct identification of the changed function. However, the advantage depended on the type of change...
Article
Perceptual decisions are often made in complex social settings in which distinct observers can affect each other. To address such situations, I. Erev, D. Gopher, R. Itkin, and Y. Greenshpan (1995) proposed a formal extension of signal-detection theory and a descriptive modification of the extended theory. The current article presents 2 experiments...
Article
Users and system designers often prefer to display information with graphs rather than with tables. However, empirical studies that compared task performance with the two display types frequently revealed either an advantage of tables over graphs or no differences between the displays. This apparent contradiction may result from previous studies in...
Article
A number of models of cognitive aging suggest that older adults exhibit disproportionate performance decrements on tasks which require executive control processes. In a series of three studies we examined age-related differences in executive control processes and more specifically in the executive control processes which underlie performance in the...
Article
This book is based on lectures and discussions presented at the 17th meeting of the International Association for the Study of Attention and Performance. The focus is on the interaction between theory and application in the cognitive regulation of performance. In this area, contemporary theories of cognitive processes meet the everyday challenges p...
Article
The present chapter demonstrates the feasibility and importance of explicit quantitative abstraction of the interaction between cognitive and economic determinants of human performance. To facilitate the abstraction of this complex interaction, we proposed a cognitive game-theoretic approach. According to this approach, a descriptive model of the c...
Article
Theories of cognitive control have proposed a dissociation between automatic or procedural processes that carry out well learned tasks and executive processes that control novel behaviors and coordinate multiple processes and tasks. In the present study we examined age-related differences in an executive control process(es), the ability to rapidly...
Article
An experiment assessed the relative efficiency of tables and graphs for the discrimination between two system states, indicated by different frequencies of sine functions, in a simulated process. Graphic displays allowed significantly better discrimination than tables. The interval between the feed back for one trial and the beginning of the next t...
Article
Pilots using a single-eye helmet-mounted display (HMD) for night vision have orientation problems that are strongly affected by head movement. However, it is precisely this behavior that is called upon to expand the limited field of view. The reported experiment trained pilots to use head movement in visual scanning. Participants piloted a simulate...
Article
Pilots using a single-eye helmet-mounted display (HMD) for night vision have orientation problems that are strongly affected by head movement. However, it is precisely this behavior that is called upon to expand the limited field of view. The reported experiment trained pilots to use head movement in visual scanning. Participants piloted a simulate...
Article
Full-text available
Many of the practical implications of behavioral decision-making research are based on the assumption that behavioral trends have to be compared with normative prescriptions. The present article demonstrates that in certain settings this approach is inapplicable because there is no "normative' prescription and unnecessary because robust quantitativ...
Article
This contribution reviews three lines of studies set to investigate attention control and executive operations, in the general context of the interplay between bottom-up and top-down processes in the conduct of proficient behavior. One line of studies focused on the act of switching attention between tasks and the mental costs associated with it. A...
Article
Top down processes guided by attention and intention, have been recognized to be important determinants, and necessary complements in the formulation and guidance of skilled performance. The present paper summarizes the results of four experiments conducted to investigate the control operations and the cost involved in switching attention between t...
Article
The issue of optimal display design was re-examined under the hypothesis that the nature of the data set would influence the efficacy of displays. An experiment assessed the effect of data structure on the relative efficacy of line graphs and tables. Participants saw a sequence of graphic or tabular displays which presented data from functions. The...
Article
Game theoretical analysis is used to extend the predictions of classical signal detection theory to situations in which the detection task is performed by two observers. The implications of the suggested generalization are demonstrated and examined in the context of a two-person safety game. In a controlled experiment, 28 dyads performed a letter c...
Article
Previous studies suggested that information indicating which eye received monocular stimulation is not available to consciousness. However, lack of awareness of eye-of-origin does not necessarily preclude subjects' ability to bias the processing of information presented to an eye. In the present experiment, subjects performed a target detection tas...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature and causes of human errors in the intensive care unit (ICU), adopting approaches proposed by human factors engineering. The basic assumption was that errors occur and follow a pattern that can be uncovered. Concurrent incident study. Medical-surgical ICU of a university hospital. Two types of...
Article
Full-text available
The recent wave of interest in rhythms in human behavior is erroneously attributed to the recent developments in the study of biological rhythms. In a recent historical review of the field of behavioral rhythmic research lavie(1980) uncovered several independent roots of research unrelated to questions regarding the nature and functions of biologic...
Article
Helmet Mounted flight Displays (HMDs) of a through-the-window field-of-view (FOV) are widely used in modern aircraft for night vision. Unfortunately, pilots using such displays are susceptible to spatial disorientation due to the limited field-of-view and its consequent lack of orientation cues. This problem is especially pronounced when pilots mov...