Dan Billing

Dan Billing
Defence Science and Technology Group (DST) | DSTO · Land Division

PhD

About

123
Publications
24,519
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778
Citations

Publications

Publications (123)
Article
Full-text available
An exoskeleton is a body-worn mechanical device designed to work in concert with the user to enhance human capabilities. For the dismounted close combatant, an exoskeleton could be worn whilst performing a variety of complex tasks and duties. As such, there is a requirement for the human and the exoskeleton to readily adapt to different movements i...
Article
Objectives: The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to explore the impact of the mechanical WBV experienced during simulated military land transit on the physical attributes that underpin tasks performed by dismounted combatants. Design: This study used a parallel group randomised control trial design. Methods: Sixty participants were rando...
Article
Full-text available
The Australian Army contains more than 50 diverse employment specialisations and soldiers are exposed to a number of different tasks that may benefit from the introduction of wearable assistive technology. The aim of this paper was to identify the most common physically demanding activities performed by soldiers and to identify target use-cases tha...
Article
Objective The aim of this review was to determine how exoskeletons could assist Australian Defence Force personnel with manual handling tasks. Background Musculoskeletal injuries due to manual handling are physically damaging to personnel and financially costly to the Australian Defence Force. Exoskeletons may minimize injury risk by supporting, a...
Article
Objectives The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to explore the impact of the mechanical WBV experienced during simulated military land transit on the physical attributes that underpin tasks performed by dismounted combatants. Design This study used a parallel group randomised control trial design. Methods Sixty participants were randomly...
Article
Objectives To demonstrate the need for the military human performance research community to anticipate and evolve with the emergence of new and disruptive battlefield technologies that are changing the fundamental role of the human combatant. Methods An international team of military performance researchers drew on relevant literature and their ind...
Chapter
There is an emerging need to synchronise wearable function with user intention as many exoskeletons reported in current literature have limited capability to predict user intention. In order to achieve good synchronization, closed loop feedback is required. Overcoming these limitations necessitates an architecture composed of networked sensors and...
Article
Full-text available
Musculoskeletal injuries (MSI) in the military reduce soldier capability and impose substantial costs. Characterizing biomechanical surrogates of MSI during commonly performed military tasks (e.g., load carriage) is necessary for evaluating the effectiveness of possible interventions to reduce MSI risk. This study determined the effects of body-bor...
Data
Root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) for CEINMS-derived torques and inverse dynamics-derived torques during stance phase. (DOCX)
Data
Stance phase medial compartment tibiofemoral contact force for the no load, 15 kg, and 30 kg load magnitudes. (CSV)
Data
Peak medial and lateral compartment, and total tibiofemoral contact forces for walking speed and load magnitude used for statistical comparisons, including the no load condition. (CSV)
Data
Stance phase total tibiofemoral contact force for the no load, 15 kg, and 30 kg load magnitudes. (CSV)
Data
Peak medial and lateral compartment, and total tibiofemoral contact forces for each armour type and walking speed configuration used for statistical comparisons. (CSV)
Data
Descriptions and illustrations of different types of body armor and load configurations. (DOCX)
Data
Muscle contributions to medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces across the different carried loads and walking speeds. (DOCX)
Data
Stance phase lateral compartment tibiofemoral contact force for the no load, 15 kg, and 30 kg load magnitudes. (CSV)
Article
Soldiers regularly transport loads weighing >20 kg at slow speeds for long durations. These tasks elicit high energetic costs through increased positive work generated by knee and ankle muscles, which may increase risk of muscular fatigue and decrease combat readiness. This study aimed to determine how modifying where load is borne changes lower-li...
Article
Full-text available
The simulation of field-based exposures, such as the random whole-body vibration (WBV) experienced during periods of military land transit, in a laboratory setting, allows for greater control over potentially confounding factors. This paper describes a method used to simulate the WBV experienced during military land transit. Acceleration data were...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
PURPOSE Musculoskeletal injuries (MSI) in the military reduce soldier capability and impose substantial costs [1]. Most interventions to reduce MSI have so far proven ineffective, possibly because they do not target the mechanical factors causing injury. Research focus should shift to characterising biomechanical surrogates of MSI during physically...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify perceived priorities related to military personnel's health and physical performance, among attendees at the 4th International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance (ICSPP), and to determine if perceived priorities had changed between the 3rd ICSPP survey held in 2014 and the 4th ICSPP...
Article
Objectives To determine the effects of different body armour types, carried loads, and walking speeds on trunk and lower-limb joint biomechanics. Design Within-subjects repeated measures to determine the effects of different body armour types, carried loads, and walking speeds on trunk and lower-limb joint biomechanics. Methods Twenty soldiers (2...
Article
Full-text available
Enhancing the capabilities of the dismounted combatant has been an enduring goal of international military research communities. Emerging developments in exoskeleton technology offers the potential to augment the dismounted combatant's capabilities. However, the ability to determine the value proposition of an exoskeleton in a military context is d...
Article
Full-text available
Modern warfare operations often occur in volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA) environments accompanied by physical exertion, cognitive overload, sleep restriction and caloric deprivation. The increasingly fast-paced nature of these operations requires military personnel to demonstrate readiness and resiliency in the face of stressful...
Article
Full-text available
The benefit of job-related employment standards in physically demanding occupations are well known. A number of methodological frameworks have been established to guide the development of physical employment standards for single job functions. These frameworks enable targeted and specific employment standards to be developed for a single occupation...
Article
Full-text available
Soldiers carry heavy loads that may cause general discomfort, shoulder pain, and injury. This study assessed if new body armour designs that incorporated a hip belt reduced shoulder pressures and improved comfort. Twenty-one Australian soldiers completed treadmill walking trials wearing six different body armours with two different loads (15 kg and...
Article
Objectives: This investigation assessed the accuracy of error of the Pandolf load carriage energy expenditure equation when simulating contemporary military conditions (load distribution, external load and walking speed). Design: Within-participant design. Methods: Sixteen male participants completed 10 trials comprised of five walking speeds...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Soldier attrition due to musculoskeletal injuries (MSI) has increased globally within the last 10 years, causing reduced workforce capability and substantial costs. Exposure to the physical demands of military service, including heavy load carriage, is associated with MSI risk. Predictors of MSI include biomechanical parameters that describe mechan...
Article
Manual lifting is an essential military job task and is commonly linked to occupational injury. Methods to reduce injury risk focus on ensuring that employees have the requisite physical capacity to safely conduct critical job tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate which anthropometric characteristics are associated with lifting performanc...
Article
The risk of low back pain and injury during manual materials handling is increased if personnel are not physically capable of safely performing such tasks. To establish predictive relationships and develop a test cut-score, 69 participants performed a critical military lifting task to a 1.5-m platform (pack lift) and two task-related predictive tes...
Poster
Full-text available
The equipment carried by soldiers offers them protection, communication, and supplies for sustained activity. While operationally essential, carried load may contribute to the large musculoskeletal overuse injury burden in the armed forces. In addition to the significant outpatient costs for rehabilitation, military organisations pay to re-train ne...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine if perceptions of physically demanding job tasks are biased by employee’ demographics and employment profile characteristics including: age, sex, experience, length of tenure, rank, and if they completed or supervised a task. Surveys were administered to 427 Royal Australian Navy personnel who characterised 33...
Article
Physical employment standards (PES) are developed with the aim of ensuring that an employee's physical and physiological capacities are commensurate with the demands of their occupation. While previous commentaries and narrative reviews have provided frameworks for the development of PES, this is the first systematic review of the methods used to t...
Article
Carrying a casualty on a stretcher is a critical task within military and emergency service occupations. This study evaluated the impact of manipulating carry speed and the object type in bilateral carries on the ability to predict performance and reflect the physical and physiological requirements of a unilateral stretcher carry. We demonstrated t...
Article
A mismatch between physical ability and task requirements can increase the risk of on-the-job injury. Therefore, understanding key anthropometric characteristics associated with job performance is important in developing targeted training programs and selecting employees in physically demanding occupations. The aims of this study were to understand...
Article
An examination into the effects of carried military equipment on the performance of two tactical combat movement simulations was conducted. Nineteen Airfield Defence Guards performed a break contact (five 30-m sprints) and a fire and movement simulation (16 6-m bounds) in five load conditions (10–30 kg). Heavier loads significantly increased moveme...
Article
Full-text available
Military activities in hot environments pose two competing demands: the requirement to perform realistic training to develop operational capability with the necessity to protect armed forces personnel against heat-related illness. To ascertain whether work duration limits for protection against heat-related illness restrict military activities, thi...
Article
This review article aims to evaluate a proposed maximum acceptable work duration model for load carriage tasks. It is contended that this concept has particular relevance to physically demanding occupations such as military and firefighting. Personnel in these occupations are often required to perform very physically demanding tasks, over varying t...
Article
Full-text available
Groeller, H, Burley, S, Orchard, P, Sampson, JA, Billing, DC, and Linnane, D. How effective is initial military-specific training in the development of physical performance of soldiers? J Strength Cond Res 29(11S): S158-S162, 2015-The impact of basic military training (BMT) on recruit physical performance is well described. However, initial employm...
Article
Reilly, TJ, Gebhardt, DL, Billing, DC, Greeves, JP, and Sharp, MA. Development and implementation of evidence-based physical employment standards: key challenges in the military context. J Strength Cond Res 29(11S): S28-S33, 2015-The use of evidence-based physical employment standards is critical in selecting individuals who can meet the requiremen...
Article
Full-text available
Drain, JR, Sampson, JA, Billing, DC, Burley, SD, Linnane, DM, and Groeller, H. The effectiveness of basic military training to improve functional lifting strength in new recruits. J Strength Cond Res 29(11S): S173-S177, 2015-Australian Army recruits are required to meet the incumbent baseline physical employment standards (PES) during basic militar...
Article
Billing, DC, Silk, AJ, Tofari, PJ, and Hunt, AP. Effects of military load carriage on susceptibility to enemy fire during tactical combat movements. J Strength Cond Res 29(11S): S134-S138, 2015-Current military operations require soldiers to carry heavy external loads that are widely acknowledged to impair the ability to move tactically on the batt...
Article
This project was based on the premise that decisions concerning the ballistic protection provided to defence personnel should derive from an evaluation of the balance between protection level and its impact on physiological function, mobility, and operational capability. Civilians and soldiers participated in laboratory- and field-based studies in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Australian Army Working in Heat policy dictates limits to physical work duration to minimise the risk of heat casualties. However, commanders suggest that strict adherence to the policy prevents the majority of personnel from engaging in physical training to the limits that are physiologically tolerable in the heat. Therefore, this study examin...
Article
In the occupational environment, there are a considerable number of stressors that can affect physical performance in job tasks. Whole-body vibration (WBV), which arises from vehicle transit, is one such stressor that has been demonstrated to alter human function in several ways. This study identifies the known physical changes to human function wh...
Article
Introducing valid physical employment tests requires identifying and developing a small number of practical tests that provide broad coverage of physical performance across the full range of job tasks. This study investigated discrete lifting performance across various platform heights reflective of common military lifting tasks. Sixteen Australian...
Data
Full-text available
The biomechanical evaluation of elite athletes often requires the use of sophisticated laboratory-based equipment that is restrictive, cumbersome, and often unsuitable for use in a training and competition environment. Small, low-mass unobtrusive centre-of-mass triaxial accelerometers can be used to collect data but may not reveal all the informati...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to develop minimum standards for physical capability assessments (vertical jump, sit and reach, push-ups, seven-stage sit-ups, heaves, agility, 20-m shuttle run, loaded 5-km pack march, and 400-m swim) that candidates must pass before they can commence Australian Army Special Forces (SF) selection courses. Soldiers (Part A: n = 104...
Article
Full-text available
The Australian Defence Force is currently developing physical standards commensurate with job demands. Vital to this development process has been the accurate profiling of common military tasks. One such task required of all dismounted combat soldiers, an offensive assault on an enemy force, was the subject of in-depth profiling. In addition to ove...
Presentation
Symposium - applying performance standards in the workplace - current issues