D. Soto

D. Soto
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | FAO · Fisheries and Aquaculture Department

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75
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Publications

Publications (75)
Article
Here, we review extensive information to estimate environmental risks from escaped non‐native salmonids based on the assessments of hazard, sensitivity and exposure of discrete water bodies in Chile. In 2020, the country harvested about 1 million tons salmonids from net pens located along 1500 km of highly biodiverse coastline. We base our analysis...
Article
The increasing occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) affecting mariculture has been related to climatic factors but also to increasing eutrophication of coastal zones, to which aquaculture may also contribute. The role of climate change on HABs may be increasingly relevant but scientific efforts to separate this from other causal factors are to...
Article
This study addresses the risk and vulnerability of Chilean salmon production to hazards resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic threat, including limited access to farms, limited processing capacity and reduced market demand. The role of different management approaches in reducing risk and vulnerability is also explored. Results suggest that concessio...
Article
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Oceanographic conditions in coastal Chilean northern Patagonia (41–46°S) are strongly influenced by freshwater inputs. Precipitation and streamflow records have shown a marked decrease in this area during the last decades. Given this hydro-climatic scenario, we evaluated the hydrological sensitivity driven by climate change in the Puelo River (aver...
Technical Report
Full-text available
These proceedings present the outcome of the FishAdapt: the global conference on climate change adaptation for fisheries and aquaculture. The conference was organized by the FAO, supported through a Scientific Committee and hosted by the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) in Bangkok from 8 to 10 August 2016. The conference was fi...
Article
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The growth of Chilean salmon production has not been free of important sanitary and environmental shortcomings. To ensure sustainability, it is necessary to understand the environmental impacts of salmon production on the Patagonian ecosystems. Currently, there is limited regulation or monitoring of impacts in the freshwater phase compared to the m...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The ecosystem approach to aquaculture provides the conceptual guideline for spatial planning and management. This publication describes the major steps related to these activities. The rationale for and objectives of each step, the ways (methodologies) to implement it, and the means (tools) that are available to enable a methodology are described i...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The ecosystem approach to aquaculture provides the conceptual guideline for spatial planning and management. This publication describes the major steps related to these activities. The rationale for and objectives of each step, the ways (methodologies) to implement it, and the means (tools) that are available to enable a methodology are described i...
Article
Full-text available
Aquaculture is an increasingly important food-producing sector, providing protein for human consumption. However, marine aquaculture often struggles for space due to the crowded nature of human activities in many marine coastal areas, and because of limited attention from spatial planning managers. Here, we assess the need for coastal spatial plann...
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasions create complex eco-logical and societal issues worldwide. Most of the knowledge about invasions comes only from success-ful invaders, but less is known about which processes determine the differential success of invasions. In this review, we develop a framework to identify the main dimensions driving the success and failure of...
Article
Full-text available
The exponential growth of the salmonid farming industry during the last 3 decades has created conditions for massive escapes of these exotic species into natural environments in southern Chile. Here, we review and update information about salmonid escapes from 1993 to 2012 and examine their potential environmental, social, and economic consequences...
Article
Full-text available
Chile is the second largest producer of farmed salmon in the world. After reaching a peak harvest of 631 000 tonnes in 2008, a severe sanitary and production crisis triggered a major legal and operational reorganization, and an imminent expansion of the industry into the Aysén Fjords System (AFS). This expansion has caused increasing national and i...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document contains the proceedings of the technical workshop entitled “Expanding mariculture farther offshore: technical, environmental, spatial and governance challenges” held from 22 to 25 March 2010, in Orbetello, Italy, and organized by the Aquaculture Branch of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Department of the Food and Agriculture Organizati...
Chapter
Full-text available
The growth in world aquaculture required to meet the demands of society will result in ever-increasing pressure upon aquatic and terrestrial resources. There are also potential consequences on the environment and on biodiversity, as well as inevitable societal impacts. There is growing adoption of aspects of the ecosystem approach to aquaculture (E...
Conference Paper
Biological invasions represent one of the greatest threats to aquatic ecosystems, particularly in locations a high degree of isolation and endemism, such as southern South America. In this region, salmonids are top-level invaders, but information about their dispersal, persistence, and population dynamics is still limited. Here, we used available h...
Article
Full-text available
Using stable isotope analyses of N and C we present preliminary evidence of marine-derived nutrients from introduced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Walbaum) in stream food webs of Laguna Los Patos, NW Patagonia. Similar to values reported within Chinook salmon's native distributional range periphyton and aquatic insects are the trophic le...
Article
Trophic relations among introduced species may induce highly variable and complex effects in communities and ecosystems. However, studies that identify the potential impacts for invaded systems and illuminate mechanisms of coexistence with native species are scarce. Here, we examined trophic relations between two introduced fishes in streams of NW...
Chapter
Full-text available
Knowledge has always been critically important to the development of aquaculture whether we are talking about the earliest aquaculture innovations starting in Asia or the more recent challenges confronting the sector worldwide. This panel reviewed selected national and regional case studies. Key topics for discussion include knowledge production an...
Data
Full-text available
This review addresses how the ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA) can optimize aquaculture-fisheries interactions considering different spatial scales from farm, aquaculture zone and watershed through to the global market. Aquaculture and fisheries are closely related subsectors with frequent interactions, largely due to the sharing of common e...
Chapter
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It is often overlooked that over 500 million people depend, directly or indirectly, on fisheries
Article
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ABSTRACT Rainbow trout is one of the most popular introduced game species around the world. Similar patterns of use for lake and inlet streams have been described for both native and introduced populations. However, for many introduced rainbow trout populations, there is a lack of information about how and when those habitats have been used. Here,...
Article
Full-text available
In South America, salmonids have been widely introduced to lakes, yet there are still many oligotrophic lakes without current abundance estimates. Catch per unit effort is a good estimator of fish abundance, but its correct implementation requires an expensive and long-term effort. Thus, there is a need to develop a rapid assessment to estimate the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Attention is presently turning to the processes, methods and tools that allow practical implementation of the ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA).This will require the use of various tools and methodologies, including environmental impact assessments and risk analysis. Ecosystem-based management involves a transition from traditional sector-by-...
Article
Full-text available
Constraints on the availability of freshwater and land plants and animals to feed tire 9.2 billion humans projected to inhabit Earth by 2050 can be overcome by enhancing the contribution the ocean makes to food production. Catches from ocean fisheries are unlikely to recover without adequate conservation measures, so the greater contribution of the...
Article
Full-text available
The Torres del Paine National Park is characterized by the presence of numerous water bodies, such as large oligotrophic lakes, small lakes with fishes, and small shallow ponds. The published studies, based on data obtained between 1989 and 1991, indicates that species richness is inversely related with the conductivity and directly related with ch...
Article
This paper quantifies two important native forest ecosystem services in southern Chile: water supply and recreational fishing opportunities. We analyzed streamflow in relation to forest cover in six watersheds located in the Valdivian Coastal Range (39 degrees 50'-40 degrees 05'S), the effect of forest management on streamflow in two watersheds in...
Article
Full-text available
Introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta fario are the most abundant fishes in lie northern Chilean Patagonia, and their effect on native fishes is not well known. We tested for interactive segregation between trout and native fishes by using a before-after, control-impact design in which we deliberately reduced the...
Article
1. Even though intensive aquaculture production of salmonids in lakes occurs in many locations around the world published studies on the survival and reproductive success of escaped cultured salmonids in freshwater ecosystems are not common. A recent expansion of aquaculture in Chile has led it to become the world's second largest producer of cultu...
Article
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food-producing sector in the world. It is developing, expanding and intensifying in almost all regions of the world. The global population is increasing, thus, the demand for aquatic food products is also increasing. Production from capture fisheries has levelled off and most of the main fishing areas have reached...
Article
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Chilean Patagonia has numerous unpolluted terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, containing many unpolluted and pristine lakes and ponds. Published and unpublished information collected between 1989 and 1990 in lakes and ponds within Torres del Paine National Park, an unpolluted and pristine protected área in Southern Chile (51°S), was analysed in thi...
Article
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We evaluated nitrogen (N) export for various catchments in the San Pedro River watershed of South-central Chile (39°20′ to 40°12′S) during the dry season (February to March). We measured concentrations and export of the various N species at 16 points from the Andean headwaters to the lowland portion of the watershed: eight main nested points along...
Chapter
Full-text available
Since the mid-1960s, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar farming has grown into a large industry within and beyond the native range of the species. Norway, Chile, Scotland and Canada are the largest producers (46, 31, 10 and 7% of total production in 2005). A number of environmental concerns have arisen from the phenomenal growth of the industry. This repo...
Article
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We review the status of the freshwater fish fauna of Patagonia, an assemblage with 26 native species, comprising fishes of Gondwanan origin, marine dispersants, and oceanic elements of local origin. Several processes, old and new, have shaped the landscape of Patagonia and its fauna: a Gondwanan heritage, the Andes uplifting, Pleistocene ice, volca...
Article
The Chilean Patagonian lakes are characterized by their oligotrophy, high endemism, significant predominance of calanoid copepods in comparison to daphnid cladocerans, and low species richness. These characteristics are in marked contrast to the situation in North American lakes. In the present study, published information of chlorophyll concentrat...
Article
Full-text available
Salmon and trout species are not native to the southern hemisphere, however rainbow and brown trout have been established a century in southern South America. Yet most attempts to introduce anadromous salmon failed until the onset of aquaculture by 1980. Escapes of Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Chinook salmon) from aquaculture after 1990 have apparentl...
Article
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Underway current velocity profiles were combined with temperature and salinity profiles at fixed stations to describe tidal and subtidal flow patterns in the middle of the northernmost Chilean fjord, Estuario Reloncaví. This is the first study involving current velocity measurements in this fjord. Reloncaví fjord is 55 km long, 2 km wide, and on av...
Chapter
Through field observations and a compilation of several manipulative and mensurative experiments carried out in freshwater and marine ecosystems in southern Chile, we here provide alternatives for using natural ecosystem services to diminish salmonfarming ecological footprints. In freshwater lakes, where early stages of salmon growth are completed,...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen: Los ecosistemas naturales proveen productos tangibles, tales como madera, al igual que otros servicios más difíciles de asociar con un precio de mercado. A través de nuestro trabajo transdisciplinario en los bosques del sur de Chile, en el que combinamos modelos ecológicos y económicos, y un componente de extensión importante, hemos demost...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies relating land cover to stream properties have used sample sizes of more than 100 watersheds, but the variance that they explain is moderate to low (R 2 less than 50%), limiting the predictive value of these studies when their models are applied to watersheds that were not included in the models’ development. We hypothesize that this...
Article
Full-text available
The Torres del Paine National Park is located in the southern Chilean Patagonia. This park has numerous and heterogeneous lakes and ponds with different trophic status and zooplankton composition. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of trophic status and conductivity on zooplankton assemblages in lakes and ponds within the Torres del...
Article
Full-text available
While the amount of reactive nitrogen circulating at the global level has increased markedly in the last century, the effects of this increase are largely seen at the regional level due to interacting ecological and socio-economic factors. In contrast with most other regions of the world, Latin America and the Caribbean (LA-Ca) stand out due to the...
Article
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This article explores the potential role of UV radiation (UVR) as an influence on zooplankton communities. In the first section we provide a general overview of UVR effects on freshwater zooplankton, with an emphasis on Argentine and Chilean environments. In the second section we present the results of a survey involving 53 temperate lakes across a...
Article
Freshwater biodiversity is the over-riding conservation priority during the International Decade for Action - 'Water for Life' - 2005 to 2015. Fresh water makes up only 0.01% of the World's water and approximately 0.8% of the Earth's surface, yet this tiny fraction of global water supports at least 100000 species out of approximately 1.8 million -...
Article
Full-text available
In order to evaluate the present distribution patterns of salmonids and their potential effects on native fish. we sampled 11 large lakes and 105 streams, encompassing a total of 13 main hydrographic watersheds of southern Chile (39 degrees to 52 degrees S). Overall, trout (Salmo trutta and Oncorhynchus mykiss) accounted for more thin 60% of total...
Article
The lacustrine zooplankton of Chile is characterized by a low abundance of daphniid cladocerans and a predominance of calanoid copepods, thus making up a zooplankton community quite different from that described for North American lakes. To explain this pattern, this study investigates the role of the oligotrophy, and the resulting high transparenc...
Article
Full-text available
The environmental vitality of freshwater ecosystems and their inherent biodiversity are at the heart of social and economic sustainability. Fresh water is essential for nearly any form of human activity, including industrial production, navigation, domestic water requirements, waste assimilation, health, and food production. Moreover, the roles of...
Article
Water availability is one of the main limitations for future development and economic activity in many regions of the world. This applies even to areas of relatively high annual rainfall, such as the Valdivian Rainforest eco-region in Chile (35–48°S). Streamflow and water availability are crucial for several economic activities in the eco-region in...
Article
The current, growing increase in penetration Of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that has been reported over Southern South America, would allegedly alter lacustrine ecosystems by bringing about photoprotective responses in biotic elements. The lacustrine zooplankton in the area is characterized by a predominance of calanoid copepods, mainly Boeckella sp...
Chapter
Full-text available
This work describes the fish fauna, including native and introduced species, in small watersheds associated with the larger Rio Bueno, with a particular interest on the geographic location of the affluents. Sampling was conducted between 1999 and 2003. Fishing nets with different mesh sizes were used to sample the Rio Bueno, because of its large wa...
Article
Full-text available
Arroyo, M.T.K., L. Cavieres, P. Marquet, C. Latorre, J.J. Armesto, F. Bozinovic, J.R. Gutiérrez, D. Soto, F.A. Squeo. 2006. Ciencias ambientales. Diagnóstico y mirada hacía el futuro. En (J. Allende, J. Babul, S. Martínez & T. Ureta, eds), Análisis y Proyecciones de la Ciencia Chilena 2005: 295-331. Academia Chilena de Ciencias, Santiago.
Article
The impact of salmon farming on the environment has been widely studied; there is, however, no consensus on the magnitude and quality of these effects and little information on their extent over large salmon farming areas. Forty-three salmon farm sites of which 29 are in full operation and grouped in nine locations in southern Chile were evaluated....
Article
We assessed the nutrient status of phytoplankton in 28 lakes in southern Chile using two types of physiological indicators: specific alkaline phosphatase activity, and the elemental composition (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) of seston. Alkaline phosphatase activity ranged from 0.001 to 0.11 mol P g chl–1 h–1, with P-deficiency indicated in abou...
Article
Southern Chilean monomictic, temperate lakes are generally oligotrophic with high water transparency, low productivity and some apparent resistance to disturbances such as phosphorus additions. This paper attempts to explain low chlorophyll-a values using descriptive and experimental approaches. Three different scales are used, (a) a micro scale bo...
Technical Report
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RESUMEN El presente documento corresponde al informe final del proyecto FIP-2000-24denominado “Estudio del ciclo reproductivo de las principales especies objetivo de la pesca deportiva en la X región”, el objetivo general es entregar una proposición metodológica para detallar los ciclos de vida de las especies involucradas en la pesca deportiva que...
Article
Full-text available
During heavy storms in 1994–1995, salmon farms in southern Chile lost several million fish from the most commonly farmed species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). To determine the abundance and distribution of such exotic salmon populations in the wild and their effect on na...
Article
During heavy storms in 1994–1995, salmon farms in southern Chile lost several million fish from the most commonly farmed species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). To determine the abundance and distribution of such exotic salmon populations in the wild and their effect on na...