Daniel W Cox

Daniel W Cox
University of British Columbia - Vancouver | UBC · Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, and Special Education

PhD

About

64
Publications
31,794
Reads
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494
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2009 - June 2012
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Position
  • Research Psychologist & Postdoctoral Fellow

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
Full-text available
The subjective experience of a sense of meaning in life is an important aspect of psychological well-being. Developmental experiences that contribute to attachment security or insecurity may shape individual differences in the capacity for meaning in life. Such relations may also be influenced by difficulties in emotional processing, such as alexit...
Article
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Meaning in life is an important aspect of wellbeing for young adults transitioning into new roles. While research suggests young adults’ quality of family environments is associated with meaning, few studies have examined mechanisms that explain how early parental support may facilitate young adults’ sense of meaning. Understanding factors that con...
Article
Full-text available
Pathological narcissism is associated with problematic interpersonal behaviours. Because of the high need for external validation in pathological narcissism, the experience of loneliness may exacerbate the relationship between pathological narcissism and interpersonal problems. Moreover, these interpersonal problems may contribute to psychological...
Article
Maladaptive schemas have been linked with increased posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Posttraumatic negative self-appraisals (i.e., posttraumatic shame and self-blame) have also been empirically supported as contributors to PTSD symptom severity following traumatic events. These associations are well known; however, the pathways betwee...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Crisis counselors’ active listening and collaborative problem-solving helping styles have been associated with outcomes for clients in suicidal crises. These associations have been based on static conceptualizations of helping (i.e., helping style for the entire session). Our aim was to further understand how the crisis counseling helpin...
Article
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We examined whether men’s distress disclosure would be indirectly associated with psychological distress through feeling understood by others and loneliness as serial or parallel mediators. We conducted path analyses ( N = 1827 adult men; mean 37.53 years, SD = 14.14) to test the mediators while controlling for race/ethnicity. Post-hoc multi-group...
Article
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Background: Loneliness, the painful affective state that reflects perceived deficits in social relationships, is a significant health issue requiring further understanding. Individual differences in awareness and disclosure of emotional concerns may contribute to loneliness, and may do so diversely according to gender and age. The present study exa...
Article
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Within-person studies of emotional disclosure have found evidence of a disclosure-discordance effect of depression, whereby the positive association between the intensity of one’s emotional experience and verbal disclosure of that experience weakens with increasing depression symptoms. Because these previous studies have exclusively been naturalist...
Article
Endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology is frequently associated with interference in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, there is little empirical basis for this association. Moreover, there is increasing attention on masculinity ideology being contextual in nature, which may have important implications for our...
Article
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Background: Somatosensory amplification involves perceptual sensitivity to and cognitive-affective interpretation of bodily sensations and external stimuli, contributing to heightened experiences of somatic symptoms. However, little is known about somatosensory amplification in relation to vulnerabilities such as attachment insecurity. Aims: The pr...
Article
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Narcissistic vulnerability has been proposed as a dispositional feature that confers susceptibility to depression from earlier maladaptive parent-child relations. Limited research has examined narcissistic vulnerability as a mediator between perceived parental responsiveness and depressive symptoms, particularly with consideration of interpersonal...
Article
The present study used thematic analysis to explore participants’ subjective experiences of two group approaches targeting emerging adults’ possible selves. Eighty-six emerging adults were randomly assigned to one of the interventions and responded to four open-ended questions following the completion of the group program. The themes that materiali...
Article
Perfectionistic concerns about the discrepancy between one's standards and performance are associated with several problematic interpersonal and emotional outcomes. The degree to which discrepancy as a form of perfectionism, as well as personal standards as a form of perfectionism, relate to one's willingness to talk about one's distress to others...
Article
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Background Theorized to stem from experiences of childhood emotional neglect, narcissistic vulnerability has been identified as contributing to expressions of psychiatric distress such as depressive and anxiety symptoms, particularly due to shame-proneness. Aims To investigate narcissistic vulnerability and shame as mediators between perceived chi...
Article
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Objective(s): Interpersonal problems are one of the most persistent difficulties facing those with personality disorders (PDs) and are linked with dysfunction across numerous social domains. Using an interpersonal model of PDs, we examined the indirect effects of Avoidant PD (AvPD) symptoms and social dysfunction through interpersonal problems, as...
Article
This study evaluated a positive body image program, Free To Be, for adolescent girls and boys. Participants were Canadian and primarily South Asian and were part of either the intervention ( n = 76) or comparison groups ( n = 43). Participants completed pretest and posttest questionnaires. The Group x Gender x Time interactions examining the study’...
Article
Men's tendency to conceal their distress has been linked with increased depressive symptoms. Although interpersonal connectedness has been associated with distress concealment and depression, it is unclear how connectedness mediates this association. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediating effects of feeling understood and lonelin...
Article
Background While there is some evidence that patients with elevated depression symptoms experience greater benefits from negative-affect expression, this amplifying effect has not been investigated within a psychotherapeutic context. This is particularly notable considering the substantial evidence linking affect expression with desired outcomes ac...
Article
Although there is ample evidence that endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology may negatively affect veteran men’s military to civilian transition, it remains unclear which specific facets of traditional masculinity are most likely to impede successful transition to civilian life. To better understand the association between traditional masc...
Article
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often experience deficits in social role functioning, which encompasses the ability to adhere to socially defined rules and norms of behaviour. Additionally, research suggests that coping styles influence the way individuals with BPD manage stress and that symptom presentation and functioning i...
Article
Aim: While childhood adversity is a known risk for depressive symptoms, little is known about the contributing role of individuation difficulties among young adults. The present study examined individuation difficulties and perceived social support-and their interaction-as moderators of the relationship between childhood adversity exposure and dep...
Article
The developmental model of perfectionism in the Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model (PSDM) posits that perfectionism may arise from insecure attachment (i.e., attachment anxiety and avoidance) and perceived defectiveness rooted in asynchronous or adverse parent-child relationships. To provide a test of the developmental portion of the PSDM, we...
Article
Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked with an increased tendency to experience self-conscious emotions (i.e., shame- and guilt-proneness). Further, interpersonal problems have been associated with ACEs and are implicated in the maintenance of shame and guilt-proneness. Objective: The aim of the present study was to bette...
Article
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The literature on emotion reactivity among people with major depressive disorder (MDD) indicates that people with MDD show diminished reactivity to negative events as compared to non-depressed controls. This diminished reactivity may only be at the highest levels of depression symptoms, suggesting a nonlinear association between depression symptoms...
Article
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A key challenge for people who struggle with major depressive disorder (MDD) is the prevention of recurrence, given that the risk of recurrence increases significantly with each episode. Recently, it has been suggested that low levels of self-compassion may be an enduring risk factor for depression recurrence; however, surprisingly little research...
Article
Background Absorption is a trait‐like dimension reflecting a tendency to immerse oneself in sensory and imaginative experiences. This characteristic has scarcely been investigated in group psychotherapy. The present study examined absorption in relation to clients′ experience of early group process, and as a moderator of group cohesion and improvem...
Article
Victims of childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) often experience lasting interpersonal impacts. CEM is commonly experienced as a betrayal of trust and can lead victims to generalize this mistrust to relationships in adulthood, including their romantic partners. The aim of the present study was to better understand the association between CEM and...
Article
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Across a breadth of psychotherapeutic approaches, feeling affect intensely and then talking about those feelings is a common means for increasing insight and other desired outcomes. While several naturalistic and laboratory studies have found that depression symptoms attenuate (i.e., weaken) the association between negative-affect intensity and neg...
Article
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Objective While stage of change has been shown to be a robust predictor of eating disorder treatment outcome, little attention has been paid to the role of confidence. This study sought to better understand the role of confidence and the possible interaction it may have with stage of change in promoting eating disorder symptom change. Method Parti...
Article
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Introduction: Social support’s association with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Veterans is well established. One explanation for this link is social causation – support inhibits PTSD. Inversely, within the social erosion model, PTSD erodes support. The aim of the present study was to examine if the social causation or social erosion model...
Article
Although the self-image distortions and sensitivities of pathological narcissism have been theorized to contribute to somatization, limited empirical research has been devoted to this issue. The present study was developed to test the hypothesis that pathological narcissism contributes to somatic symptoms through increased hypervigiliance to physic...
Article
When cognitively fused, people have difficulty accepting and clearly perceiving their internal experiences. Following trauma, emotional non-acceptance and emotional non-clarity have been associated with post-trauma functioning. The aim of the present study was to integrate theory and research on cognitive fusion and post-trauma functioning to evalu...
Article
Distress disclosure has been linked with reduced psychological distress, increased wellbeing, and successful psychotherapeutic outcome. Because of the importance of distress disclosure, researchers have worked to develop and improve theoretical models of disclosure to facilitate counseling practices that reduce impediments to disclosure. Presently,...
Article
Emotion dysregulation has been associated with impaired interpersonal functioning and increased risk of posttraumatic psychopathology. Given that social support is a robust predictor of psychiatric morbidity following trauma exposure, we examined whether emotion dysregulation was associated with posttraumatic psychopathology through its negative ef...
Technical Report
It is important to understand “Veteran identity” and to understand how and why identity issues are implicated in the work done by Veterans Affairs Canada (VAC) and other public and private agencies that support the well-being of Veterans and their families. Although there is a rich, complex research literature on identities and its connection to we...
Article
The benefits of talking with others about unpleasant emotions have been thoroughly investigated, but individual differences in distress disclosure tendencies have not been adequately integrated within theoretical models of emotion. The purpose of this laboratory research was to determine whether distress disclosure tendencies stem from differences...
Article
One of the most potent protective factors against psychiatric symptoms after military trauma is perceived social support. Although group psychotherapy has been linked with increasing social support, no research has evaluated which therapeutic mechanisms are associated with this increase beyond symptom reduction. We investigated which interpersonal...
Article
Veteran men have high rates of adherence to traditional masculinity ideology, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and romantic relationship dissatisfaction. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating how these constructs relate to one another in veteran men. We examined the relation between masculinity ideology and relationship...
Article
This study examined vocational identity as a mediator of the relationship between occupational engagement (i.e., participation in a breadth of activities and interactions) and academic major satisfaction. Furthermore, the authors evaluated whether satisfaction with academic major related to academic success (i.e., grade point average). The mediatio...
Article
Objectives: This study examined parental reactions to adolescents' suicide attempts and the association of reactions with future suicidal self-directed violence. Methods: Participants were 81 mothers and 49 fathers of 85 psychiatric inpatient adolescents. Results: Maternal hostility and paternal anger and arguing predicted future suicide attem...
Article
Full-text available
While research evidence has consistently demonstrated the link between social relationships and psychological distress, there is debate over the strength of perceived emotional support compared with perceived negative interaction on psychological distress and whether the relation between social relationships and psychological distress is direct or...
Article
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The Occupational Engagement Scale-Student (OES-S)a 9-item measure of occupational engagement in college studentswas developed and initial validity evidence is presented. Using two samples of college students, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the measure's unidimensionality. Criterion validity was supported via the OES-S predic...
Chapter
The Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Scale (MOS-SS) is a self-report measure of perceived social support. It was originally developed to assess perceived social support in a longitudinal study of patients’ medical outcomes. Recently, the MOS-SS was adopted by population health researchers. The purpose of population health research is to examin...
Chapter
The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; Cox et al. Br J Psychiatr 150:782–786, 1987) is used internationally for the detection of postpartum depression in women. We reviewed the validity evidence of the EPDS and examined the extent to which the reported evidence is in line with the modern view of validity. Of the 57 articles included, 30 (5...
Article
Abstract Military-related trauma and veteran status have been linked with posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and other personal and interpersonal difficulties. While many treatment evaluations for people with posttraumatic stress exist, few veteran populations or group formats have been evaluated. This report presents an evaluation...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate gender differences—in a representative sample of adult Canadians—in 12-month mental health consultation among (a) the general population (n = 86,043), (b) those with major depressive disorder (n = 1,673), and (c) those with suicide ideation (n = 228). Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (C...
Chapter
Major depression is the most common psychiatric disorder among Canadian Forces members and is exacerbated by reduced social support. Social support being an important protective factor indicates interpersonally focused mental health programs as potentially helpful for reducing psychiatric distress. This chapter examines the impact of the Veterans T...
Article
To date, no empirically based inpatient intervention for individuals who have attempted suicide exists. We present an overview of a novel psychotherapeutic approach, Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT), currently under development and empirical testing for inpatients who have been admitted for a recent suicide attempt. PACT is adapted from an e...
Article
People with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are at elevated risk for suicide. Postinjury cognitive limitations, personality factors, and psychological problems may independently or in conjunction with preinjury correlates contribute to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Rehabilitation practitioners can best serve the needs of this high-risk populatio...
Article
Over the last decade, suicide rates in the U.S. military have steadily increased, resulting in a call for suicide-related research with military populations. The present project aimed to describe and evaluate the communications (i.e., verbally and in suicide notes) of 13 suicide risk factors in the suicide death investigation files of 98 active dut...
Article
Full-text available
Suicide is a leading cause of death among men and women in the United States Military. Using a retrospective chart review design, the current study investigated gender differences on documented traumas for people admitted to a military inpatient psychiatric unit for suicide-related thoughts or behaviors (N = 656). Men more often had no documented l...
Article
Psychologists and other behavioral health professionals working in civilian, military, or Veterans Affairs settings are expected to provide optimal assessment and treatment services to military women and veterans (MWVs). Yet many providers have minimal knowledge and training on the unique psychological stressors and associated mental health issues...

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