Daniel M Bernstein

Daniel M Bernstein
Kwantlen Polytechnic University · Psychology

PhD

About

113
Publications
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2,549
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Publications

Publications (113)
Article
Full-text available
When semantically-related photos appear with true-or-false trivia claims, people more often rate the claims as true compared to when photos are absent-truthiness. This occurs even when the photos lack information useful for assessing veracity. We tested whether truthiness changed in magnitude as a function of participants' age in a diverse sample u...
Article
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Some research suggests people are overconfident because of personality characteristics, lack of insight, or because overconfidence is beneficial in its own right. But other research fits with the possibility that fluent experience in the moment can rapidly drive overconfidence. For example, fluency can push people to become overconfident in their a...
Article
People who learn the outcome to a situation or problem tend to overestimate what was known in the past-this is hindsight bias. Whereas previous research has revealed robust hindsight bias in the visual domain, little is known about how outcome information affects our memory of others' emotional expressions. The goal of the current work was to test...
Article
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The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm has been used extensively to examine false memory. During the study session, participants learn lists of semantically related items (e.g., pillow, blanket, tired, bed), referred to as targets. Critical lures are items which are also associated with the lists but are intentionally omitted from study (e.g.,...
Article
Participants ranging in age from 3 to 98 years (N = 708; approximately 60% female; 49% Caucasian, 38% Asian; 12% Other ethnicities, 1% Indigenous; modal household income > $80,000) completed a battery of tasks involving verbal ability, executive function, and perspective-taking. Wherever possible, all participants completed the same version of a ta...
Article
Cross-examination is detrimental to the consistency and accuracy of children’s reports and a re-direct interview may rehabilitate accuracy. We compared the effects of cross-examination on reports provided by single-event and repeated-event children. Children participated in one or five magic shows. One week later they were interviewed in a supporti...
Article
The sunk-cost effect (SCE) is the tendency to continue investing in something that is not working out because of previous investments that cannot be recovered. In three experiments, we examine the SCE when continued investment violates the ethic of care by harming others. In Experiment 1, the SCE was smaller if the sunk-cost decision resulted in ha...
Article
Interrupting a sequence of episodic recognition decisions by a problem-solving task will change the hit and false alarm rate for the following item in a recognition test (Watkins & Peynircioglu, 1990). The mechanisms of this revelation effect have not yet been understood completely. We offer a new explanation based on the global matching model MINE...
Article
Non‐probative but related photos can increase the perceived truth value of statements relative to when no photo is presented (truthiness ). In 2 experiments, we tested whether truthiness generalizes to credibility judgements in a forensic context. Participants read short vignettes in which a witness viewed an offence. The vignettes were presented w...
Article
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Prospective memory (PM) involves remembering to execute future intentions. Pairs played a word game (Taboo) with an embedded PM task. In Taboo, one player (clue giver) must get their partner (clue guesser) to say aloud a target word (e.g., ROOF) by offering clues such as “home” without saying certain taboo words (e.g., fiddler, house). The PM task...
Article
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Various multiple-disciplinary terms and concepts (although most commonly “interdisciplinarity,” which is used herein) are used to frame education, scholarship, research, and interactions within and outside academia. In principle, the premise of interdisciplinarity may appear to have many strengths; yet, the extent to which interdisciplinarity is em...
Article
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Hindsight Bias (HB) is the tendency to see known information as obvious. We studied Metacognitive Hindsight Bias (MC-HB)—a shift away from one’s original confidence regarding answers provided before learning the actual facts. In two experiments, participants answered general-knowledge questions in social scenarios and provided their confidence in e...
Article
We investigated the tendency of children and adults to rely on the most intense and final moments when judging positive experiences, a heuristic known as the peak-end rule. This rule allows us to judge experiences quickly, but it can bias judgments. In three experiments involving various age groups (N = 988, ages 2–97), we attempted to replicate pr...
Article
The integrative memory model combines five core memory systems with an attributional system. We agree with Bastin et al. that this melding is the most novel aspect of the model. But we await further evidence that the model's substantial complexity informs our understanding of false memories or of the development of recollection and familiarity.
Article
We conducted three experiments to test the fluency-misattribution account of auditory hindsight bias. According to this account, prior exposure to a clearly presented auditory stimulus produces fluent (improved) processing of a distorted version of that stimulus, which results in participants mistakenly rating that item as easy to identify. In all...
Article
We conducted a systematic review of longitudinal theory of mind (ToM) studies, focusing on the precursors to and functional outcomes of ToM in typically-developing samples. Our search yielded 87 longitudinal studies, all of which involved children and adolescents. Early attention skills, executive function development, and the use of language are p...
Article
Full-text available
The term, false memory, describes outcomes to various procedures and techniques, such as coming to believe that suggested false events occurred, acceptance of post-event misinformation, and recognition of critical lures in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure. The literature to date indicates that these memory errors inter-correlate poorly,...
Article
Full-text available
False-belief reasoning, defined as the ability to reason about another person’s beliefs and appreciate that beliefs can differ from reality, is an important aspect of perspective taking. We tested 266 individuals, at various ages ranging from 3 to 92 years, on a continuous measure of false-belief reasoning (the Sandbox task). All age groups had dif...
Data
Description of variables in the dataset. (DOCX)
Article
In two studies, we examined young children’s performance on the paper-and-pencil version of the Sandbox task, a continuous measure of false belief, and its relations with other false belief and inhibition tasks. In Study 1, 96 children aged 3 to 7 years completed three false belief tasks (Sandbox, Unexpected Contents, and Appearance/Reality) and tw...
Article
Studies have demonstrated that perceptual fluency—the ease of perceiving stimuli—does not contribute to higher predictions of future memory performance (judgments of learning; JOLs) for words presented in a larger font (48 pt) than for words presented in a smaller font (18 pt). Here, we investigated whether stimulus size can affect JOLs through ano...
Article
Judgments can depend on the activity directly preceding them. An example is the revelation effect whereby participants are more likely to claim that a stimulus is familiar after a preceding task, such as solving an anagram, than without a preceding task. We test conflicting predictions of four revelation-effect hypotheses in a meta-analysis of 26 y...
Article
Full-text available
We report 4 experiments investigating auditory hindsight bias – the tendency to overestimate the intelligibility of distorted auditory stimuli after learning their identity. An associative priming manipulation was used to vary the amount of processing fluency independently of prior target knowledge. For hypothetical designs, in which hindsight judg...
Article
Tasks that precede a recognition probe induce a more liberal response criterion than do probes without tasks—the “revelation effect.” For example, participants are more likely to claim that a stimulus is familiar directly after solving an anagram, relative to a condition without an anagram. Revelation effect hypotheses disagree whether hard precedi...
Article
Hindsight bias is the tendency to overestimate the foreseeability of an outcome once it is known. This bias has implications for decisions made within the legal system, ranging from judgments made during investigations to those in court proceedings. Legal decision makers should only consider what was known at the time an investigation was conducted...
Article
Full-text available
Producing items (e.g., by saying them aloud or typing them) can improve recognition memory. To evaluate whether production increases item distinctiveness and/or memory strength we compared this effect as a function of the percentage of items that participants typed at encoding (i.e., 0%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 100%). Experiment 1 revealed a strength-ba...
Article
Egocentric bias is a core feature of autism. This phenomenon has been studied using the false belief task. However, typically developing children who pass categorical (pass or fail) false belief tasks may still show subtle egocentric bias. We examined 7- to 13-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 76) or typical development (n =...
Article
Full-text available
Outcome knowledge influences recall of earlier predictions of the event in question. Researchers have hypothesized that age-related declines in inhibitory control may underlie older adults' increased susceptibility to the two underlying bias processes that contribute to this hindsight bias (HB) phenomenon, recollection bias and reconstruction bias....
Article
Full-text available
Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind’. Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for cert...
Article
We examined 3- to 5-year-olds' understanding of general knowledge (e.g., knowing that clocks tell time) by investigating whether (1) they recognize that their own general knowledge has changed over time (i.e., they knew less as babies than they know now), and (2) such intraindividual knowledge differences are easier/harder to understand than interi...
Conference Paper
In everyday life, we are often required to take medication at a certain time or deliver an important message to a friend. When these intentions must be delayed until an appropriate time in the future, they are referred to as prospective memory (Einstein & McDaniel, 1990). In the current study, we explored whether forming an intention to carry out a...
Poster
Full-text available
We explored whether forming an intention to perform a future action (prospective memory, PM) increases susceptibility to later falsely believing that the intention was carried out. Participants played a charades-like game called “Taboo” with an embedded PM task that led them to form intentions to say certain words and not others. A day later, parti...
Chapter
Full-text available
The same event that appeared unpredictable in foresight can be judged as predictable in hindsight. Hindsight bias clouds judgments in all areas of life, including legal decisions, medical diagnoses, consumer satisfaction, sporting events, and election outcomes. We discuss three theoretical constructs related to hindsight bias: memory, reconstructio...
Article
Full-text available
When people rapidly judge the truth of claims presented with or without related but nonprobative photos, the photos tend to inflate the subjective truth of those claims-a "truthiness" effect (Newman et al., 2012). For example, people more often judged the claim "Macadamia nuts are in the same evolutionary family as peaches" to be true when the clai...
Article
Full-text available
We combined data across eight published experiments (N= 1369) to examine the formation and consequences of false autobiographical beliefs and memories. Our path models revealed that the formation of false autobiographical belief fully mediated the pathway between suggesting to people that they had experienced a positive or negative food-related eve...
Article
Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to take other people's perspective by inferring their mental state. Most 6-year olds pass the change-of-location false belief task that is commonly used to assess ToM. However, the change-of-location task is not suitable for individuals over 5 years of age, due to its discrete response options. In two experiments...
Article
Full-text available
After learning an event's outcome, people's recollection of their former prediction of that event typically shifts toward the actual outcome. Erdfelder and Buchner (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 387-414, 1998) developed a multinomial processing tree (MPT) model to identify the underlying processes contribu...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: After learning an event's outcome, people's recollection of their former prediction of that event shifts towards the actual outcome. This hindsight bias (HB) phenomenon tends to be stronger in older compared with younger adults; however, it is unclear whether age-related changes in other cognitive abilities me...
Article
Full-text available
When people make judgments about the truth of a claim, related but nonprobative information rapidly leads them to believe the claim-an effect called "truthiness" [1]. Would the pronounceability of others' names also influence the truthiness of claims attributed to them? We replicated previous work by asking subjects to evaluate people's names on a...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT� How can you tell if a particular memory,belonging to you or someone,else is true or false? Cognitive scientists use a variety of techniques to measure groups of memories, whereas police, lawyers, and other researchers use procedures to determine whether an individual can be believed or not. We discuss evidence from behavioral and neuroima...
Article
A novel task, using a continuous spatial layout, was created to investigate the degree to which (in centimeters) 3-year-old children's (N = 63), 5-year-old children's (N = 60), and adults' (N = 60) own privileged knowledge of the location of an object biased their representation of a protagonist's false belief about the object's location. At all ag...
Article
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Objectives: Age reductions in theory of mind (ToM) are well documented, though underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Research suggests that traditional cognitive abilities underlie ToM in part; however, whether age-associated health modifiers also predict ToM remains unknown. We investigated the role of pulse pressure (PP), an age-related m...
Article
Full-text available
Eyewitnesses often report details of the witnessed crime incorrectly. However, there is usually more than 1 eyewitness observing a crime scene. If this is the case, one approach to reconstruct the details of a crime more accurately is aggregating across individual reports. Although aggregation likely improves accuracy, the degree of improvement lar...
Article
Full-text available
When people evaluate claims, they often rely on what comedian Stephen Colbert calls "truthiness," or subjective feelings of truth. In four experiments, we examined the impact of nonprobative information on truthiness. In Experiments 1A and 1B, people saw familiar and unfamiliar celebrity names and, for each, quickly responded "true" or "false" to t...
Article
The revelation effect is a change in response behavior induced by a preceding problem-solving task. Previous studies have shown a revelation effect for faces when the problem-solving task includes attractiveness ratings of the faces. Immediately after this problem-solving task participants judged faces as more familiar than without the problem-solv...
Article
Full-text available
People who know the outcome of an event tend to overestimate their own prior knowledge or others' naïve knowledge of it. This hindsight bias pervades cognition, lending the world an unwarranted air of inevitability. In four experiments, we showed how knowing the identities of words causes people to overestimate others' naïve ability to identify mod...
Article
Full-text available
This study reports on a new false belief measure in a sample of 124 children and adolescents with or without high functioning autism (HFASD). In the classic paradigm, a participant predicts in which of two discrete locations a deceived protagonist will look for an object. In the current Sandbox task, the object is buried and reburied in a sandbox,...
Article
Full-text available
Theory of mind (ToM), or the ability to understand mental states, is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Previous research has documented marked advances in ToM in preschoolers, and declines in ToM in older-aged adults. In the present study, younger (n=37), middle-aged (n=20), and older (n=37) adults completed a continuous false belief task m...
Article
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This chapter presents a model of autobiographical belief formation.
Article
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A growing body of work shows how easy it is to manipulate memory for past events. In this chapter, we review recent research on false memories that can be planted about a non-existent past experience with a particular food or alcohol. These false memories have consequences for people; if the false memory is unpleasant, people avoid the food or drin...
Conference Paper
Background: The false belief task is widely used to determine Theory of Mind in autism. However, the task lacks sensitivity to false belief reasoning after childhood, especially in high functioning (normal IQ) individuals with autism (HFASD). Objectives: This study reports on a more sensitive false belief measure that allows for direct compar...
Article
Full-text available
Reports an error in "Hindsight bias from 3 to 95 years of age" by Daniel M. Bernstein, Edgar Erdfelder, Andrew N. Meltzoff, William Peria and Geoffrey R. Loftus (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2011[Mar], Vol 37[2], 378-391). On page 381, the notation in Figure 1 is incorrect. The corrected notations are discuss...
Article
Full-text available
Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along (hindsight bias). Here, we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the life span. One hundred ninety-four participants aged 3 to 95 years completed 3 tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age groups d...
Chapter
Consumer judgement and decision making is guided by phenomenological experiences (Whittlesea, 1997), also called ‘non- emotional feelings’ (Clore, 1992) associated with cognitions. These feelings, such as certainty, surprise, and confusion, are considered non- emotional because they are feelings associated with a state of knowledge (Clore, 1992), a...
Article
What is the effect on memory when seemingly innocuous photos accompany false reports of the news? We asked people to read news headlines of world events, some of which were false. Half the headlines appeared with photographs that were tangentially related to the event; others were presented without photographs. People saw each headline only once, a...
Article
Full-text available
In two experiments, involving 231 subjects, we planted the suggestion that subjects loved to eat asparagus as children. Relative to controls, subjects receiving the suggestion became more confident that they had loved asparagus the first time the tried it. These new (false) beliefs had consequences for those who formed them, including increased gen...
Article
We examined 240 children's (3.5-, 4.5-, and 5.5-year-olds) latency to respond to questions on a battery of false-belief tasks. Response latencies exhibited a significant cross-over interaction as a function of age and response type (correct vs. incorrect). 3.5-year-olds'incorrect latencies were faster than their correct latencies, whereas the oppos...
Article
Full-text available
In the present paper we suggest that people experience history from four perspec‑ tives: Participant, Witness, Contemporary and Successor. These perspectives differ in the proportion of experience, knowledge and personal meaning that is avail‑ able. We empirically demonstrated greater malleability of memories about terror‑ ist attacks that were exp...