Damien Soulat

Damien Soulat
GEMTEX

Professor

About

248
Publications
59,720
Reads
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2,386
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2011 - present
GEMTEX
GEMTEX
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 1997 - September 2011
Université d'Orléans

Publications

Publications (248)
Article
Thermal comfort offirefighters is strongly dependent on moisture management of clothing layers closest to the skin. This study centers on liquid moisture and moisture vapor transfer across various types of underwear fabrics and innermost layers of thefirefighter intervention jacket (linings). Importance of the underwear neighboring layer in liquid mois...
Article
The high-performance fibres are employed largely as reinforced polymer fabrics and composites in the flexible and stiff stab-resistant personal protection equipment. To simulate the knife attack on the human body, a new methodology named pre-deformed stabbing is developed to characterise the stab performance taking into account the fabric’s deforma...
Article
Full-text available
Hybrid yarn of reinforcement and thermo-plastic fibres gives the composite manufacturing process the advantage to dispense resin transferring task. The objective of this study is to make a hybrid yarn based on hemp and polyamide 11 (PA11) fibre for composite application. The weaveability of the manufactured hybrid yarn will be checked, and the tens...
Article
Full-text available
The identification of thermomechanical in-plane shear behavior of preform is one of the most important factors to ensure the quality of the thermoplastic composites during the thermoforming process. In this present work, the non-symmetric in-plane shear behavior of flax/polypropylene 2D biaxial braided preform for thermoplastic biocomposites was ch...
Article
With the growing popularity of hybrid yarn techniques, the micro-braided yarn is becoming a good choice as one kind of intermediate materials for thermoplastic biocomposites, by presenting favorable morphology during the preform process and lowering the resin flow distance during the thermo-compression process. In this article, different flax/polyp...
Article
Full-text available
This research paper presented recent advancements on the manufacturing technique of the 3D warp interlock fabrics (3DWIFs) as fibrous material. Four different types of 3DWIFs are designed by WiseTex© and DB-WEAVE software: Angle interlock/through-the-thickness binding (A/T), Angle interlock/layer-to-layer binding (A/L), Orthogonal interlock/through...
Article
Full-text available
Plant fibers are being increasingly explored for their use in engineering polymers and composites, and many works have described their properties, especially for flax and hemp fibers. Nevertheless, the availability of plant fibers varies according to the geographical location on the planet. This study presents the first work on the mechanical prope...
Article
Full-text available
Recycling carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) and recovering high-cost carbon fibre (CF) is a preoccupation of scientific and industrial committees due to the environmental and economic concerns. A commercialised nonwoven mat, made of recycled carbon fibre and manufactured using carding and needle-punching technology, can promote second-life opp...
Article
Full-text available
The originality of this work consists in the study of the stamping behaviour of tufted and un-tufted carbon preforms. Several preforms by varying the tufting thread orientations (0°, 90° and 0°/90°) and with different stratifications ([0°/90°,-45°/+45°] and [0°/90°,-45°/+45°]2) were manufactured in order to study their out-of-plane deformability. T...
Article
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The present work investigates the potential of developing bio-composites based on thermoplastic polymers reinforced with natural fibres by using hybrid yarns. The hybrid yarns were produced by the wrapping technique, in which a multifilament of polyamide 11 (PA11) was wrapped around an untreated low-twisted hemp roving to produce a yarn with suffic...
Article
Despite the variability of Moroccan natural resources, few Moroccan natural fibers are exploited as natural textile composites. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of 3D warp interlock fabrics based on Moroccan sisal yarns. Before weaving, the characteristics of sisal yarns have been analyzed following standards. Based on these natur...
Article
This paper presents the influence of fabric structures and stab angles on single-pass stab impact and the repeated and multi-angle stabbings of 3-dimensional (3D) warp interlock structural fabrics based on the high-molecular-weight polyethylene (HMWPE) yarns. Five kinds of samples with different structures were experimentally tested using the drop...
Article
Full-text available
The originality of this work consists of studying the stamping behaviour of tufted and un-tufted multi-layer carbon preforms. Several tufted preforms with different stratifications have been manufactured. The stamping test was carried out using a hemispherical punch and conducted at two blank-holder pressures (0.05 and 0.2 MPa). The experimental da...
Article
Draping of composite textile reinforcements on a square box was analyzed experimentally and by numerical simulation. This forming is difficult for fabrics with continuous fibers due to the quasi inextensibility of the fibers. It is shown that the feasibility of draping on a square box with a large depth depends on the weave pattern of the textile r...
Article
Full-text available
This work aims to investigate the physical and mechanical properties of sisal fiber and yarn of Moroccan origin. The cellulosic and non-cellulosic constituents of the Moroccan sisal fiber were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The thermal properties were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The hydrophilicity of the fiber was evaluated by the cont...
Article
Full-text available
Micro-braiding and co-wrapping techniques have been developed over a few decades and have made important contributions to biocomposites development. In this present study, a set of flax/polypropylene (PP) micro-braided and co-wrapped yarns was developed by varying different PP parameters (PP braiding angles and PP wrapping turns, respectively) to g...
Article
Fabrics constructed from 3 D warp interlock fabrics (3DWIFs) structures provide varying flexibility and durability and are promising structures for protective applications. However, its performance toward stab resistance from knife attack should be investigated before applying. In this work, the influences of fabric architectures, ply orientation o...
Article
The presence of the tufts has direct influence on the permeability of textile preforms. In this paper, new insights are presented into the mechanisms responsible for changes to the in-plane permeability of tufted preforms according to three different tufting patterns relative to flow direction with a constant tufting distance. The saturated permeab...
Article
This study focuses on the development and mechanical testing of a quasi-unidirectional woven hemp fabric for composite applications. The fabric is designed to combine the advantages of easy handling, impregnability by resin and fiber alignment. In this sense, low twisted rovings, low crimping characteristics and a high roving density in the main di...
Article
Full-text available
3D weaving process has been more and more used as reinforcement for composite materials. However, 3D weaving applications are recent and the mechanical properties of the 3D warp interlock fabrics are not well known. Tensile tests have been performed both in the warp and weft directions of the fabrics, indeed they lead to different behaviour regardi...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this research is the valorization of Moroccan natural resources through the manufacturing of innovative 3D interlocks textiles. In order to investigate the potential of the sisal yarns used into 3D warp interlock fabrics, the 3D fabrics were studied at multi-scales (micro-scale, meso-scale and macro-scale). Before starting the manufactur...
Article
Natural fibers are used to produce environmental-friendly composites with good specific mechanical and acoustical properties. Production of woven reinforcement from natural fibers is challenging because of the distinct length of the fibers. A lot of parameters at fiber extraction, spinning and weaving stages have an impact on the composite produced...
Article
Full-text available
As promising fibrous reinforcements in the thick composites manufacturing, 3-dimensional warp interlock fabrics (3DWIFs) are recognised more and more in the industry for their outstanding mechanical properties compared to the 2D laminates. The present work shows the influence of the fabric’s architecture on the tensile behaviour of 3DWIFs. Five kin...
Article
The present study focuses on the experimental and analytical analysis of the deformability behaviour of the triaxial braided fabrics during forming. The mechanical model of the yarns based on the parameters of the reinforcements and the forming process was discussed. On the other hand, the geometric model related to the braiding angle was proposed...
Article
The objective of this study is to develop hybrid hemp/thermoplastic roving adapted for composite manufacture. The hybrid roving has to be enough resistant to sustain the tension and abrasion stresses caused by the textile production processes. For this purpose, a multifilament of polyamide 12 is wrapped around a hemp roving. This wrapped roving is...
Article
Full-text available
Multiscale characterization of the textile preform made of natural fibers is an indispensable way to understand and assess the mechanical properties and behavior of composite. In this study, a multiscale experimental characterization is performed on three-dimensional (3D) warp interlock woven fabrics made of flax fiber on the fiber (micro), roving...
Article
Full-text available
The feasibility to manufacture a 3D warp interlock preform from 1000 Tex flax roving is investigated by means of a prototype machine developed to GEMTEX laboratory. The provided flax roving has low tensile failure load because of lack of twist so it isn’t suitable for weaving. The first step was dedicated to improve the tensile properties of the ro...
Chapter
Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been grown since the antiquity for tis ability to provide fibres for the confection of clothes. It has also been used for the production of technical fabrics such as sails for example. In the 20th century, and particularly in Europe, the vegetal fibres such as flax were progressively replaced by synthetic fibres fr...
Article
In recent years, the research interest on three-dimensional warp interlock woven fabrics (3DWIFs) as reinforcement in composites is warranted and obtained popularity due to their advantages over two-dimensional laminated fabrics. The current literature tends to address the aspects of mechanical properties of 3DWIFs by experimental and numerical app...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRPs) used extensively in the aerospace and automobile industries pose a challenge into machining techniques because of their hard-machine property. Abrasive waterjet (AWJ) as an emerging technology has been certified as the effective technology to machine such materials, especially for AWJ cutting. In order to fu...
Article
Recent developments in the field of bio-based composite materials are mainly focused on the use of unidirectional reinforcements. The production of woven fabrics and required yarns or rovings is still complex for composite applications due to the finite length of plant fibers and to the high number of process parameters which can be tuned. This stu...
Article
Full-text available
The use of composite materials reinforced by flax fibres has been increasing steadily over the last 20 years. These fibres show attractive mechanical properties but also some particularities (naturally limited length, presence of a lumen, fibres grouped in bundles in the plant, complex surface properties and composition). An analysis of the availab...
Article
Full-text available
In-plane shear is considered as the main deformation mechanism during the forming of fabrics on double curved geometries. Non-Crimp Fabrics (NCFs) are more and more used in the industry thanks to their high mechanical performances. The uniaxial bias extension (UBE) test is commonly used for characterizing the in-plane shear behavior of fabrics. How...
Conference Paper
Flax is a natural fiber with a growing industrial interest. Technical textiles and composites industries are increasingly fond of this type of fiber, with good mechanical properties. The aim of this study is to characterize 3D warp interlock fabric, from the raw material, here a flax roving. After a brief introduction of this type of fabric, struct...
Conference Paper
Les fibres naturelles sont de plus en plus utilisées en remplacement des fibres synthétiques dans la réalisation de préformes pour matériaux composites. Ces fibres naturelles, utilisées notamment pour leur aspect respectueux de l’environnement, sont majoritairement utilisées avec des résines thermodurcissables, qui sont difficilement recyclables. L...
Chapter
Mechanic performances of the textile reinforcements and composites depend strongly on their reinforcement structure, which plays an important role during the composite manufacturing and in-service life of the composite materials. By contrast with woven reinforcements, the braided fabrics are also widely used as textile reinforcements to manufacture...
Article
Full-text available
To date, nonwoven fabrics made with natural fibres and thermoplastic commingled fibres have been extensively used in the composite industry for a wide variety of applications. This paper presents an innovative study about the effect of the manufacturing parameters on the mechanical behaviour of flax/PP nonwoven reinforced composites. The mechanical...
Article
As a relatively novel technique, tufting is recently used to provide through-thickness reinforcement of a traditional 2D multi-layered preform, thus improving its resistance to delamination in the final part. In order to optimize the manufacturing process of the composite preforms reinforced by tufting, the studies of the forming behaviour of these...
Article
Landmines and Improvised Explosive Devices are known to be major threats for the coalition armies in operation. In order to protect the soldiers from their effects, armored vehicle manufacturers developed some blast protective solutions. However, these solutions often reduce the vehicles’ mobility and payload capacity because of their shape or weig...
Article
In this paper, an experimental and numerical study of the preforming process of the G1151 carbon woven fabric reinforcement is presented. The experimental analysis was based on tensile and shear tests. These tests were important to analyse the behaviour of this particular woven reinforcement and to figure out some key phenomena related to its defor...
Conference Paper
Reinforcement permeability represents crucial parameters in the manufacturing of fiber reinforced composites by liquid composite molding processes (LCM) [1]. Evaluation of fabric permeability is usually challenging and it requires several flow experiments. Indeed, permeability usually presents different values due to the anisotropic nature of texti...
Conference Paper
Le tissage 3D interlock chaine permet de réaliser des préformes épaisses pour matériaux composites. Or, cette technologie est très peu employée pour des renforts à base de fibres naturelles. Cette étude démontre à la fois la faisabilité du tissage 3D interlock chaine pour les fibres naturelles et s’intéresse à l’influence du nombre de couches sur l...
Conference Paper
Les fibres de chanvre sont de plus en plus utilisées pour le renfort de matériaux composites biosourcés, du fait de leur faible densité, de leur faible coût de production et de leurs bonnes propriétés. Les renforts en fibres de chanvre actuellement disponibles sur le marché sont sous forme de nontissés ou d’unidirectionnels. Les quelques préformes...
Conference Paper
De nombreux composites à base de renforts dits 3D, au sens qu'ils incluent des renforts dans l'épaisseur, ont été développés pour surmonter des problèmes inhérents aux stratifiés conventionnels, tels que leur faible résistance à la délamination et leur faible tolérance aux dommages lors de l'impact. Le renforcement dans l'épaisseur peut-être obtenu...
Preprint
The weak properties in the thickness of the laminates in terms of rigidity, fatigue and impact resistance involve delamination sensitivity for thick structures. This issue has led to the development of three-dimensional (3D) preforms with reinforcement through-the-thickness, making it possible to combine good mechanical performance in-plane and out...
Article
At the first stage of the Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) process, the composite reinforcements preforming is a complicated physical stage including complex deformability behaviours. In this paper, the deformability of carbon triaxial braided fabrics, one of the advanced composite reinforcements, is originally investigated. The yarns sliding along bot...
Article
The production of nonwoven fabrics from natural fibers is already expanding at an industrial level for simple curvature semi-structural part in the automotive industry. To develop their use for technical applications, this paper provides an experimental study of the mechanical behavior of flax-fiber nonwoven preforms. A comparison between different...
Article
An alternative to the multilayered preforming is to use structures reinforced through-the-thickness in order to manufacture thicker and more complex pieces. Stitching technology is developed to bind dry reinforcements together or to strengthen composites in thickness performance by inserting structural yarns. Tufting process represents the simplest...
Article
The first step in the composite manufacturing process consists of forming a flat textile reinforcing structure into a 3D shape. The quality of the final composite part is affected by the presence of defects induced during the forming process. Loss of cohesion in the woven fibre network (intra-ply yarn sliding) is a frequent defect in the forming pr...
Article
Full-text available
Knitted fabrics are used to manufacture soft implants for medical applications. Once integrated in the body, the fabric forms a new composite material with the native and scar tissues. The mechanical behavior of the composite is assumed to be hyperelastic to match with the physiological behavior of the native tissues and thus to improve the fabric...
Article
Full-text available
Cette étude décrit à la fois la faisabilité du tissage 3D interlock chaine à base de mèches de lin et la caractérisation multi-échelle de ces renforts secs pour matériaux composites. Le tissage 3D interlock chaine permet de réaliser des structures épaisses, plus résistantes aux délaminages que les empilements de tissus 2D. Les propriétés mécaniques...
Article
Full-text available
Manufacturing complex composite part via Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) processes involves preforming dry textile perform before injecting the liquid resin. The defect that may be encountered within the textile structure during preforming step decreases the expected mechanical properties of the composite part. The intra-ply yarn sliding is a defect...
Article
Recently, triaxial braids made from ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) have been recognized as one of the most popular composite reinforcements in the aerospace and defense fields. To further explore the mechanical characteristics of this material, a detailed experimental study on tensile behavior is reported in this paper. The triax...
Article
The three-dimensional weaving process enables to produce near-net shaped complex preforms used as reinforcement of composite materials. However, the lack of knowledge on the mechanical behaviour of these three-dimensional woven structures may restrict their use for composite material. To fill this gap, we have tempted to highlight their specific me...
Article
Full-text available
The final geometry of 3D warp interlock fabric needs to be check during the 3D forming step to ensure the right locations of warp and weft yarns inside the final structure. Thus, a new monitoring approach has been proposed based on sensor yarns located in the fabric thickness. To ensure the accuracy of measurements, the observation of the surface d...
Article
The flax fibre reinforced composites with advanced structure, which can be regarded as recyclable parts, are potential and promising materials in the automobile industry. During their manufacturing, the reinforcements or prepregs should be performed to the desired shape beforehand. Mechanical behaviours accordingly play an important role during thi...
Article
Full-text available
Natural fibres are used as an alternative to man-made fibres in fibre reinforced composite materials in a variety of applications due to their good specific strength and stiffness properties and limited environmental impact. However, contrary to man-made fibres, used in the form of continuous filaments, natural fibres are extracted from plants in w...
Article
Full-text available
3-Dimensional fabrics have been developed in order to remedy the damage through-the-thickness of the laminate. An alternative to the multi-layered preforming is to use structures reinforced through-the-thickness in order to manufacture thicker and more complex pieces. Currently, the tufting technology is getting more interest due to its simplest an...
Article
Full-text available
The present study carries on the characterization of dry reinforcement structure for composite material. Yarn properties were analyzed to select the optimal level of twist. The influence of 3D-warp interlock structure's bending type was also investigated. Structures, made with 1000Tex flax roving, were woven on a dobby loom. Physical characterizati...