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Connecting the selective forces that drive the evolution of phenotypes to their underlying genotypes is key to understanding adaptation, but such connections are rarely tested experimentally. Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus ) are a powerful model for such tests because genotypes that underlie putatively adaptive traits have been iden...
The evolutionary consequences of temporal variation in selection remain hotly debated. We explored these consequences by studying threespine stickleback in a set of bar-built estuaries along the central California coast. In most years, heavy rains induce water flow strong enough to break through isolating sand bars, connecting streams to the ocean....
Interspecific variation in elemental composition is well known and often leads to predictable differences in ecosystem interactions, but little is known about the extent, causes and importance of intraspecific variation in elemental composition. If intraspecific variation is substantial and has a genetic basis, it may underlie an important mechanis...
Phenotypes can both evolve in response to, and affect, ecosystem change, but few examples of diverging ecosystem-effect traits have been investigated. Bony armor traits of fish are good candidates for this because they evolve rapidly in some freshwater fish populations, and bone is phosphorus rich and likely to affect nutrient recycling in aquatic...