Daniel Bar-Tal

Daniel Bar-Tal
Tel Aviv University | TAU · School of Education, Tel Aviv University

PhD

About

325
Publications
282,867
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
13,918
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1975 - November 2014
Tel Aviv University
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (325)
Article
Full-text available
Peacemaking is especially challenging in situations of intractable conflict. Collective narratives in this context contribute to coping with challenges societies face, but also fuel conflict continuation. We introduce the Informative Process Model (IPM), proposing that informing individuals about the socio-psychological processes through which conf...
Article
Full-text available
The Israeli‐Palestinian conflict has deleterious effects on children. Our research observed mothers' conversations with their 5‐7‐year‐old children about the conflict during shared book reading (SBR) of a fiction book, indirectly depicting the conflict. Using a mixed‐methods study, we compared the SBR of secular and religious Israeli Jewish mothers...
Book
Full-text available
Representations of Arabs in Israeli Jewish society.
Book
Full-text available
The role of trust in conflict resolution: The Israeli-Palestinian case and beyond
Book
Full-text available
Conflict and conflict resolution
Book
Full-text available
Self-censorship in contexts of conflict: Theory and research
Article
We propose that part of the problem in combatting prejudice lies in people's dynamic understandings of what prejudice is. To examine this, we asked participants to rate the degree to which they perceived specific group‐relevant attitudes as prejudice. In Study 1, White participants perceived the attitudes as more prejudiced when the attitudes were...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an analysis of the ethno‐political socialization of young children in the context of intractable conflict, drawing on the case of Israeli society. The analysis is based on the integrative developmental‐contextual theory (IDCT), which proposes that in the context of intractable conflict, from a very early age onward, in‐group mem...
Article
Full-text available
Members of societies involved in an intractable conflict usually consider costs that stem from the continuation of the conflict as unavoidable and even justify for their collective existence. This perception is well-anchored in widely shared conflict-supporting narratives that motivate them to avoid information that challenges their views about the...
Article
Full-text available
Although anti-immigrant attitudes continue to be expressed around the world, identifying these attitudes as prejudice, truth or free speech remains contested. This contestation occurs, in part, because of the absence of consensually agreed-upon understandings of what prejudice is. In this context, the current study sought to answer the question, “w...
Article
Full-text available
The present study compared participants’ evaluations of their own conflict with their evaluation of another conflict. These evaluations were examined through the prism of the ideological ethos of conflict (EOC), which was seen as the major contributing factor in the development of the biased perceptions, divergent understandings, and emotional resp...
Article
Full-text available
The chapter introduces a new approach to attitude change, termed paradoxical thinking. It suggests that messages that are consistent with an individual's view, but formulated in an amplified, exaggerated, or even absurd manner, lead to an extended process of deliberative thinking and arouse lower levels of resistance compared to conventional persua...
Article
Full-text available
In modern democratic societies, one of the main roles of education is to promote critical thinking and open‐mindedness. However, this objective can sometimes be seen as clashing in many societies with another one of education's primary objectives—to inculcate in the younger generation a set of common values and beliefs that reinforces collective id...
Article
Full-text available
Changing attitudes is one of the most challenging and important endeavors social psychologists have undertaken in order to promote better quality of life for individuals and collectives. However, when addressing pressing issues, such as intergroup conflict, racism, and inequality, changing attitudes is particularly difficult as individuals are ofte...
Article
This study investigated political socialization in Israeli‐Jewish kindergartens. Specifically, it examined the scope of conflict supporting and peace supporting themes that Jewish‐Israeli kindergarten teachers transmit to children during ceremonies of national events. Sixty‐eight observations in 17 state‐secular and state‐religious kindergartens we...
Article
Full-text available
The current research examined whether for a message that is based on the paradoxical thinking principles—i.e., providing extreme, exaggerated, or even absurd views, that are congruent with the held views of the message recipients—to be effective, it needs to hit a ‘sweet spot’ and lead to a contrast effect. That is, it moderates the view of the mes...
Article
Full-text available
Messages of threats and dangers are very efficient and persuasive tactics that reward the user. Threats and dangers that arouse fear and insecurity create support for the perpetrator’s position, freeze the beliefs, and feed the maintenance of the position. This feeding is powerful because the collective orientation of fear and insecurity is not onl...
Article
Full-text available
The articles describes autobiographical story of my professional and intellectual development. It describes sources of my values and begins the story of my doctoral study at the University of Pittsburgh that influenced my approach to making science. Next, the article describes the beginning of my academic career at School of Education of Tel Aviv...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Objectives If people who hold anti‐fat attitudes believe these attitudes to be true, then anti‐prejudice appeals are likely to be unsuccessful, if only because the targets will not see their attitudes as in need of change. The current study examined processes that may lead people to see their anti‐fat attitudes as “truth” or as “prejudic...
Article
Full-text available
Social problems such as intergroup conflicts, prejudice, and discrimination have a significant effect on the world’s population. Often, to facilitate constructive solutions to these problems, fundamental attitude change is needed. However, changing the beliefs and attitudes to which people strongly adhere has proven to be difficult, as these indivi...
Chapter
Full-text available
One major reason for their continuation is the development of well-developed narratives that provide justification, explanation, and rationalization for their outbreak and feed their continuation. These conflict-supporting narratives are imparted to society members, and are institutionalized, maintained, and reinforced constantly, systematically, a...
Article
Full-text available
Self-censorship is defined as intentionally and voluntarily withholding information from others in absence of formal obstacles. We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal research to develop a quantitative measure of individuals’ Self-Censorship Orientation (SCO) and investigated its correlates and outcomes in the context of the intractable Isra...
Article
Full-text available
Do rightists and leftists experience information about suffering and harm with differing emotional intensities, depending on the identity of target depicted? Do they consequently choose differently how to regulate or cope with these emotions? Research has identified ideological differences in emotional processes, but it has yet to identify what typ...
Article
Full-text available
Conflict-resolution interventions based on the paradoxical thinking principles, i.e., expressing amplified, exaggerated or even absurd ideas that are congruent with the held conflict-supporting societal beliefs, have been shown to be an effective avenue of intervention, especially among individuals who are adamant in their views. However, the quest...
Chapter
Full-text available
Self-censorship is of great importance in societies involved in intractable conflict. In this context, it blocks information that may contradict the dominant conflict-supporting narratives. Thus, self-censorship often serves as an effective societal mechanism that prevents free flow and transparency of information regarding the conflict and therefo...
Chapter
Full-text available
Self-censorship in education has rarely been studied and is rather difficult to identify. Nevertheless, exploring this topic may contribute to a better understanding of educational processes, particularly in societies involved in intractable conflict, serving as one of the mechanisms that significantly influence the maintenance of conflict-supporti...
Chapter
Full-text available
Even in the extreme context of intractable conflict, individuals sometimes risk sanctions and other negative outcomes when they reveal information. This chapter examines self-censorship as a barrier to conflict resolution in this unique context, focusing on the process involved in breaking the silence as the result of successfully overcoming this b...
Chapter
Full-text available
Self-censorship is defined as the act of intentionally and voluntarily suppressing information from others when formal impediments are absent. Self-censorship hinders the proper functioning of a democratic society because it inhibits free access to information, freedom of expression, and the flow of information. The role of self-censorship in socie...
Chapter
Full-text available
Chapter
Full-text available
Popular memory is important because it influences the psychological reactions of people and consequently their behavior. This importance is enhanced in conflict situations. Despite this, the Israeli-Jewish (Israeli) popular memory of the Israeli-Arab/Palestinian conflict (" conflict ") has never been researched in an inclusive manner via a public o...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this research was to examine whether a denial of a prolonged occupation by the occupying society constitutes a meaningful sociopsychological barrier to resolving the conflict peacefully. We hypothesized that this perception will be associated with objections both to conflict resolution processes and to specific compromises intended to e...
Article
Full-text available
מאמר זה בוחן את החִברות הפוליטי של ילדים ישראלים־יהודים צעירים החיים בצל הסכסוך הישראלי־פלסטיני הבלתי נשלט. המאמר טוען כי הדרך שבה החִברות הפוליטי של ילדים צעירים מתרחש, בהקשר של סכסוך מעין זה, מקדמת בקרבם רכישה של רפרטואר חברתי־פסיכולוגי הכולל ידע, עולם מושגים, תפיסות, רגשות ונרטיבים קולקטיביים המתקשרים לסכסוך. הרפרטואר החברתי־פסיכולוגי שהילדים רו...
Article
Full-text available
Self-censorship of information, defined as an act of intentionally and voluntarily withholding information from others in the absence of formal obstacles, serves as an obstacle to the proper functioning of a democratic society, because it prevents free access to information, freedom of expression, and the flow of information. It is of key importanc...
Book
This groundbreaking volume explores the concept of self-censorship as it relates to individuals and societies and functions as a barrier to peace. Defining self-censorship as the act of intentionally and voluntarily withholding information from others in the absence of formal obstacles, the volumes introduces self-censorship as one of the socio-psy...
Article
Full-text available
Establishing stable and lasting peaceful relations between rival sides to an intractable conflict requires the construction of a culture of peace through the processes of peace-making and reconciliation. This is the peace-building process, which in essence is a long process of major societal change involving building a new socio-psychological reper...
Article
Self-censorship is of great importance in societies involved in intractable conflict. In this context, it blocks information that may contradict the dominant conflict-supporting narratives. Thus, self-censorship often serves as an effective societal mechanism that prevents free flow and transparency of information regarding the conflict and therefo...
Article
Full-text available
Self-censorship is of great importance in societies involved in intractable conflict. In this context, it blocks information that may contradict the dominant conflict-supporting narratives. Thus, self-censorship often serves as an effective societal mechanism that prevents free flow and transparency of information regarding the conflict and therefo...
Article
Full-text available
In the current paper, we report a large-scale randomized field experiment, conducted among Jewish Israelis during widespread violence. The study examines the effectiveness of a “real world,” multichanneled paradoxical thinking intervention, with messages disseminated through various means of communication (i.e., online, billboards, flyers). Over th...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the political socialization of young children who live under conditions of intractable conflict. We present four premises: First, we argue that, within the context of intractable conflict, political socialization begins earlier and faster than previously suspected, and is evident among young children. Second, we propose that t...
Article
Self-censorship, defined as an “act of intentionally and voluntarily withholding information from others in the absence of formal obstacles” often serves as a barrier to resolving intractable conflicts. Specifically, in order to protect the group, and in absence of objective constraints such as institutionalized censorship, individuals practice sel...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the political socialization of young children who live under conditions of intractable conflict. We present four premises: First, we argue that, within the context of intractable conflict, political socialization begins earlier and faster than previously suspected, and is evident among young children. Second, we propose that t...
Article
Societies involved in intractable conflicts develop cultures of conflict because of experiences that have lasting effects on every aspect of collective life. One product of these cultures is conflict-supporting narratives that provide illumination, justification, and explanation of the conflict reality. These narratives are selective, biased, and d...
Article
Full-text available
The typical collective memories of societies involved in intractable conflicts play a major role in the eruption and continuation of the conflicts, while the positive transformation of these memories to being less self-serving promotes peacemaking. A major factor that inhibits such transformation is self-censorship. Self-censorship, practiced by me...
Chapter
Full-text available
Although until early 2000 Gabi Salomon was mostly known in the area of educational psychology as a world expert on cognitive effects of media and technology on learning, few of his colleagues abroad new that he is a very dedicated peace activist who struggled to bring peaceful conflict resolution to the society that has been ridden by a bloody and...
Chapter
Full-text available
As concluding comments to the present book, we would like to suggest that although the contributors provided many different angles to shed light on the nature of trust and distrust and then specifically on the essence of trust, or especially distrust, in the Israeli Jewish--Palestinian relations, one common denominator is found in every contributio...
Chapter
Trust and distrust affect the nature relations on the interpersonal as well as on intragroup and intergroup levels. The chapter explores the functioning of trust and distrust in situations of conflict and especially in the intergroup conflict between Israeli Jews and Palestinians, which is perceived as a prototypical intractable conflict. The funct...
Book
Built on the premise that trust is one of the most important factors in intergroup relations, conflict management and resolution at large, this volume explores trust and its mechanisms and operations especially in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Significantly, this volume focuses not only on the nature of trust and distrust in the Israeli-Palesti...
Article
Full-text available
The article examines the political socialization of young Jewish-Israeli children who live under the Israeli-Palestinian intractable conflict. It proposes arguments and presents empirical evidence to suggest that the way in which political socialization of young children happens in this context contributes to the development of conflict-supporting...
Chapter
Full-text available
Overcoming socio-psychological barriers entails a long process of persuasion and cognitive change. In other words, society members and leaders must implement a process of mobilization for peacemaking in the same way the process of mobilization for supporting and participating in the conflict was implemented at the conflict’s onset. In both cases, s...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Self-censorship of information, defined as an act of intentionally and voluntarily withholding information from others despite the absence of formal obstructions, serves as an obstacle to the proper functioning of a democratic society by preventing free access to information, freedom of expression, and the flow of information. While it is widely re...
Article
Full-text available
Does ongoing exposure to political violence prompt subject groups to support or oppose compromise in situations of intractable conflict? If so, what is the mechanism underlying these processes? Political scholarship neither offers conclusive arguments nor sufficiently addresses individual-level forms of exposure to violence in the context of politi...
Article
Full-text available
While emotions and ideology are important factors guiding policy support in conflict, their interactive influence remains unclear. Based on prior findings that ideological leftists' beliefs are more susceptible to change than rightists’ beliefs, we tested a somewhat counterintuitive extension that leftists would be more susceptible to influence by...
Article
Full-text available
One significant socio-psychological barrier for peaceful resolution of conflicts is each party's adherence to its own collective narrative. We hypothesized that raising awareness to the psychological bias of naïve realism and its identification in oneself would provide a path to overcoming this barrier, thus increasing openness to the adversary's n...
Article
Full-text available
Resolving intergroup conflicts is one of humanity’s most important challenges. Social psychologists join this endeavor, not only to understand the psychological foundations of intergroup conflicts but also to suggest interventions that aim to resolve conflicts peacefully. The present article begins by describing a specific type of conflict, namely,...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this introductory chapter, the authors review existing work and propose a general conceptual framework to understand the development of collective memories and narratives related to experiences of victimisation in the former Yugoslavia since the early 1990s. They address the following issues. What specific beliefs about collective victimisation...
Article
Full-text available
In societies involved in an intractable conflict, there are strong socio-psychological barriers that contribute to the continuation and intractability of the conflict. Based on a unique field study conducted in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, we offer a new avenue to overcome these barriers by exposing participants to a long-term p...
Article
Full-text available
Societies involved in intractable conflicts form conflict-supporting narratives that illuminate and justify their intergroup conflicts. These narratives play an important role in satisfying the basic sociopsychological needs of the involved individuals and collectives. In order to fulfill this role the narratives tend to be biased in favor of the i...
Article
Full-text available
Can endorsement of the ethos of conflict alter psychological effects of exposure to political violence? Israelis and Palestinians have been in a state of political and military turmoil for decades. We interviewed 781 Israelis and 1,196 Palestinians living in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem. Using structural equation modeling, we found...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aims to examine the personal stories of activists in radical peace organizations to understand their prejoining socialization experiences, their perception of the conflict and the changes they are trying to make, as well as the meaning of the activism for them. In-depth interviews with 16 female and male activists in 4 radical pea...
Chapter
Full-text available
This study explores the features of the routinization of the Israeli-Arab conflict in everyday life in Israel. Specifically, it examines how foreign students view this mechanism of the culture of conflict, compared to the point of view of Israeli students born into the day-today reality of a society that has been engaged in an intractable conflict...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined how Israelis and Palestinians present their narratives related to their conflict in school textbooks used by the state educational system and the ultraorthodox community in Israel and by all Palestinian schools in Palestinian National Territories. The focus was on how each side portrays the Other and their own group. The...