Dale Hample

Dale Hample
University of Maryland, College Park | UMD, UMCP, University of Maryland College Park · Department of Communication

About

123
Publications
22,289
Reads
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1,370
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2007 - present
University of Maryland, College Park
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • I do research on face to face arguing. Most of my work is quantitative social science, although I am conversant with the rhetorical and philosophical traditions in argumentation.
August 1975 - July 2007
Western Illinois University
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (123)
Article
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This is a descriptive study (N = 243) of how Polish undergraduates and graduates perceive face to face arguing. We had some reasons to suppose that they would not be especially aggressive. The Polish culture has a number of proverbs warning against combative arguing, with “agreement builds and disagreement destroys” being illustrative. In addition,...
Article
This project investigates orientations toward interpersonal arguing among Chilean seniors ( N = 243), having a mean age of 72 years. We found no prior attention to seniors in the interpersonal arguing literature, and only a little to Chileans. Sited within the US framework for studying interpersonal arguing (see Hample, 2016 ), this project collect...
Article
In legal and educational circles, the quality of arguments has become a growing national concern in Mexico. We examined the motivations, understandings, and private reactions to arguing among Mexican college students, and compare these to data from the United States. Mexican men were more aggressive than women, which is not the case in all nations...
Article
The Dutch are often thought of as direct, verbally aggressive, and argumentative. Yet, evidence for this stereotype is lacking. This study explores argumentative predispositions in the Netherlands. In a survey, Dutch students’ ( N = 133) argumentativeness, verbal aggressiveness, argument frames, and conflict personalization were measured. The effec...
Article
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This research explores the dynamics of interpersonal arguing in South Korea by considering cultural influence, individual traits, and contexts. In a cross-cultural study (Study 1) where Koreans (N = 349) were compared to U.S. Americans (N = 237) on basic measures of argument orientations, several interesting contrasts emerged, along with considerab...
Chapter
An ideal understanding of good interpersonal disagreement might propose that it be community argument. Such arguing takes place within a mutual community of shared values and mutual respect, or invites an external person to join the arguers’ communities during the argument. This chapter raises concerns about the prospects for community argument.
Article
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In this paper, we report on the orientations of Turkish college students to interpersonal arguing and compare them with American students’ predispositions for arguing. In measuring the argument orientations, a group of instruments was utilized: argument motivations, argument frames, and taking conflict personally. Turkish data come from 300 college...
Article
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When people avoid conflict, there is no “away.” Where do they go physically or mentally? Both engaging and avoiding have a push and a pull. If we knew where avoiders go, we could study the pull of avoidance. This is a descriptive study (N = 446) of interpersonal conflict. We found that physical and mental avoidance appeared with similar frequency,...
Article
An unexpected argument is one that takes its target by surprise, possibly leaving the person feeling attacked. We conducted two studies to provide what we believe to be the first empirical description of this phenomenon. Our results showed that the role distinction between surpriser and surprisee significantly differentiated the tactics used in the...
Article
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Objective: To investigate (1) how perceived parental control, perceived parental modeling, and parent-teen co-decision making are associated with teenagers’ consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as sugary drinks and less healthful food; and (2) whether self-efficacy mediates this relationship. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Participants...
Conference Paper
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The most productive arguing typically involves differences in views, and these are to be experienced in contact with communities other than the arguer's. These communities can be social groups or, metaphorically, discrete sections of long term memory. Evolution has ensured that people are inclined to agree with their own social communities and disp...
Chapter
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Generalization arguments and critical thinking about them
Chapter
This paper investigates dialogue orientations in conjunction with argumentation traits and argument frames in dyads (friends or strangers). Respondents participated in a laboratory experiment and indicated the dialogue orientations they intended to use in an argument with another person. Findings revealed some correlations between friends’ dialogue...
Article
Background: Advances in cancer immunotherapy and targeted therapy have improved clinical outcomes for patients with advanced melanoma. However, there is a lack of understanding of patients’ emerging needs in this new treatment landscape. The purpose of this study was to explore melanoma patients’ medical and psychosocial needs and perceived barrier...
Article
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We report data on Portuguese understandings of interpersonal arguing, based on a survey conducted in Portugal (N = 252). Employing concepts and methods developed for studying interpersonal arguing, we report on the levels of argumentativeness, verbal aggressiveness, personalization of conflict, and argument frames. After comparing Portuguese men an...
Article
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We used R. S. Lazarus’ (Emotion and Adaptation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991) appraisal theory of emotions to propose a theoretical model of anxiety, upon which we built two empirical models centering on intercultural communication apprehension (ICA), distinguished by timing. We tested the models in three samples: Chinese in the US (N = 26...
Article
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Taking conflict personally (TCP), the degree to which people experience negative consequences from conflict, is typically conceived as a state or trait. This investigation went beyond TCP as an individual characteristic in identifying differences in TCP based on the type of relationship in which conflict is situated. Participants were surveyed abou...
Chapter
This paper investigates dialogue orientations in conjunction with argumentation traits and argument frames in dyads (friends or strangers). Respondents participated in a laboratory experiment and indicated the dialogue orientations they intended to use in an argument with another person. Findings revealed some correlations between friends’ dialogue...
Article
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A consequential unscripted interaction (CUI) is a conversation that a person understands to be important but does not know how to do. CUIs might be widespread within a population, but are perhaps more likely to be individual or localized within a discrete group (e.g., young women or rural boys). This paper introduces this idea, distinguishes CUIs f...
Article
This study examines reactions to others’ conflict. We examined the effects of taking conflict personally (TCP), sex, conflict initiation (husband vs. wife initiation), and past victimization from domestic abuse on predicting conciliation in response to escalating aggression over four time periods. We examined both the prediction of escalation and i...
Article
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Based in the assertion that different cultures value aspects of communication differently, this study explored the position of Singapore on the continuum of communication apprehension (CA), self-perceived communication competence (SPCC), and willingness to communicate (WTC). Responses were obtained from 209 self-identified ethnic-Chinese born in Si...
Article
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Employee dissent is understood as resulting from unsatisfying organizational states. Dissatisfaction can be felt but not expressed; dissent is the actual performance of disagreement with immediate circumstances. Constructive expression of dissent can have positive consequences, and therefore, much scholarly attention has been drawn to the phenomeno...
Article
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This research examined how the interaction between a source's facial similarity to message targets and communicated bias affects audience persuadability. We used an evolutionary explanation to hypothesize that biased sources would elicit less favorable attitudes than unbiased sources for dissimilar sources, but that this difference would be absent...
Chapter
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The development of the U.S. approach to studying interpersonal arguing is examined from an historical perspective. The intellectual climate leading into the 1970s is summarized, and then Joseph Wenzel's influence at the University of Illinois is explained. Historical and current trends in this scholarly tradition are summarized.
Chapter
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This empirical project reports data on Portuguese under- standings of, and orientations to, interpersonal arguing, based on a survey conducted in Portugal (N=252). We report information on levels of argumentativeness, verbal aggressiveness, personalization of conflict, and argument frames. We compare results between Portuguese men and women, and be...
Chapter
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A person who takes conflict personally feels that conflicts are punishing, nasty interactions. Taking conflict personally is a set of relatively enduring predispositions and expectations, and is not easily changed. Its connection to other personality variables, cognitive processes, and conflict behaviors are summarized.
Chapter
Interpersonal arguing is the exchange of divergent views accompanied by reasons. This activity takes on the character of interpersonal communication in general, but its distinctive feature is the focal presence of reasons given and tested. Attention is given to argument production, the argumentative exchange itself, and the outcomes of arguing for...
Chapter
Cognitive editing refers to the process by which people suppress or revise messages prior to saying them. The standards people use to do this editing are described. Profiles of people who are task oriented or person centered emerge from the research.
Article
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This paper reports the first empirical results aiming to characterize argumentative practices in Chile. We described features of Chilean interpersonal arguing among university students, compared those results with others obtained in the United States, and also compared the associations among variables from country to country. Chilean men displayed...
Article
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United Arab Emirates (UAE) is currently a hub of 200 nationalities with a variety of lifestyles and religions. Nonetheless, the attitudes of locals towards reasoning with others have not yet been investigated. This investigation studied fundamental orientations to arguing among UAE residents (N = 157), with a range of self-report instruments includ...
Article
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China has a longstanding tradition of stressing the values of harmony and coherence, and Chinese society has often been portrayed as a culture in which conflict avoidance is viewed more positively than direct confrontation and argumentation. In order to evaluate the validity of this claim, this paper sketches Chinese people’s feelings and understan...
Article
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Serial argument theory explains recurring conflict within personal relationships. The theory specifies that an arguer’s goals influence his/her tactics, leading to argument outcomes which include effects on the relationship. We extend this model in two ways. First we suggest that attachment styles predict serial argument goals. Second, we hypothesi...
Article
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This paper examines topics of serial arguments in different contexts and relationship types. Data from previous studies were compiled to examine the open-ended desaiptions that participants (N = 2,246) provided for their serial arguments. Data were coded based on topic type (i.e., public, professional, or personal) and disagreement type (i.e., disa...
Article
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A rarely studied motive for engaging in face-to-face arguing is to display one’s identity. One way people can manage their impressions is to give reasons (arguments) for their commitments. This appears to be the first study to focus on this reason for arguing. 461 undergraduates recalled an episode in which they had argued to display own identity....
Article
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This article tests a resolution of the difficulties in specifying how goals and situations relate to one another. The new theory suggests a distinction among situational features. “Reasonably apparent” features are those that are fairly obvious at the start of an interaction. “Subjective” features are emergent and depend on a participant’s experien...
Article
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We explored the effects of evidence, credibility, style, and risk perceptions on attitudes toward the recommendations of persuasive health messages. The health messages concerned antibacterial soap, meningitis vaccination, and an over-the-counter diet drug. Respondents (N = 916) provided their perceptions of the messages' evidence, the source's int...
Chapter
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Conflict is common in ongoing relationships because partners have shared history and interdependence. Yet, bonding strengthens the relationship such that partners can understand disapproval from one another and the relationship can survive partner disagreements (Canary, Cupach, & Serpe, 2001). Gottman’s (1994; 2011) extensive research involving 12...
Article
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This exploratory study analyzed the motivations and practices of argumentation in India, an increasingly important player in regional and international affairs. Indian data indicated that arguing patterns were influenced by age and gender. Younger men reported more playful arguing than women and older women reported being more stressed by arguments...
Article
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In the 1970s, Hample developed a successful model of intrapersonal argument. Loosely based on the law of total probability, the model used a normatively correct standard to predict people’s adherence to persuasive claims. That original research used single-item measures that could not be assessed for internal consistency. The present study estimate...
Article
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In this chapter, we review an important distinction in interpersonal argumentation between public-issue arguments and personal-issue arguments. Public-issue arguments focus on concerns outside an interpersonal dyad, whereas personal-issue arguments focus on issues tied closely to an interpersonal relationship. These two types of interpersonal argum...
Article
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Blurting is production of speech that is spontaneous, unedited, and negative in its repercussions. Study 1 (N = 230) analyzed open-ended descriptions of situations in which respondents had blurted and situations in which they had been tempted to blurt but stopped themselves. Coding of those materials supported our essential understanding of blurtin...
Article
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We interviewed 25 African American HIV survivors who were as much as 25 years distant from their original diagnoses. We asked them to tell us about both supportive and non-supportive messages they received upon learning of their HIV status. Their interviews showed evidence of the importance of what we call standing to support. This idea is that par...
Article
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This research project substantially extends the reach of serial argument theory from its nearly exclusive application to close relationships, into the workplace. Data ( N = 364) were gathered on general motivation to engage in a serial argument, specific goals, several tactics, and three outcome measures (resolvability, civility, and organizational...
Article
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This investigation tests Honeycutt's (200311. Honeycutt , J. M. ( 2003 ). Imagined interactions: Daydreaming about communication . Cresskill , NJ : Hampton . View all references) conflict linkage theory in the context of serial arguing. Reports on the characteristics of imagined interactions were obtained before, after, and between two episodes of...
Chapter
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When a situation makes an interpersonal argument possible, sometimes people engage in arguing and sometimes they avoid it. This empirical study (N = 509) construed the engagement decision as being based on the type of argument topic (personal, public, or workplace), individual differences (argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness), and the antic...
Article
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Serial arguing has mainly been studied in the context of close relationships. This study generalizes those theories and findings to the context of classrooms. Respondents (N = 348) reported on serial arguments they had experienced either in college or in high school classes. High school serial arguments were more brutish than those in college. Reso...
Article
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Support was found for a hierarchical model of argumentativeness theory (N = 1541) in which the second-order factors of motivation to argue and verbal aggressiveness exert top-down influence on subsidiary motives and attitudes. Emotional involvement with arguing and emotional involvement with verbal aggressing were added to clarify the originating t...
Article
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Some people report that they argue for play. We question whether and how often such arguments are mutually entertaining for both participants. Play is a frame for arguing, and the framing may not always be successful in laminating the eristic nature of interpersonal argumentation. Previous research and theory suggest that playfulness may be associa...
Article
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This study examines thoughts and feelings about conflict. A person may use imagined interactions (IIs) to work through a conflict situation. One factor that may affect the nature of IIs about conflict is the tendency among some individuals to take conflict personally. Taking conflict personally (TCP) is the feeling that conflict is a negative life...
Article
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Do people make different assessments of fallacies in conversation based on fallacy type, topic type, and trait measures of conflict personalization? College students (n = 322) completed the Taking Conflict Personally battery (Hample & Dallinger, 199514. Hample , D. , & Dallinger , J. M. ( 1995 ). A Lewinian perspective on taking conflict personally...
Article
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This essay reconsiders the question, “Is human thought logical?” Some structural features of human cognition are described, focusing chiefly on the distinction between consciousness and unconsciousness. The syllogism research which supports the conclusion that human thought is not particularly logical is considered and set aside for several reasons...
Article
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This paper reports the results of three exploratory studies aimed at describing the purposes and consequences of lies. Observational modes were: a partly open‐ended questionnaire, content analysis of several tape‐recorded interviews, and a large‐scale survey. Several results appeared in all three studies. Two of three lies are told for selfish reas...
Article
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Since argument frames precede most other arguing processes, argument editing among them, one’s frames may well predict one’s preferred editorial standards. This experiment assesses people’s arguing frames, gives them arguments to edit, and tests whether the frames actually do predict editorial preferences. Modest relationships between argument fram...
Article
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This paper addresses the conceptualization and production of irony. Specifically, psychological predispositions are used to identify what makes the production of an ironic message likely. Reasons for endorsing and suppressing ironic messages are discussed based on individuals' goals in a situation. The importance of common ground between individual...
Article
Theories of message production have in common that they presume the existence of inventional repertoires, but few such theories have connected repertorial elements to message features. Research on inventional capacity has established that repertoire size is a feature of cognitive ability and has explored the content of the repertoires. This is the...
Article
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I wish to argue in favor of a particular orientation, one expressed in Brockriede’s remark that “aruments are not in statements but in people.” While much has been gained from textual analyses, even more will accrue by additional attention to the arguers. I consider that textual materials are really only the artifacts of arguments. The actual argui...
Article
The production of arguments is, or is expected to be, influenced by a number of factors, including one's expectations concerning what occurs during interpersonal arguments, one's emotional predispositions about arguing, and the goals of making good, appropriate arguments. This investigation focused on these factors. Argument frames refers to one's...
Article
Emotional experience is important to people's understandings of interpersonal arguments. However, very little research illuminates the moment-to-moment emotionality of arguing. This project used emotional data from dyadic arguers. Arguer, partner, and coder ratings of anger, happiness, sadness, tenderness, and attitude toward the other were gathere...
Article
Arguing: Exchanging Reasons Face to Face describes the process and products of face-to-face argument. Author Dale Hample presents arguing as a type of interpersonal interaction, rather than as a kind of text or a feature of a public speech. He focuses primarily on argument production, and explores the rhetorical and philosophical traditions of argu...
Article
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Disagreement space consists of all the commitments and understandings required for an utterance to take on its discourse function. These are virtual standpoints that can be called out for explicit argumentation. This paper shows how the Inquisition systematically controlled disagreement space, preventing some apparently important standpoints from e...
Article
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Uses think-aloud protocols to triangulate previous research on the cognitive editing of messages. Finds evidence for existence of all but one of Hample and Dallinger's editorial standards that arguers (undergraduate students) apply in deciding whether to suppress or produce an idea in persuasive discourse. Shows these editorial standards are used t...
Article
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Participants kept diaries of arguments that were avoided or cut short, and what tactics were used. We determined if the diarist thought the argument was explicit, if it was destructive, and how the diarist felt about it. We explored whether certain tactics are mostly used for avoidance or for cutting short. Explicitness and destructiveness of argum...
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This chapter analyzes interpersonal conflicts by means of Lewin’s field theory, which requires a commitment to studying the actor’s life space, or perceptions of his or her environment. A particular focus here is on taking conflict personally (TCP), the feeling that interpersonal conflicts are antagonistic, punishing interactions in which an indivi...
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The rebuff phenomenon is a robust empirical regularity that emerges from many compliance gaining studies, using widely varying methodologies. The effect is this: when a persuader is confronted with a rebuff, his/her next message will tend to be be ruder and more aggressive than the initial appeal. This could be due to repertoire exhaustion, or to a...
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Taking conflict personally (TCP) is conceptualized as a negative emotional personalization of conflict episodes. Here, individuals' TCP levels were examined in relationship to both their own conflict management styles and their perceptions of supervisors' conflict management styles. Results indicate that one's TCP levels are associated with one's o...