Daniel Engels

Daniel Engels
Southern Methodist University | SMU · Department of Computer Science and Engineering

PhD

About

108
Publications
53,316
Reads
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6,211
Citations
Citations since 2016
1 Research Item
1130 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200

Publications

Publications (108)
Article
In this paper we present the design and analysis of an energy-efficient 163-bit Elliptic Curve Cryptographic (ECC) processor suitable for passive Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags that are usable for banknote authentication and anti-counterfeiting. Even partial public key cryptographic functionality has long been...
Article
Full-text available
Internet of Things (IoT) technologies have a great potential to improve the safety and quality of agricultural products. By providing near continuous monitoring from planting through harvesting and to our homes, IoT technologies are able to provide farm to fork visibility with all of the resulting benefits that accrue from that visibility. Unique...
Article
We present a dynamic key generation method, KeyQ, for establishing shared secret keys in EPCglobal Generation 2 (Gen2) compliant systems. Widespread adoption of Gen2 technologies has increased the need for protecting communications in these systems. The highly constrained resources on Gen2 tags limit the usability of traditional key distribution te...
Patent
An efficient implementation of a cryptographic processor that dynamically updates the encryption state is described. The cryptographic processor can be implemented with a minimal number of gates, yet still perform cryptographic operations quickly. The cryptographic processor has an interface, a memory, a pseudorandom permutation block and control l...
Patent
An encryption and authentication technique that achieves enhanced integrity verification through assured error-propagation using a multistage sequence of pseudorandom permutations. The method generates intermediate data-dependent cryptographic variables at each stage, which are systematically combined into feedback loops. The encryption technique a...
Conference Paper
Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems compliant to the EPCglobal Generation 2 (Gen2) passive UHF RFID protocol are being deployed in a broad range of applications including access control, automated tolling, personal identification, anti-counterfeiting, and supply chain management. With the broad applications and the demand for ever increas...
Conference Paper
The large operation range of passive RFID systems and the ubiquitous deployment of passive tags introduce growing security and privacy threats such as tag skimming/tracking/cloning, in which eavesdropping the communication between the legitimate reader and the victim tag to obtain raw data is a basic tool for the adversary. However, given the funda...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID) smart shelf that accurately locates tagged objects using standard passive UHF RFID tags. This standard-based commercial off-the-shelf approach provides significant advantages over custom HF RFID and other near-field RFID approaches, including reduced tag costs, minimal infrastr...
Article
In this paper we propose a novel privacy-preserving mutual authentication protocol for RFID systems using the recently proposed ultra-lightweight cryptographic algorithm Hummingbird-2. The new protocol is resistant to the most common attacks against the security and privacy of RFID systems. Furthermore, we also address efficient implementation of t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hummingbird-2 is an encryption algorithm with a 128-bit secret key and a 64-bit initialization vector. Hummingbird-2 optionally produces an authentication tag for each message processed. Like it's predecessor Hummingbird-1, Hummingbird-2 has been targeted for low-end microcontrollers and for hardware implementation in lightweight devices such as RF...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present causes of variation in performance for passive UHF RFID tags with empirical results in two different environments: practical conditions and an anechoic chamber. We study the critical causes of RSSI ambiguity, such as a posture of tag, and variations among uniform tags. Moreover, in passive UHF RFID systems, Tag-to-Tag inte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ISO 18000-6C protocol (GEN2 protocol) transmits EPC bits to the Reader in the Inventory to reveal its identity, but this data can be sniffed by any malicious readers nearby very easily. Also the GEN2 protocol does not have any technique to authenticate the Reader before it gives the access to the Tag's memory. In this paper, we present a Secure...
Article
We propose two approaches to cloak RFID tags using a light-weight symmetric key algorithm called Hummingbird (HB), a state-full, rotor-based system. Deployment of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) at the individual item level has stalled, partially due to concerns over privacy. To realize the full potential of both increased efficiency in the s...
Article
From the “Smart Grid” to smart buildings, the ZigBee communication standard for wireless personal area networks (WPAN) is being adopted by applications that deal with highly sensitive data. Because all traffic in these networks is broadcast, issues like eavesdropping and injection are serious concerns to security and privacy. ZigBee specifies the n...
Conference Paper
Small ad-hoc wireless networks are becoming ubiquitous. Wireless protocols like ZigBee, ANT, and Bluetooth have been targeted towards small devices with limited capabilities. As the volume and sensitivity of data being communicated over these networks increases so does the need for security. The limited capabilities of these devices, however, means...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present the performance evaluation of a passive UHF RFID Blocking Reader when worn on a human body. A Blocking Reader(BR) is a privacy protection device whose primary purpose is to legally prevent other readers from reading passive UHF RFID tags in its vicinity. When worn on your body, a Blocking Reader creates a Privacy Zone that...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present the Blocking Reader, a low-cost privacy protection device that prevents unauthorized reading of RFID tags. The promiscuous nature of the 18000-6C RFID tags poses a threat to personal security and privacy. Privately owned tags on a person can be read by all nearby readers without that person's consent or knowledge, thereby,...
Article
The eight articles in this special section describe state-of-the-art technologies and tools and one application of RFID.
Article
Full-text available
It is my great pleasure and honor to welcome you to the 2010 IEEE International Conference on RFID (IEEE RFID 2010), the fourth annual IEEE RFID conference. IEEE RFID yearly attracts researchers, scientists, engineers, and users who are eager to understand the latest developments in RFID technologies and their related disciplines. Mirroring the div...
Article
In this paper, the effect of curvature on the passive UHF RFID tag is studied. Maxwell's equations are used to depict the typical curved passive tag and are used to study the theoretical limitations of a tag operating under curvatures at its normal axes. This theoretical framework is then used to analyze the typical tag for various curvatures. Here...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Due to the tight cost and constrained resources of high- volume consumer devices such as RFID tags, smart cards and wireless sensor nodes, it is desirable to employ lightweight and specialized cryp- tographic primitives for many security applications. Motivated by the design of the well-known Enigma machine, we present a novel ultra- lightweight cr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The radiofrequency identification (RFID) technology provides an extensible, flexible and secure measure against product counterfeiting. However, due to the harsh cost and power constraints of RFID tags only dedicated cryptographic engines or low-power consumption microcontrollers can be integrated into tags to implement various security mechanisms....
Conference Paper
In this paper, the passive UHF RFID tag is characterized on a metal slab for varying distances. The bent dipole tag designed by UPM Raflatac Corporation and the Squiggle tag designed by Alien Corporation is tested for electromagnetic strength of the reply signal. These tags are also simulated in FEKO 5.3 designed by EMSS to depict their performance...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present a novel application of NRM's in passive UHF radio frequency identification (RFID) tag inlay (substrate). The passive RFID tag is typically manufactured to consist of an antenna and an asynchronous integrated circuit (ASIC) chip, as well as connection pads on a PET substrate. Here, we propose an implementation as depicted,...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present an analytical view of the maximum far-field tag gain of a typical commercially available passive UHF RFID tag design operating at 915 MHz, which is the center frequency of the Industrial, Science, and Medical (ISM) band. The far field gain is calculated using FEKO 5.3 designed by EMSS, which is a computational electromagne...
Conference Paper
Recently, automated identification techniques that utilize radio frequency (RF) systems have experienced growth both in the industry and in research worldwide. The current state-of-art of this identification realm is the radio frequency identification (RFID) system, which utilizes a transponder with a unique identifier. RFID systems can be classifi...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we develop techniques to extract information from communication collisions involving passive UHF RFID tags. Our goal is to extract information that can enhance the performance of existing anti-collision protocols. Present RFID anti-collision protocols detect a collision at the medium access control (MAC) layer; however, the physical...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present an evaluation of the impact of several protocol parameters of the ISO 18000-6 Type-C protocol, also known as EPC Class-1 Generation-2 RFID protocol, on the performance of the RFID system. Specifically, we evaluate Tari, operating frequency, pulse width, and modulation index protocol parameters while utilizing a constant tr...
Conference Paper
An analysis of surface currents and charges, as well as wire current variations in passive UHF RFID tags are presented to illuminate differences in tag antenna designs. Surface and wire current or charge distributions are known to be important parameters in distinguishing the radiation pattern of passive tags in the far field, and has been shown re...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we describe the specific absorption rates for RF propagation in muscle tissues and present an evaluative study for radiation reflected by a passive UHF radio frequency identification (RFID) tag. A derivation of UHF RFID tag backscatter theory is presented. This theory is merged with the biological effects of RF propagation in muscle...
Article
Full-text available
The eight articles in this special section describe state-of-the-art technologies and tools and one application of RFID.
Article
In this paper, we study the impact of human presence on the read zones of passive UHF RFID systems using the finite-element method (FEM) with a full length model of a homogeneous human body, consisting of 8 mm tetrahedrals and a total of 334,733 tetrahedrals. The study presented analyses UHF RFID systems operating in the FCC allowed band of 902 MHz...
Conference Paper
Since gathering spatial information of objects often provides a large number of extended functions in RFID based applications, many different localization systems have been developed in recent years. Determining and estimating the physical location of tagged objects in an interrogating area is known as localization. In this paper, we study properti...
Article
Full-text available
Motivated by the design of the well-known Enigma machine, we present a novel ultra-lightweight encryption scheme, referred to as Hummingbird, and its applications to a privacy-preserving identification and mutual authentication protocol for RFID applications. Hummingbird can provide the designed security with a small block size and is therefore ex-...
Article
In this paper, we use a human head and shoulder model to extend the analysis of SAR in the human head due to radiation caused by UHF RFID readers. We use an FEM human head and shoulder model with a voxel size of 8 mm for the tetrahedral and 25 distinct tissues to analyse the peak one-voxel SAR, spatial-peak 1 g cube of tissue SAR, spatial-peak 10 g...
Conference Paper
In this paper, the utility of flare structures in metal pipes are introduced as a mechanism to increase the performance of passive UHF RFID tags operating within these metallic structures. These performance enhancements are noted to exist predominantly in the tag gain, which is a fundamental factor determining RFID tag readability. Theory is presen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present a novel real-time localization system (RTLS) based upon 2.45 GHZ surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. The system utilizes a novel localization method that combines the angular rotation of the RFID readerspsila antenna or read beam with the inherent time-of-flight (TOF) distance measure...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present an experimental study on the SAR of the human head in an environment with a typical RFID reader system. The results predict that 2 RFID reader antennas at distances of 10 cm from the human head operating additively, will contribute to a SAR in the human head of up to a maximum of 2.02763 W/kg, which is above the limit for...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
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Conference Paper
In this paper, we investigate and compare the use of passive HF and UHF RFID systems for the item level identification of pharmaceutical products throughout their supply chains. We compare the overall identification performances of both types of RFID systems on individual products and on totes filled with tagged products. Scenarios representative o...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present the Dynamic Bin Slotted memoryless anti-collision algorithm (DBS) and the Robust Dynamic Bin Slotted memoryless anti-collision algorithm (RDBS) (which is a countermeasure to the strong and weak tag problems). They are based upon a bin slot tree algorithm. Both algorithms combine deterministic and probabilistic approaches t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we extend the theory of radio frequency (RF) propagation within helical and toroidal metal pipes. This work is motivated by the need to understand the operation of UHF radio frequency identification (RFID) systems when the tags are placed within toroidal metal pipes. The field components inside a helical metal pipe are derived to obta...
Chapter
Full-text available
More than half a century after its inception, radiofrequency identification (RFID) technologies are finally living up to their long promised capabilities. They are being rewarded with pervasive deployments in closed loop applications and the initial deployments in the even more pervasive open loop supply chain management applications. By providing...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present an analytical analysis and study of the propagation of radio frequency (RF) energy in muscle tissue. The workings of passive UHF RFID tag backscatter are studied. Backscatter field strength propagation models are used to describe the skin effect on muscle tissues. Energy dissipation and field intensities are studied for hu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we identify the most significant problems involving the impacts of radio frequency (RF) radiation on the human body. The coming pervasive healthcare environment will rely heavily upon wirelessly communicating devices to provide the information visibility and communication capabilities required to achieve these ambitious systems. The...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Existing routing protocols for wireless ad hoc networks assume a homogeneous network with either omnidirectional antennas or smart (beamforming) antennas. However it is possible to have a heterogeneous network with each node either using an omnidirectional antenna or a smart antenna. We investigate the routing and MAC layer issues that arise in suc...
Conference Paper
We have implemented an active radio frequency identification (RFID) asset management system at a 120 bed acute-care hospital. The RFID system is used to track more than 2500 items within the hospital including infusion pumps, beds, and wheelchairs. The goal of this RFID project is to understand the limitations and benefits of the deployed RFID tech...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a novel Real-Time Localisation System (RTLS) based upon 2.45 GHz Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems. The system utilises a novel localisation method that combines the angular rotation of the RFID reader's antenna system with the inherent Time-of-Flight (TOF) distance measurement capabilitie...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the environmental effects and performance analysis of 2.45 GHz Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) based RFID systems. Piezoelectric materials and their underlying principles are reviewed to describe the nature of SAWs. A performance analysis is conducted to measure the readability and read range for individual tags, compared to multip...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we collect and extend the theory of Radio Frequency (RF) propagation within rectangular metal pipes. This work is motivated by the need to understand the operation of UHF Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems when the tags are placed within rectangular metal pipes. The field components inside a rectangular metal pipe are deri...
Article
Emerging use of passive Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems requires application-specific tag antennas for challenging materials. The operability of folded microstrip patch-type tag antenna affixed to objects containing conductive and liquid-based materials is analysed and tested in the UHF RFID bands within 865...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we extend the theory of Radio Frequency (RF) propagation as it relates to propagation within metal circular pipes. This work is motivated by a need to understand the operation of UHF Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) systems when the tags are placed within the pipes. These circular pipes are shown to be similar to metal tube waveg...
Article
Full-text available
The emerging use of passive radio frequency identification (RFID) systems at ultra-high-frequency (UHF) spectrum requires application specific tag antenna designs for challenging applications. Many objects containing conductive material need novel tag antenna designs for reliable identification. The operability of folded microstrip patch-type tag a...
Article
This chapter discusses a comparison of the performances of two different passive tag antenna designs attached to cigarette cartons. The aluminium foil in the cigarette packs makes the identification of cigarette cartons difficult using passive radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. Therefore, a novel microstrip patch-type tag antenna for...
Conference Paper
Transport control protocol (TCP) is the most widely used transport protocol in the Internet. However, there are several performance issues related to TCP when used in wireless ad hoc networks. We compare the performance of TCP flows with directional and omni-directional antennas. We find that directional antennas improve TCP throughput up to 115% a...
Conference Paper
We propose a viral address assignment scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. In this scheme, a node has multiple addresses and each address of the node corresponds to a logical location of the node in the network. Further, addresses are allocated in a contagious fashion to mimic a viral growth. We study some of the issues in such a scheme
Conference Paper
We present a load-sensitive routing (LSR) protocol for static wireless ad hoc networks using directional antennas. This protocol uses the aggregate queue size of all nodes in a path as the load metric for choosing routes. We compare the performance of the load metric with the commonly used hop count metric using directional antennas under different...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the novel three-dimensional Albano tag antenna which not only radiates omnidirectionally, but performs extremely well in the presence of conductive materials both in static and dynamic environments. Off the three tested tags, only the Albano tag radiated with 100% efficiency in every direction in the dynamic environment, satisfy...
Conference Paper
In this paper we present and analyze the Albano-patch antenna, a folded microstrip patch-type tag antenna mounted on a box corner. The radiation properties of the antenna design are analyzed with finite element method (FEM) simulations and the tag's performance is evaluated with read range measurements
Conference Paper
We present an IPv6-based identification scheme that is designed to uniquely identify physical objects, including network interfaces. An IPv6 identifier, in addition to providing a permanent object identifier, serves as a "pointer" to the addresses of networked proxies and services related to that object. Our IPv6 identification scheme proposes the...
Article
Full-text available
A method is reported to accurately and precisely control temperature of a solution sample to investigate non-thermal effects of radio frequency radiation (RFR) on pharmaceuticals. This method utilizes a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell connected in series with a radiation source. The temperature of a sample under study, within the TEM cell, is...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The concept of a "Networked Physical World" originated from the Auto-ID Center, now called the Auto-ID Labs. Such a system can be realized with a combination of automatic identification technology and a ubiquitous computer network that will glue the physical world together. The ability to form a ubiquitous network of physical objects has a wide ran...
Article
Existing two-dimensional RFID tag antennas are orientation limited and material sensitive. This paper presents the novel designs of two three-dimensional tag antennas, the Albano-Dipole antenna and the Albano-Patch antenna and evaluates their performances in static and dynamic environments, examining specifically orientation and material sensitivit...
Conference Paper
HiQ is a hierarchical, online learning algorithm that finds dynamic solutions to the reader collision problem in RFID systems. When the transmissions from one reader interfere with the operation of another reader, a reader collision occurs. The objective of the reader collision problem is to minimize the reader collisions experienced by RFID reader...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the availability of cheap computing technology and the standardization of different wireless communication paradigms, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are becoming a reality. This is visible in the increasing amount of research being done in the WSN area, and the growing number of companies offering commercial WSN solutions. In this regard, we...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We have used a novel folded microstrip patch-type tag antenna in RFID of cigarette cartons, which contain highly conductive aluminium foil. Identification of multiple cartons and the effect of conductive material are studied with read range measurements and the results are compared and analyzed. The folded microstrip patch-type tag antenna is shown...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a novel folded microstrip patch antenna for passive RFID of objects containing metallic foils. The designed antenna can be integrated on or inside the package, and in the case of cigarette cartons approximately 1.0 m read range is achieved when the cigarettes are completely wrapped with aluminium foil. If the foils are removed o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The drill strings used in oil drilling have a limited life in that a section may be used 400 times or until the diameter reduces 20 mm from wear against the surrounding rock. RFID labelling the pieces of the drill string allows the recording of usage and location data at a particular depth of the drill head, aiding in the planning of a rotation sch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Low cost radio frequency identification (RFID) systems are increasingly being deployed in industry and commerce. These contactless devices have raised public concern regarding violation of privacy and information security. There is a growing need in the RFID community to discover and develop techniques and methods to overcome several problems posed...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of a "Networked Physical World" originated from the Auto-ID Center, now called the Auto-ID Labs. Such a system can be realized with a combination of automatic identification technology and a ubiquitous computer network that will glue the physical world together. The ability to form a ubiquitous item identification network has a wide ran...