Damen Haile Mariam

Damen Haile Mariam
Addis Ababa University | AAU · Department of Community Health

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109
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Publications (109)
Article
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Background Until recently, there were only a few medical schools in Ethiopia. However, currently, in response to the apparent shortage in physician workforce, the country has made huge progress with respect to the expansion of medical schools, by adopting the so-called flooding strategy. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of the intended strategy also...
Article
Purpose: African medical schools are expanding, straining resources at tertiary health facilities. Decentralizing clinical training can alleviate this tension. This study assessed the impact of decentralized training and contribution of undergraduate medical students at health facilities. Method: Participants were from 11 Medical Education Partn...
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Background In Ethiopia, the health care delivery and the system of medical education have been expanding rapidly. However, in spite of the expansion, no studies have been carried out among medical students to identify their career choices and attitudes towards the medical instruction. Therefore, this study aimed to fill the gap in evidence in these...
Article
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Background: Ethiopia is a country of over 94 million people that has a severe physician shortage with approximately only 2.5 physicians per 100,000 persons. Recently, the Ethiopian government implemented a "flood and retain" initiative to rapidly increase the quantity of physicians in Ethiopia. Consequently, medical student enrollment at Addis Aba...
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Background Shortages and imbalances in physician workforce distribution between urban and rural and among the different regions in Ethiopia are enormous. However, with the recent rapid expansion in medical education training, it is expected that the country can make progress in physician workforce supply. Therefore, the aim of this study was to exa...
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Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of health development aid in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Using panel data analytic method, as well as infant mortality ra...
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The eight member states (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda) of the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) have the largest proportions of cross-border mobile pastoralists and refugees in Africa. Although all IGAD countries have had national HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment programmes since...
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Background Understanding the spatial distribution of stunting and underlying factors operating at meso-scale is of paramount importance for intervention designing and implementations. Yet, little is known about the spatial distribution of stunting and some discrepancies are documented on the relative importance of reported risk factors. Therefore,...
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Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the clustering of undernutrition indicators of children under the age of 5 years in relation to different scales. Design: A community-based cross-sectional study design was employed. We collected anthropometric data, geographic locations/elevations of households and other data from visited household...
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Background. Long waiting time has been among the major factors that affect patient satisfaction and health service delivery. The aim of this study was to determine the median waiting time at the Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) Clinic before and after introduction of an intervention of the systematic appointment system. Methods. Patient waiting time w...
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Background: Cervical cancer is the second commonest type and third cause of cancer death among women in low-income countries. Women living with HIV/AIDS are at greater risk of developing cervical cancer. The study aimed to identify the determinant factors forsuspected precancerous cervical lesions among HIV- positive women in Mekelle hospital, Eth...
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Background: Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP) represent the most common medical complication in pregnancy associated with significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Identification of common maternal and perinatal morbidities associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is important for policy makers to pla...
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Background: Teenage pregnancy is directly related to high incidence of pregnancy related complications contributing to maternal morbidity and mortality and social problems. There are no enough data on teenage pregnancy and related complications in Ethiopia and in Benishangul Gumuz region in particular. Objective: To investigate the magnitude and fa...
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Background: The concept of food insecurity encompasses three dimensions. One of these dimensions, the access component of household food insecurity is measured through the use of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Despite its application in Ethiopia and other similar developing countries, its performance is still poorly explored. O...
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The highest incidence of maternal deaths occurs in Africa. Recent research has found governance in health systems to be a strong determinant of maternal health. Although the role and impact of determinants of governance have been studied individually, how and to what extent these variables influence each other and eventually impact access to matern...
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Background The amount and distribution of rainfall and temperature influences household food availability, thus increasing the risk of child under nutrition. However, few studies examined the local spatial variability and the impact of temperature and rainfall on child under nutrition at a smaller scale (resolution). We conducted this study to eval...
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Purpose: This paper examines the various models, challenges, and evaluative efforts of community-based education (CBE) programs at Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) schools and makes recommendations to strengthen those programs in the African context. Methods: Data were gathered from 12 MEPI schools through self-completion of a sta...
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Physician tracking systems are critical for health workforce planning as well as for activities to ensure quality health care - such as physician regulation, education, and emergency response. However, information on current systems for physician tracking in sub-Saharan Africa is limited. The objective of this study is to provide information on the...
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Impact of non-communicable diseases is not well-documented in Ethiopia. We aimed to document the prevalence and mortality associated with four major non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia: cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Associated risk factors: hypertension, tobacco-use, harmful use of alcohol, o...
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Faculty turn-over affects both workers and organizations. Turnover of faculty and researchers is increasing alarmingly and costing the universities and the country at large. Fast turnover of health professionals from the health system and from academic institutions has recently received substantial attention from both academia and health sector man...
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Changes in socioeconomic status, lifestyle and behavioral factors among the urban population in Ethiopia is resulting in a shift in the causes of mortality.We used verbal autopsy data from 2006 to 2009 to measure the association of socioeconomic and behavioral factors with causes of mortality in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 49,309 deaths from...
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Background Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death from cancer among women in low-resource settings, affecting women at a time of life when they are critical to social and economic stability. In addition, the economic burden is important for policy formulation. The aim of this study is to estimate patient side cost and to determine predictors o...
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Background: Traditional, complimentary and alternative medicines (TCAMS) are increasingly being promoted by various Sub-Saharan African governments as a promising health resource in the control and amelioration of HIV/AIDS. The accessibility and cultural acceptability of both herbal medicines and faith healing and the scarcity of antiretroviral tre...
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Background: Evidence has shown that in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV spreads mainly through heterosexual relationships. It is documented that, among others, the problem is more pronounced in connection to prevailing multiple sexual relations and marital infidelity. Despite evident association between such practice and spread in HIV infection, to date mul...
Chapter
This volume demonstrates that the social sciences can contribute significantly to a better understanding of the complexities of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and to developing effective and appropriate prevention, care, and support programs in Sub-Saharan Africa during this time of stepped-up responses. Disciplinary blindness and biased research pursuing b...
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Background Ethiopia is encountering a growing burden of non-communicable diseases along with infectious diseases, perinatal and nutritional problems that have long been considered major problems of public health importance. This retrospective analysis was carried out to examine the mortality patterns from communicable diseases and non communicable...
Article
Introduction In Ethiopia, lack of reliable data on causes of death prevents full understanding of the double mortality burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. Our objective was to help bridge this research gap by analyzing surveillance data on causes of death in Addis Ababa.
Article
Stigma has been a major barrier to accessing HIV prevention, care, and treatment services. This study seeks to assess the effect of stigma on self-reported adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and self-confidence to take medication correctly among HIV-infected adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A descriptive cross-sectional study...
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Background Verbal autopsy has been widely used to estimate causes of death in settings with inadequate vital registries, but little is known about its validity. This analysis was part of Addis Ababa Mortality Surveillance Program to examine the validity of verbal autopsy for determining causes of death compared with hospital medical records among a...
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Patient retention in care is a critical challenge for antiretroviral treatment programs. This is mainly because retention in care is related to adherence to treatment and patient survival. It is therefore imperative that health facilities and programs measure patient retention in care. However, the currently available tools, such as Kaplan Meier, f...
Conference Paper
Background: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death from cancer among women in low-resource settings, affecting women at a time of life when they are critical to social and economic stability. Corresponding to its magnitude, the economic burden is significant. Objectives: To estimate economic burden of cervical cancer among patients and to de...
Article
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In Ethiopia, lack of reliable data on causes of death prevents full understanding of the double mortality burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. Our objective was to help bridge this research gap by analyzing surveillance data on causes of death in Addis Ababa. Burial surveillance identified 58,010 deaths in Addis Ababa from 2006 thro...
Article
Introduction In Ethiopia, lack of reliable data on causes of death prevents full understanding of the double mortality burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. Our objective was to help bridge this research gap by analyzing surveillance data on causes of death in Addis Ababa. Methods Burial surveillance identified 58,010 deaths in Addis...
Article
Studies have reported an inverse relationship between depressive symptoms and weight and CD4 gain and a positive association between social support and weight and CD4 gain. The main objective of this study was to explore the effect of depressive symptoms and perceived social support on weight change and CD4 cell progression in an HIV clinic in Ethi...
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Background: The theme of the 13th World Congress on Public Health, "Moving Towards Global Health Equity: Opportunities and Threats", strikes an optimistic note as the gaps within and between countries are greater than at any time in recent history. There is no consensus on what globalization is, but most agree that it will substantially shape all t...
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Background: Equity in public health implies that ideally everyone should have a fair opportunity to attain a full health potential and no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential. The health policy of Ethiopia emphasizes universal access for all segments of population. This study was done to assess the determinants of equity in the...
Article
Background: In most developing countries, reproductive health accounts usually do not tend to reflect the extent of out-of-pocket expenditures by households. Studies elsewhere have shown that individuals and households spending cover a substantial part of total financial resource flows on reproductive health such as sexually transmitted infections...
Article
Background: One of the components of reproductive health is maternal care. Maternal health care is supposed to be provided free of charge for public health concerns thus women have the right to get services related to maternal care free of charge at government health care facilities. But there is low utilization of the services. Only 12% of women r...
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Background: HIV continues to be the major public health challenge in Ethiopia. Despite positive developments in prevention efforts during the last three decades, the pandemic has continued to spread further expanding to remote pastoral communities. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the current state of awareness on modes of pre...
Article
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The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends shifting tasks from physicians to lower cadres for the delivery of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for countries short of physicians. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of ART delivery by health officers and nurses in Ethiopia. A retrospective cohort study to evaluate outc...
Article
Background: Behavioral surveys help interpret the magnitude of HIV/AIDS. We analyzed indicators of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and condom use among different groups of populations selected for behavioral surveillance in Ethiopia. Methods: We used HIV/AIDS Behavioural Surveillance Surveys (BSS) data collected from ten target groups in Ethiopia. These were...
Article
There has been a massive expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) services in Ethiopia since 2005. To assess clients’ self-reported adherence to HAART medication, a descriptive, comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among adults receiving HAART medication at the Zewditu Memorial Hospital ART clinic in Addis Ababa. Of 1...
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Promoting self-financing healthcare helps restore efficiency and equity to national health systems. This study was conducted in malaria-endemic areas of southern Ethiopia to assess the bednet possession of the community, determine the people's willingness-to-pay for insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), and identify what factors influence it. The stu...
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Many resource-limited countries are scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART) towards universal access. However, there are few studies which evaluated outcomes of ART programs in these countries. In addition, these studies generally include a limited number of facilities and patients creating a clear need for studies with a wide range of facilities...
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This commentary discusses the historical development, organization and activities of the Ethiopian Public Health Association (EPHA), a professional civil society organization that operates on the principles of protection of public interest and professional standards in health in areas of health development in Ethiopia. The important roles played by...
Article
Historical accounts of famines in Ethiopia go as far back as the 9th century, however, evidence on its impact on health only started to emerge from the 15th century onwards. Unfortunately, famine has been endemic in Ethiopia in the last few decades. The 1973 famine is reported to have claimed over 300,000 lives. In 1985 approximately 10 million peo...
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Expanding access to HIV counseling and testing (HCT) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) has reduced morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS. As a result, many countries are scaling up HIV/AIDS services. In this paper we discuss challenges experienced during the move toward universal access to HCT and ART services in Ethiopia. We revi...
Article
Quality tuberculosis care plays an important role in the status of tuberculosis (TB) control, treatment completion and adherence. Nonetheless, very little is known about the quality of TB care in public health facilities in Ethiopia. In this study we assessed the quality of TB care delivery in Afar Region of Ethiopia. A descriptive cross sectional...
Article
Objectives: To assess the relationship between genitourinary prolapse (GUP) and joint hyper-mobility (JHM).Design: Double-blind cross-sectional survey.Setting: Adigrat hospital, northern Ethiopia, which serves as a referral centre for about one million people.Patients: Two hundred and nine women were examined for joint hyper-mobility using the modi...
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Ethiopia has a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Single-point estimates show adult HIV prevalence of 2.1 per cent for 2007. The 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS 2005) had indicated a national-level adult prevalence rate of 1.4 per cent among adults aged between 15 and 49 years (6 and 0.7 per cent in urban and rural residents, respective...
Article
Medical research involves the voluntary participation of human subjects. Potential participants need information upon which they can make their decision. This review aims to evaluate standard of informed consent and information to human participants in researches conducted at Faculty of Medicine (FoM), Addis Ababa University (AAU). A retrospective...
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Background: The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development (EJHD) has been in print for twenty five years now. On the occasion of its silver jubilee anniversary, it may be of interest to reflect on its activities and the possible impacts it has made on health development of the country. Objective: To highlight the major issues that have been addressed...
Article
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Behavioral surveys help interpret the magnitude of HIV/AIDS. We analyzed indicators of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and condom use among sub populations selected for behavioral surveillance in Ethiopia. We used 2005 HIV/AIDS behavioral data from ten target groups. These were female sex workers, defense forces, police force, pastoralists, truck drivers, in...
Article
This chapter reviews Ethiopia' response to its HIV epidemic. Overall, the government of Ethiopia has shown great commitment in tackling the problems posed by the HIV epidemic in the country. The magnitude of the epidemic in the major urban settings appears to be stabilizing or even lessening, but in rural settings it is on the increase. Although mu...