Danial Karimi

Danial Karimi
Vrije Universiteit Brussel | VUB · Electrical Engineering and Power Electronics (ETEC)

Doctor of Engineering
Project Engineer | CFD/FEA/Thermal Management expert

About

41
Publications
6,126
Reads
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747
Citations
Introduction
-Electro-Mechanical engineer with strong knowledge in mechanical and electrical energy storage systems. -Specialist in CAD/CAM/CAE using related software such as CATIA, Inventor, SolidWorks, Surfcam, Delcam, Geomagic, ... -Specialist in thermal management systems and thermal circuit design (1D/3D) using Amesim, MATLAB, COMSOL, ANSYS, ... -Specialist in Intelligent control strategies for hybrid electric (HEVs) and hybrid hydraulic vehicles (HHV). -Collaborative team player in characterization and
Education
September 2018 - March 2022
Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Field of study
  • Electrical Engineering and Energy Technology

Publications

Publications (41)
Article
The acceleration demand from the driver in electric vehicles (EVs) should be supported by high-power energy storage systems (ESSs). In order to satisfy the driver’s request, the employed ESS should have high power densities. On the other hand, high energy densities are required at the same time for EVs’ traction to minimize the range anxiety. In th...
Article
In this paper, the thermal behavior of a battery module based on a novel liquid cooling plate (LCP) is experimentally and numerically studied. The cooling plate is embedded with phase change material (PCM), and it is named a hybrid LCP as it provides a combination of active (liquid) and passive (PCM) cooling methods for battery with a modular desig...
Article
Lithium-ion capacitors (LiCs) are commonly used as power sources for electric vehicles (EVs) due to the combined advantages of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) comprising high energy density, high power density, and long lifetime. However, the performance of the LiCs is susceptible to temperature. Therefore,...
Article
Full-text available
This review paper aims to provide the background and literature review of a hybrid energy storage system (ESS) called a lithium-ion capacitor (LiC). Since the LiC structure is formed based on the anode of lithium-ion batteries (LiB) and cathode of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), a short overview of LiBs and EDLCs is presented following th...
Article
Full-text available
Lithium-ion capacitors (LiC) are hybrid energy storage systems (ESS) combining the advantages of lithium-ion batteries and electric double-layer capacitors, including longer lifetime, high power, and energy densities. LiCs are popular for high-power applications where fast charge and discharge driving profiles are demanded from electric vehicles (E...
Article
Full-text available
High-power lithium-ion capacitors (LiC) are hybrid energy storage systems (EES) with the combined benefits of lithium-ion batteries (LiB) and supercapacitors, such as high specific energy, high specific power, and a long lifetime. Such advanced technology can be used in high-power applications when high charging and discharging are demanded. Nevert...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, the use of electric vehicles (EVs) equipped with lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, has been growing every day. Li-ion batteries' performance, effectiveness, and safety importantly depend on thermal management systems (TMSs). In this paper, a novel and advanced hybrid TMS for cooling the battery module, using phase change material (PCM) and...
Thesis
Lithium-ion capacitors (LiCs) are hybrid energy storage systems that combine the advantages of lithium-ion batteries (LiB) and electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC). Therefore, LiCs have higher power capability and longer lifetime compared to LiBs. LiCs have also higher energy density and higher voltage range than EDLCs. Based on the mentioned ad...
Article
Lithium-ion batteries have achieved dominance in energy storage systems. Meanwhile, there is a demand for the reliability of lithium-ion batteries. Battery prognostics and health management (PHM) is a discipline that not only provides accurate, early, and online health diagnosis, but also guarantees a robust and precise prediction of the remaining...
Article
Full-text available
Lithium-ion capacitor technology (LiC) is well known for its higher power density compared to electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and higher energy density compared to lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). However, the LiC technology is affected by a high heat generation problem in high-power applications when it is continuously being charged/discharg...
Article
Full-text available
This work presents an active thermal management system (TMS) for building a safer module of lithium-ion capacitor (LiC) technology, in which 10 LiCs are connected in series. The proposed TMS is a forced air-cooled TMS (ACTMS) that uses four axial DC 12 V fans: two fans are responsible for blowing the air from the environment into the container whil...
Article
Full-text available
Lithium-ion technologies have become the most attractive and selected choice for battery electric vehicles. However, the understanding of battery aging is still a complex and nonlinear experience that is critical to the modeling methodologies. In this work, a comprehensive lifetime modeling twin framework following semi-empirical methodology has be...
Article
Full-text available
Usage of phase change materials’ (PCMs) latent heat has been investigated as a promising method for thermal energy storage applications. However, one of the most common disadvantages of using latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) is the low thermal conductivity of PCMs. This issue affects the rate of energy storage (charging/discharging) in PC...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal management is the most vital element of electric vehicles (EV) to control the maximum temperature of module/pack for safety reasons. This paper presents a novel passive thermal management system (TMS) composed of a heat sink (HS) and phase change materials (PCM) for lithium-ion capacitor (LiC) technology under the premise that the cell is c...
Article
Lithium-ion capacitor (LiC) technology is an energy storage system (ESS) that combines the working mechanism of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) and lithium-ion batteries (LiB). When LiC is supposed to work under high power applications, the inevitable heat loss threatens the cell's performance and lifetime. Therefore, a proper thermal manag...
Article
The parasitic power consumption of the battery thermal management systems is a crucial factor that affects the specific energy of the battery pack. In this paper, a comparative analysis is conducted between air type and liquid type thermal management systems for a high-energy lithium-ion battery module. The parasitic power consumption and cooling p...
Article
Full-text available
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have emerged as a promising energy source for electric vehicle (EV) applications owing to the solution offered by their high power, high specific energy, no memory effect, and their excellent durability. However, they generate a large amount of heat, particularly during the fast discharge process. Therefore, a suitabl...
Article
Full-text available
A lithium-ion capacitor (LiC) is one of the most promising technologies for grid applications, which combines the energy storage mechanism of an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) and a lithium-ion battery (LiB). This article presents an optimal thermal management system (TMS) to extend the end of life (EoL) of LiC technology considering differ...
Article
In this paper, an innovative liquid cooling plate (LCP) embedded with phase change material (PCM) is designed for electric vehicle (EV) battery thermal management. The proposed cooling plate is named "hybrid cooling plate" as it takes advantage of both active (liquid) and passive (PCM) cooling methods. The hybrid LCP is 36% lighter than a volumetri...
Article
This paper presents the concept of a passive thermal management system (TMS), including natural convection, heat pipe, and phase change material (PCM) for electric vehicles. Experimental and numerical tests are described to predict the thermal behavior of a lithium-titanate (LTO) battery cell in a high current discharging process. Details of variou...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last few decades investigating the performance of thermal management in the high charge/discharge current has been taken into consideration in many studies. In this study, a mature heat pipe-based air cooling system is built to control the temperature of the lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell/module in the high current (184 A) discharging rate. The...
Article
Battery health diagnostics is extremely crucial to guaranty the availability and reliability of the application in which they operate. Data-driven health diagnostics methods, particularly machine learning methods, have gained attention due to their simplicity and accuracy. However, a machine learning method is desired which can cope with the nonlin...
Article
Designing a proper thermal management system (TMS) is indispensable to the energy storage systems (ESS) of electric vehicles for reliability and safety. The high heat transfer rate and low power consumption of liquid cooling systems made them a perfect candidate amongst various TMS. Nonetheless, the compactness of the liquid cooling TMS has paid le...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal management system (TMS) for commonly used lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is an essential requirement in electric vehicle operation due to the excessive heat generation of these batteries during fast charging/discharging. In the current study, a thermal model of lithium-titanate (LTO) cell and three cooling strategies comprising natural air...
Article
Full-text available
The temperature prediction of lithium-ion battery cells under different working conditions is still a significant challenge. A heat pipe-based air cooling system is presented for thermal management of the lithium-titanite (LTO) cell. Experimental studies are done on the thermal efficiency performance of a flat copper heat pipe on the LTO cell. The...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are preferred energy storage systems for vehicular applications due to the high capacity, long life, and power density. This paper offers the concept of a hybrid thermal management system (TMS), including a prismatic cell embedded fin heat sink (CHS) for high current applications. The experimental tests and numerical...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal management of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in Electrical Vehicles (EVs) is important due to extreme heat generation during fast charging/discharging. In the current study, a sandwiched configuration of the heat pipes cooling system (SHCS) is suggested for the high current discharging of lithium-titanate (LTO) battery cell. The temperature...
Conference Paper
High-working temperature and non-uniform temperature evolution of high-power lithium-ion capacitor (LiC) batteries lead to thermal reliability problems. Therefore, the development of a robust cooling system is indispensable to control the heat generation of the cell. In this work, the cooling performance of an active cooling system has been investi...
Conference Paper
Air cooling technologies are of great significance for ensuring the robustness of lithium-ion capacitor (LiC) batteries due to its simple structure and high cooling performance. However, the air cooling system is encountering structure optimization challenges because of some variable factors. In this paper, a simple but effective air-cooling system...
Conference Paper
The effective fast-charging power (≥100kW) is inevitable to extend the driving range of battery electric vehicles. Nevertheless, lithium-ion batteries suffer from high-heat generation at these high-current charging rates. Hence, a proper thermal management system (TMS) is urgently needed to address this issue. In this paper, a refrigerant-based TMS...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Lithium-ion capacitors (LiC) are considered as one of the major options for high power applications due to their high power capability. However, thermal runaway associated with the LiC systems in automotive applications due to high-current solicitation can significantly result in a considerable reduction in the vehicles' performance and life cycle....
Conference Paper
Today, Europe’s transport contributes significantly to total greenhouse gas emissions (approximately 24 % in 2016) and thus to global warming. Therefore, ambitious targets for car manufactures have been set within the European Union, to reduce fleet emissions to below 60g CO2 per km in 2030. Therefore, the ECSEL JU project HiPERFORM was set up to s...
Article
Nowadays, the most used thermal management system (TMS) is air-cooling, but due to weight and volume limitations, more promising cooling methods such as PCMs with high latent heat seems to be attractive. However, their disadvantages, like low thermal conductivity, should be managed to have an efficient TMS. Hence, aluminum-foil (PCM-Al) is added to...
Article
This paper presents the concept of a hybrid thermal management system (TMS), including air cooling and heat pipe for electric vehicles (EVs). Mathematical and thermal models are described to predict the thermal behavior of a battery module consisting of 24 cylindrical cells. Details of various thermal management techniques, especially natural air c...
Article
The understanding of battery aging has a significant influence on electric vehicle performance with optimized battery usage on the road. This paper presents a comprehensive electrical-aging model which has been developed by the thorough investigation of commercial Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt (NMC) 20Ah lithium-ion pouch cells. During a span of more tha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The most important key in the thermal management of power electronic devices is the cooling system design. One of the most promising cooling techniques is indirect liquid cooling using cold plates. This paper studies the performance of a liquid cooling system on the junction temperature of a high-power inverter drive utilizing three legs of half-br...
Article
Lithium-ion capacitors (LiCs) have emerged as a promising technology for automotive applications due to the solution offered by their power density, high voltage operation and their excellent durability (more than 2 million cycles). Nevertheless, the reliability of LiCs can be drastically affected by overheating issues which raise the importance of...
Patent
For sustainable development of hybrid vehicle technology, Hydraulic hybrid systems play an important role that has the advantage of high power density and high charge/discharge rate, but at the same time suffer from low energy density. To overcome the mentioned drawback, we claimed that our innovative design will increase significantly the energy d...

Projects

Projects (5)
Project
The overall objective of SELFIE is to develop and demonstrate a novel self-sustained compact battery system, consisting of: - A smart modular battery pack, which has excellent internal thermal conductivity properties, a refrigerant cooling system and a PCM based thermal storage system (heat buffer) capable of absorbing excess heat due to fast charging, and which is thoroughly insulated from the outside - An advanced battery thermal management system (BTMS), that is capable to keep the battery temperature effectively within the optimal window and to prevent overheating (and battery degradation) due to fast charging. Specific objectives: - Development of new/advanced components for battery packs that enable a step change in thermal management, energy efficiency and cost - Integration, assembly and manufacturing and bench testing of the developed compact battery system - Demonstration and validation of the battery system
Archived project
Develop new phase change materials for battery thermal management. Develop a new battery pack cooling design based on phase change materials. Develop a new battery thermal management system.
Project
The current generation of electric vehicles have made significant progress during the recent years, however they have still not achieved the user acceptance needed to support broader main-stream market uptake. These vehicles are generally still too expensive and limited in range to be used as the first car for a typical family. Long charging times and uncertainties in range prediction are common as further barriers to broader market success. For this reason the CEVOLVER project takes a user-centric approach to create battery-electric vehicles that are usable for comfortable long day trips whilst the installed battery is dimensioned for affordability. Furthermore the vehicles will be designed to take advantage of future improvements in the fast-charging infrastructure that many countries are now planning. CEVOLVER tackles the challenge by making improvements in the vehicle itself to reduce energy consumption as well as maximizing the usage of connectivity for further optimization of both component and system design, as well as control and operating strategies. This will encompass measures that range from the on-board thermal management and vehicle energy management systems, to connectivity that supports range-prediction as a key element for eco-driving and eco-routing driver assistance. Within the project it will be demonstrated that long-trip are achievable even without further increases in battery size that would lead to higher cost. The driver is guided to fast-charging infrastructure along the route that ensures sufficient charging power is available along the route in order to complete the trip with only minimal additional time needed for the overall trip. The efficient transferability of the results to further vehicles is ensured by adopting a methodology that proves the benefit with an early assessment approach before implementation in OEM demonstrator vehicles.