Dan Larhammar

Dan Larhammar
Uppsala University | UU · Department of Neuroscience

PhD

About

405
Publications
28,341
Reads
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16,297
Citations
Citations since 2016
45 Research Items
3232 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
Introduction
Dan Larhammar works at the Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University. Dan does research in Neurobiology, Endocrinology, Evolutionary Biology and Pharmacology.
Additional affiliations
March 1995 - present
Uppsala University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (405)
Article
Full-text available
The transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channel family is involved in multiple sensory and physiological functions including thermosensing and temperature-dependent neuroendocrine regulation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the number, origin and evolution of TRPV genes in metazoans, with special focus on the imp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) cation channels are important heterotetrameric proteins in the retina, with different subunit composition in cone and rod photoreceptor cells: three CNGA3 and one CNGB3 in cones and three CNGA1 and one CNGB1 in rods. CNGA and CNGB subunits form separate subfamilies. We have analyzed the evolution of the CNG gene family...
Article
Diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are challenging for drug treatment because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts entry of drugs into the brain tissue. Therefore, strategies for drug transport across the BBB are an important component in development of CNS drug therapies. Here, a D-amino acid ligand of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) recepto...
Article
Full-text available
The neuronal and neuroendocrine peptides oxytocin (OT) and vasotocin (VT), including vasopressins, have six cognate receptors encoded by six receptor subtype genes in jawed vertebrates. The peptides elicit a broad range of responses that are specifically mediated by the receptor subtypes including neuronal functions regulating behavior and hormonal...
Article
Protein kinase C (PKC) was one of the first kinases identified in human cells. It is now known to constitute a family of kinases that respond to diacylglycerol, phosphatidylserine and for some family members, Ca²⁺. They have a plethora of different functions, such as cell cycle regulation, immune response and memory formation. In mammals, 12 PKC fa...
Article
Full-text available
The ancestor of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) is generally considered to have undergone two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD). The timing of these WGD events relative to the divergence of the closest relatives of the gnathostomes, the cyclostomes, has remained contentious. Lampreys and hagfishes are extant cyclostomes whose gene families...
Article
Full-text available
With a strong tendency to socialise, the zebrafish is a useful model to study social behaviour, with implications for better treatments of social impairments, for instance in autism spectrum disorders. Although oxytocin is crucial for social behaviour in mammals, the importance of the fish orthologue – isotocin or zebrafish oxytocin (zOT) – for soc...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Many physiological processes are influenced by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), ranging from neuromuscular and parasympathetic signaling to modulation of the reward system and long-term memory. Due to the complexity of the nAChR family and variable evolutionary rates among its members, their evolution in vertebrates has been...
Article
Itch stimuli are detected by specialized primary afferents, which convey the signal to the spinal cord, but how itch transmission is regulated is still incompletely known. Here, we investigated the roles of the neuropeptide Y (NPY)/Y2 receptor system on scratch behavior. The inhibitory Y2 receptor is expressed on mouse primary afferents and intrath...
Article
Full-text available
The human gene encoding the QRFP receptor (nomenclature as agreed by the NC-IUPHAR Subcommittee on the QRFP receptor [16]; QRFPR, formerly known as the Peptide P518 receptor), previously designated as an orphan GPCR receptor was identified in 2001 by Lee et al. from a hypothalamus cDNA library [15]. However, the reported cDNA (AF411117) is a chimer...
Article
Full-text available
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors (nomenclature as agreed by the NC-IUPHAR Subcommittee on Neuropeptide Y Receptors [156]) are activated by the endogenous peptides neuropeptide Y, neuropeptide Y-(3-36), peptide YY, PYY-(3-36) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). The receptor originally identified as the Y3 receptor has been identified as the CXCR4 chemoki...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Copy number variation (CNV) plays an important role in human genetic diversity and has been associated with multiple complex disorders. Here we investigate a CNV on chromosome 10q11.22 that spans NPY4R, the gene for the appetite-regulating pancreatic polypeptide receptor Y4. This genomic region has been challenging to map due to multip...
Article
Full-text available
Obesity has become a global health problem and therefore understanding of the mechanisms regulating hunger and satiety is of utmost importance for the development of new treatment strategies. The Y4 receptor, encoded by the NPY4R gene, and its ligand pancreatic polypeptide (PP) have been reported to mediate a satiety signal. Multiple genetic studie...
Article
The family of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) consists of five members in mammals, encoded by the CHRM1-5 genes. The mAChRs are G-protein-coupled receptors, which can be divided into the following two subfamilies: M2 and M4 receptors coupling to Gi/o; and M1, M3, and M5 receptors coupling to Gq/11. However, despite the fundamental roles...
Article
Full-text available
Itch is a somatosensory modality that serves to alert the organism to harmful elements removable by scratching, such as parasites and chemical irritants. Recently, ablation or silencing of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-expressing spinal interneurons was reported to selectively enhance mechanical itch whereas chemical itch was unaffected. We have examined th...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple genetic studies have linked copy number variation (CNV) in different genes to body mass index (BMI) and obesity. A CNV on chromosome 10q11.22 has been associated with body weight. This CNV region spans NPY4R, the gene encoding the pancreatic polypeptide receptor Y4, which has been described as a satiety-stimulating receptor. We have invest...
Data
NPY4R copy number determined by ddPCR in Chinese and Caucasian samples from 1000 Genomes Project. (DOCX)
Data
Personal communication with Dr. Jorg Hager. (PDF)
Data
Phenotype and genotype data. Full phenotype and NPY4R copy number data for 558 individuals used in this study. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and have important roles in food intake, anxiety and cancer biology 1,2 . The NPY-Y receptor system has emerged as one of the most complex networks with three peptide ligands (NPY, peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide) binding to four receptors in most mammals, nam...
Article
Full-text available
Neuropeptides are a diverse class of neuronal signalling molecules that regulate physiological processes and behaviour in animals. However, determining the relationships and evolutionary origins of the heterogeneous assemblage of neuropeptides identified in a range of phyla has presented a huge challenge for comparative physiologists. Here, we revi...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the agonist-receptor interactions in the neuropeptide Y (NPY)/peptide YY (PYY) signaling system is fundamental for the design of novel modulators of appetite regulation. We report here a binding model for the native peptide agonist PYY to the human Y2 receptor based on computational and in vitro pharmacological analyses. The Molecular...
Article
Full-text available
Background Phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6) is a protein complex that hydrolyses cGMP and acts as the effector of the vertebrate phototransduction cascade. The PDE6 holoenzyme consists of catalytic and inhibitory subunits belonging to two unrelated gene families. Rods and cones express distinct genes from both families: PDE6A and PDE6B code for the catal...
Article
The evolution of the peptide family consisting of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and the three urocortins (UCN1-3) has been puzzling due to uneven evolutionary rates. Distinct gene duplication scenarios have been proposed in relation to the two basal rounds of vertebrate genome doubling (2R) and the teleost fish-specific genome doublings (3R...
Article
The vertebrate gene family for neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors expanded by duplication of the chromosome carrying the ancestral Y1-Y2-Y5 gene triplet. After loss of some duplicates, the ancestral jawed vertebrate had seven receptor subtypes forming the Y1 (including Y1, Y4, Y6, Y8), Y2 (including Y2, Y7) and Y5 (only Y5) subfamilies. Lampreys are co...
Article
Full-text available
Gene duplications provide raw materials that can be selected for functional adaptations by evolutionary mechanisms. We describe here the results of 350 million years of evolution of three functionally related gene families: the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of transducins, the G protein involved in vision. Early vertebrate tetraploidisations resul...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of the opioid peptides and nociceptin/orphanin as well as their receptors has been difficult to resolve due to variable evolutionary rates. By combining sequence comparisons with information on the chromosomal locations of the genes, we have deduced the following evolutionary scenario: The vertebrate predecessor had one opioid precurs...
Article
Full-text available
The corticotropin releasing hormone receptors (CRHR) and the arthropod diuretic hormone 44 receptors (DH44R) are structurally and functionally related members of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) of the secretin-like receptor superfamily. We show here that they derive from a bilaterian predecessor. In protostomes, the receptor became DH44R tha...
Article
A peptide ending with RFamide (Arg-Phe-amide) was discovered independently by three different laboratories in 2003 and named 26RFa or QRFP. In mammals, a longer version of the peptide, 43 amino acids, was identified and found to bind to the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR103. We searched the genome database of Branchiostoma floridae (Bfl) for...
Article
Full-text available
The neuropeptide QRFP, also called 26RFa, and its G protein-coupled receptor GPR103 have been identified in all vertebrates investigated. In mammals, this peptide-receptor pair has been found to have several effects including stimulation of appetite. Recently, we reported that a QRFP peptide is present in amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, and we a...
Article
There is a lack of biomarkers in schizophrenia and the mechanisms underlying the observed deficits in social functioning are poorly understood. This cohort study aimed to explore whether neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with schizophrenia is correlated to social function and clinical variables. A furt...
Article
Full-text available
Somatostatin (SS) and urotensin II (UII) are members of two families of structurally related neuropeptides present in all vertebrates. They exert a large array of biological activities that are mediated by two families of G-protein-coupled receptors called SSTR and UTS2R, respectively. It is proposed that the two families of peptides as well as tho...
Article
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large group of receptors of great biological and clinical relevance. Despite this, the tools for a detailed analysis of ligand - GPCR interactions are limited. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how ligand binding to GPCRs can be followed in real-time on living cells. This was conducted using two mode...
Article
Full-text available
Vertebrate color vision is dependent on four major color opsin subtypes: RH2 (green opsin), SWS1 (ultraviolet opsin), SWS2 (blue opsin), and LWS (red opsin). Together with the dim-light receptor rhodopsin (RH1), these form the family of vertebrate visual opsins. Vertebrate genomes contain many multi-membered gene families that can largely be explai...
Article
The neuropeptide Y and peptide YY receptor type 2 (Y2) is involved in appetite regulation and several other physiological processes. We have investigated the structure of the human Y2 receptor. Computational modeling of receptor-agonist interactions was used as a guide to design a series of receptor mutants, followed by binding assays using full-le...
Chapter
Voltage-gated sodium channels play important roles in the nervous system by enabling propagation of action potentials along axons. It has been suggested that sodium channels evolved from calcium channels before the split of animals and choanoflagellates, as deduced from studies of sequence motifs important in the ion selectivity of sodium and calci...
Chapter
Several types of chemical messengers are employed by the nervous system for local or more diffuse signaling. Among these the peptides are the most diverse in structure and function. In nervous tissues they are typically produced by neurons or neurosecretory cells, and can therefore be specified as neuropeptides or peptide hormones, respectively. Ad...
Article
Full-text available
The neuropeptide Y (NPY) system influences numerous physiological functions including feeding behavior, endocrine regulation, and cardiovascular regulation. In jawed vertebrates it consists of 3-4 peptides and 4-7 receptors. Teleost fishes have unique duplicates of NPY and PYY as well as the Y8 receptor. In the zebrafish, the NPY system consists of...
Article
Full-text available
The neuropeptide Y (NPY) family receptors and peptides have previously been characterized in several tetrapods, teleost fishes, and in a holocephalan cartilaginous fish. This has shown that the ancestral NPY system in the jawed vertebrates consisted of the peptides NPY and peptide YY (PYY) and seven G-protein-coupled receptors named Y1-Y8 (Y3 does...
Article
Full-text available
Background Somatostatin and its related neuroendocrine peptides have a wide variety of physiological functions that are mediated by five somatostatin receptors with gene names SSTR1-5 in mammals. To resolve their evolution in vertebrates we have investigated the SSTR genes and a large number of adjacent gene families by phylogeny and conserved synt...
Data
Full-text available
Supplemental notes 1–3. Detailed descriptions of the results, including the identification of SSTR sequences in genome databases as well as the phylogenetic analyses of neighboring gene families.
Data
Accession numbers, positional information and description of sequences used in the phylogenetic analyses.
Data
Table S5. Positional data for the SSTR2, -3 and -5-bearing chromosome regions. The members of the identified neighboring gene families in these chromosome regions are charted by species and chromosome/genomic scaffold. These charts show the identified paralogous chromosome regions in the human, chicken, medaka, stickleback and zebrafish genomes. Ea...
Data
Table S1. Database identifiers, location data and annotation notes of all SSTR sequences identified and included in this study.
Data
Figures S1–S3. All phylogenetic analyses of the SSTR gene family.
Data
Full-text available
Figures S21–S50. Phylogenetic trees of the SSTR2, -3 and -5-neighboring gene families. Figures are numbered S21-S50 and include both neighbor joining and phylogenetic maximum likelihood trees of the gene families described in Table 3.
Data
Table S2. Database identifiers, location data and annotation notes of SSTR1,-4 and -6-neighboring gene family sequences, including information for those gene families that were discarded from the analysis. Each gene family is included in a separate tab in the spreadsheet.
Data
Full-text available
Figures S4–S20. Phylogenetic trees of the SSTR1, -4 and -6-neighboring gene families. Figures are numbered S4-S20 and include both neighbor joining and phylogenetic maximum likelihood trees of the gene families described in Table 2.
Data
Table S3. Database identifiers, location data and annotation notes of SSTR2,-3 and -5-neighboring gene family sequences, including information for those gene families that were discarded from the analysis. Each gene family is included in a separate tab in the spreadsheet.
Article
The neuropeptide Y system is known to have expanded in early vertebrate evolution. Three neuropeptide Y receptors have been proposed to have existed before the two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations, namely a Y1-like, a Y2-like, and a Y5-like receptor, with their genes in the same chromosomal region. Previously we have described a Y1-subfamily and...