Dan Brockington

Dan Brockington
The University of Sheffield | Sheffield · Sheffield Institute of International Development (SIID)

PhD, Anthropology (UCL)

About

176
Publications
106,852
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Introduction
Thanks for looking at this work. For a longer introduction to these projects, and blogs summarising some of this work, please see this site: https://danbrockington.com/
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
August 2005 - October 2015
The University of Manchester
Position
  • Professor in Conservation and Development

Publications

Publications (176)
Article
Full-text available
Increases in data availability coupled with enhanced computational capacities are revolutionising conservation. But in the excitement over the opportunities afforded by new data, fewer researchers have questioned the justice implications of data use in conservation: how people and environments are represented through data, and how this could alter...
Article
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In this article, we examine selected sustainability initiatives from the perspective of local communities to improve our understanding of how putative participatory schemes manage legitimacy. Understanding the legitimacy dynamics of sustainability initiatives is important, as it potentially minimizes the power gaps likely to open across scales and...
Article
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This article sets out a political ecology approach to thinking about security. It draws together conceptual debates from IR, green criminology and political ecology in order to develop new ways of thinking about and analyzing the political ecologies of security. To date political ecologists have focused on conflicts and struggles, but have not full...
Article
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An increasing number of products and services based on satellite Earth Observation (EO) data are being developed for use by decision-makers in African agricultural contexts, providing information such as weather and climate forecasts, crop yields and water availability. Capacity development to support impactful use of EO data is a key component of...
Article
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We explore the implications of blockchain technology for conservation and environmental policy. Drawing on an analysis of 27 initiatives, we examine their goals, assumptions, visions and workings. We find that these initiatives do not yet form a coherent approach, there is too much variety in their environmental focus, and the role of blockchain te...
Data
Supplementary document to Requena-i-Mora, M. & Brockington, D. 2021. Seeing environmental injustices: the mechanics, devices and assumptions of environmental sustainability indices and indicators. Journal of Political Ecology 28(1). https://doi.org/10.2458/jpe.4765
Article
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At the heart of any colonization project, and therefore any move to de-colonize, are ways of seeing nature and society, that then allow particular ways of governing each. This is plainly visible in a number of tools that exist to measure progress towards (or regress from) environmental sustainability. The tools use indices and indicators constructe...
Article
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Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as social distancing and travel restrictions have been introduced to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus (hereinafter Covid). In many countries of the Global South, NPIs are affecting rural livelihoods, but in-depth empirical data on these impacts are limited. We traced the differentiated impacts...
Chapter
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This chapter analyses the patterns of poverty, prosperity, and rural transformation in Tanzania through longitudinal research examining livelihoods and asset change in a twenty-year period. We argue that some current measures of rural transformation are inadequate for capturing forms of change that matter to rural Africans. We consider in detail so...
Chapter
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We studied livelihood changes and poverty dynamics over a twenty-five-year period in two villages in central Tanzania. The villages were, from the early 1990s and 2000s, strikingly poor with between 50 per cent and 55 per cent of families in the poorest wealth groups. Twenty-five years later much has changed: people have become substantially wealth...
Chapter
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The transformations of the coffee sector have posed major challenges to rural farmers who have lost an important source of income. However, the way in which such shocks are experienced by families hinges on the gender relations governing families’ production and sale of coffee. In this article, it is argued that in Meru, Tanzania, which once had a...
Chapter
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We present data based on recent re-surveys of Tanzanian households first visited in the early 1990s in Manyara Region. These demonstrate a marked increase in prosperity from high levels of poverty, using locally determined measures of wealth. It does not, however, follow that these improvements derive from GDP growth. We consider the implications o...
Chapter
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This book focuses heavily on changing patterns in ownership of assets. In other analyses where assets are used to investigate change then one of the standard means of investigating wealth and poverty is to construct asset indices to examine patterns across space and over time. Assets are important to local definitions of poverty and wealth in rural...
Chapter
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This chapter sums up the lessons from the book as a whole. We argue that a common, but not universal trend is that rural assets have increased. Because these assets are not recorded in poverty-line data this wealth is not easily visible, directly, in some poverty statistics. However we also insist that this does not mean that rural Tanzanian famili...
Chapter
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This chapter introduces the book as a whole. It explains the subject of interest—change in assets in rural areas. It also explains the methods used to examine them: longitudinal studies—revisits to previously surveyed villages and domestic units. It also outlines the argument. This is that contra to critics of smallholder farmers who decry their la...
Chapter
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Tracking change in rural communities over time is difficult. It is also important. If one is to understand what forms of peasant poverty persist, or how and in what ways peasant communities can become richer, then one requires longitudinal studies. These are however few. It is difficult to access the data required for them. The chapter presents one...
Chapter
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This chapter explains why assets are interesting. It first outlines contrary interpretations of change in rural African societies, some of which see rising wealth, and others which see persistent rural poverty. Then it considers how those changes can be known, what data inform those debates. The chapter shows that using measures of poverty based on...
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on smallholder agriculture and livelihoods in north-central Tanzania. It traces changes in agricultural production and asset ownership in one community over a twenty-eight-year period. Over this period, national development policies and agriculture programmes have moved from socialism to neoliberal approaches. Using a combinati...
Chapter
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Constructing longitudinal research has, for all the authors, entailed long, and sometimes difficult, sometimes funny, always moving, personal stories. This chapter explains how the studies were conducted, both the original research and the subsequent revisits, and how the researchers coped with having to conduct them. The authors of this Epilogue c...
Chapter
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Tracking change in assets access and ownership in longitudinal research is difficult. Assets are rarely assigned to individuals. Their benefit and management are spread across domestic units which morph over time. And this dynamism means that any claim about changing prosperity must also include other important claims about how prosperity should be...
Book
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Tracking change in assets access and ownership in longitudinal research is difficult. Assets are rarely assigned to individuals. Their benefit and management are spread across domestic units which morph over time. And this dynamism means that any claim about changing prosperity must also include other important claims about how prosperity should be...
Article
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Overexploitation is a key driver of biodiversity loss but the relationship between the use and trade of species and conservation outcomes is not always straightforward. Accurately characterizing wildlife trade and understanding the impact it has on wildlife populations are therefore critical to evaluating the potential threat trade poses to species...
Article
Full-text available
The transformations of the coffee sector have posed major challenges to rural farmers who have lost an important source of income. However, the way in which such shocks are experienced by families hinges on the gender relations governing families' production and sale of coffee. In this article, it is argued that in Meru, Tanzania, which once had a...
Article
Full-text available
Research into the relationship between ecosystem services and human well-being, including poverty alleviation, has blossomed. However, little is known about who has produced this knowledge, what collaborative patterns and institutional and funding conditions have underpinned it, or what implications these matters may have. To investigate the potent...
Article
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Multiple proposals for transforming biodiversity conservation have been put forward, yet critical exploration of how transformative change is conceptualised in this context is lacking. Drawing on transformations to sustainability scholarship, we review recent proposals for transformative change in biodiversity conservation, considering the suggeste...
Article
Emerging narratives call for recognising and engaging constructively with small-scale farmers who have a leading role in shaping the current irrigation dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper explores whether new irrigation data can usefully inform these narratives. It argues that, for a variety of reasons, official irrigation data in sub-Sahara...
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Forest restoration occupies centre stage in global conversations about carbon removal and biodiversity conservation, but recent research rarely acknowledges social dimensions or environmental justice implications related to its implementation. We find that 294.5 million people live on tropical forest restoration opportunity land in the Global South...
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Celebrity advocacy for environmental causes has grown dramatically in recent decades. An examination of this expansion and the rise of causes such as climate change reveals the shifting politics and organization of advocacy. We address these changes to the construction and interpretation of celebrity advocacy and detail how they have produced a ric...
Article
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Earth observation (EO) data are increasingly being used to monitor vegetation and detect plant growth anomalies due to water stress, drought, or pests, as well as to monitor water availability, weather conditions, disaster risks, land use/land cover changes and to evaluate soil degradation. Satellite data are provided regularly by worldwide organiz...
Article
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A paucity of systematic research into development NGO sectors means that we have underestimated their contributions to international development. In 2015 Britain’s development NGOs spent nearly £7 billion, equivalent to over half of the UK government’s Official Development Assistance (ODA) that year. Mapping the sector reveals its size and signific...
Article
Forest carbon projects, in addition to climate mitigation and conservation benefits, are expected to improve local livelihoods and contribute to poverty alleviation across developing countries. Despite substantial investments over last decade, there is limited empirical evidence on the livelihood impacts of these projects especially across differen...
Article
Full-text available
Celebrity advocacy for environmental causes has grown dramatically in recent decades. An examination of this expansion and the rise of causes such as climate change reveals the shifting politics and organization of advocacy. We address these changes to the construction and interpretation of celebrity advocacy and detail how they have produced a ric...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on smallholder agriculture and livelihoods in north-central Tanzania. It traces changes in agricultural production and asset ownership in one community over a 28 year period. Over this period, national development policies and agriculture programs have moved from socialism to neo-liberal approaches. Using a combination of qualita...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyses patterns of poverty, prosperity and rural transformation in Tanzania through longitudinal research examining livelihoods and asset change in a twenty-year period. We argue that some current measures of rural transformation are inadequate for capturing forms of change that matter to rural Africans. We consider in detail some of...
Article
Full-text available
Assets are important to local definitions of poverty and wealth in rural Africa. Yet their use in asset indices can miss locally valued change. We present data from 17 villages across Tanzania to explore differences in the meaning of wealth and poverty across the country. Despite limitations in our site selection we found considerable diversity tha...
Article
Full-text available
Tracking change in rural communities over time is difficult. It is also important. If we are to understand what forms of peasant poverty persist, or how and in what ways peasant communities can become richer, then we require longitudinal studies. These are however few. It is difficult to access the data required for them. I present one case using a...
Article
Full-text available
Celebrity humanitarianism has been transformed in its scope, scale, and organization in the last thirty years. Its flourishing has generated considerable academic interest from a wide variety of disciplines that share two characteristics. First, these studies are—unusually—well connected, which means that different disciplines have not tended to de...
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There is renewed interest in megaprojects worldwide. In contrast to high-modernist megaprojects that were discrete projects undertaken by centralized authorities, contemporary megaprojects are often decentralized and pursued by a range of stakeholders from governments as well as the private sector. They leverage cutting-edge technology to ‘see’ com...
Article
Full-text available
Tracking change in assets access and ownership in longitudinal research is difficult. Assets are rarely assigned to individuals. Their benefit and management are spread across domestic units which morph over time. We review the challenges of using assets to understand poverty dynamics, and tracking the domestic units that own and manage assets. Usi...
Article
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Climate change, overconsumption, land‐use intensification, widespread pollution, and other environmentally damaging factors are threatening Earth's biodiversity and its ability to provide ecosystem services essential for human survival. Article impact statement: Wallach et al.’s framing of compassionate conservation is flawed and impractical and co...
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This introduction is a reflexive piece on the notion of farmer-led irrigation development and its politics. It highlights the way the varied contributions to the Special Issue support a shared perspective on farmerled irrigation development as a process whereby farmers drive the establishment, improvement, and/or expansion of irrigated agriculture,...
Article
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The Convention on Biological Diversity Aichi Target 11 requires its 193 signatory parties to incorporate social equity into protected area (PA) management by 2020. However, there is limited evidence of progress toward this commitment. We surveyed PA managers, staff, and community representatives involved in the management of 225 PAs worldwide to ga...
Article
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Measures of poverty based on consumption suggest that recent economic growth in many African countries has not been inclusive, particularly in rural areas. We argue that measures of poverty using assets may provide a different picture. We present data based on recent re-surveys of Tanzanian households first visited in the early 1990s. These demonst...
Article
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As the concept of ecosystem services is applied more widely in conservation, its users will encounter the issue of poverty alleviation. Policy initiatives involving ecosystem services are often marked by their use of win-win narratives that conceal the trade-offs they must entail. Modelling this paper on an earlier essay about conservation and pove...
Article
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We studied livelihood changes and poverty dynamics over a 25-year period in two villages in central Tanzania. The villages were, from the early 1990s and 2000s, strikingly poor with between 50% and 55% of families in the poorest wealth groups. 25 years later much has changed: people have become substantially wealthier, with 64% and 71% in the middl...
Article
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The performance of microfinance organisations can depend upon many factors. Current research emphasizes factors pertaining to clients, products, or broader environments. But researchers have paid less attention to the workings and internal systems of microfinance organisations. We explore how variation in performance within an organisation can alte...
Chapter
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The anthropology of conservation nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) tends to be dominated by individual studies of the work of several organisations. There are good reasons for this—a great deal can be learned from such an approach and anthropologists are well trained and placed to provide the sorts of rich institutional ethnographies that can be...
Chapter
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As debates rage on about changes required to build a different future for the planet, the role of conservation nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) as the global watchdogs of sustainability is increasingly prominent, but also questioned, in the public sphere. Vigorous debates about the role and effects of conservation NGOs call for independent anal...
Book
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This book explores how NGOs have been influential in shaping global biodiversity, conservation policy, and practice. It encapsulates a growing body of literature that has questioned the mandates, roles, and effectiveness of these organizations–and the critique of these critics. This volume seeks to nurture an open conversation about contemporary NG...
Article
A key challenge facing interventions in forestry sector is how to ensure that benefit-sharing arrangements meet the needs and aspirations of poor rural people. In particular, as interest and effort builds around REDD+, it is important to remember that it, and any other intervention, are likely to be shaped by the history of Tanzania's forestry sect...
Article
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Aichi Target 11 (AT11), adopted by 193 Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 2010, states that protected areas (PAs) must be equitably managed by 2020. However, significant challenges remain in terms of actual implementation of equitable management in PAs. These challenges include, among others, the lack of a standardized appro...
Article
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Doing Whole Earth justice: a reply to Cafaro et al. - Bram Büscher, Robert Fletcher, Dan Brockington, Chris Sandbrook, Bill Adams, Lisa Campbell, Catherine Corson, Wolfram Dressler, Rosaleen Duffy, Noella Gray, George Holmes, Alice Kelly, Elizabeth Lunstrum, Maano Ramutsindela, Kartik Shanker
Article
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This paper outlines the development of an integrated interdisciplinary approach to agri-food research, designed to address the ‘grand challenge’ of global food security. Rather than meeting this challenge by working in separate domains or via single-disciplinary perspectives, we chart the development of a system-wide approach to the food supply cha...
Article
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We question whether the increasingly popular, radical idea of turning half the Earth into a network of protected areas is either feasible or just. We argue that this Half-Earth plan would have widespread negative consequences for human populations and would not meet its conservation objectives. It offers no agenda for managing biodiversity within a...
Article
Full-text available
We question whether the increasingly popular, radical idea of turning half the Earth into a network of protected areas is either feasible or just. We argue that this Half-Earth plan would have widespread negative consequences for human populations and would not meet its conservation objectives. It offers no agenda for managing biodiversity within a...