D. Ponge

D. Ponge
Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH | MPIE · Department of Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design

Dr.

About

425
Publications
151,288
Reads
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14,145
Citations
Citations since 2017
150 Research Items
11043 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,500
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,500
Introduction
Mechanism based alloy design Materials: metallic alloys special interest: Medium Manganese steels Methods: Atom probe tomography, electron microscopy, Thermocalc calculations, mechanical testing ...
Additional affiliations
July 2001 - present
Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH
Position
  • Group Leader

Publications

Publications (425)
Article
Full-text available
In situ microscopic-digital image correlation (µ-DIC) is used to investigate the strain partitioning and strain localization behavior in a medium manganese steel. Continuous yielding results from strain partitioning with higher strain in the reverted austenite (γR) islands and less strain in the tempered martensite matrix, both in hot and cold roll...
Article
High-strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys are highly susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) which severely limits their lifetime. Reversion and re-aging (RRA) temper provides a higher SCC resistance at no loss in strength, yet the microstructural origins of these enhanced properties remain elusive. In an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy, we show that the fine prec...
Article
Full-text available
The antagonism between strength and resistance to hydrogen embrittlement in metallic materials is an intrinsic obstacle to the design of lightweight yet reliable structural components operated in hydrogen-containing environments. Economical and scalable microstructural solutions to this challenge must be found. Here, we introduce a counterintuitive...
Article
While age-hardened austenitic high-Mn and high-Al lightweight steels exhibit excellent strength-ductility combinations, their properties are strongly degraded when mechanically loaded under harsh environments, e.g. with the presence of hydrogen (H). The H embrittlement in this type of materials, especially pertaining to the effect of κ-carbide prec...
Article
Full-text available
Steels with medium manganese (Mn) content (3∼12 wt-%) have emerged as a new alloy class and received considerable attention during the last decade. The microstructure and mechanical response of such alloys show significant differences from those of established steel grades, especially pertaining to the microstructural variety that can be tuned and...
Article
We have performed high-resolution structural and chemical characterization of the native oxide films formed on a ferritic Fe- 13 at. % Cr alloys at different stages of growth. The steady-state protective oxide film was found to be 5-6 nm thick, epitaxially grown, with a cubic spinel-structure ((Fe, Cr)3O4) and a Baker-Nutting orientation-relationsh...
Article
Full-text available
High-entropy alloys are solid solutions of multiple principal elements that are capable of reaching composition and property regimes inaccessible for dilute materials. Discovering those with valuable properties, however, too often relies on serendipity, because thermodynamic alloy design rules alone often fail in high-dimensional composition spaces...
Preprint
Fe- and steelmaking is the largest single industrial CO2 emitter, accounting for 6.5% of all CO2 emissions on the planet. This fact challenges the current technologies to achieve carbon-lean steel production and to align with the requirement of a drastic reduction of 80% in all CO2 emissions by around 2050. Thus, alternative reduction technologies...
Article
Stacking faults (SFs), similar to other planar defects such as grain boundaries, twin boundaries and heterogeneous interfaces, can be tailored to simultaneously increase strength and ductility of metal matrix composites. However, SFs are rarely observed in Al alloy matrix composites, resulting from the high stacking fault energy (SFE) (166 mJ/m²) o...
Article
Advanced lightweight high-strength steels are often compositionally and microstructurally complex. While this complex feature enables the activation of multiple strengthening and strain-hardening mechanisms, it also leads to a complicated damage behavior, especially in the presence of hydrogen (H). The mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) in t...
Article
Full-text available
In conventional processing, metals go through multiple manufacturing steps including casting, plastic deformation, and heat treatment to achieve the desired property. In additive manufacturing (AM) the same target must be reached in one fabrication process, involving solidification and cyclic remelting. The thermodynamic and kinetic differences bet...
Article
Full-text available
Deformation twinning is rarely found in bulk face-centered cubic (FCC) alloys with very high stacking fault energy (SFE) under standard loading conditions. Here, based on results from bulk quasi-static tensile experiments, we report deformation twinning in a micrometer grain-sized compositionally complex steel (CCS) with a very high SFE of~79 mJ/m...
Article
Full-text available
Deformation twinning is rarely found in bulk face-centered cubic (FCC) alloys with very high stacking fault energy (SFE) under standard loading conditions. Here, based on results from bulk quasi-static tensile experiments, we report deformation twinning in a micrometer grain-sized compositionally complex steel (CCS) with a very high SFE of ~79 mJ/m...
Article
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The enormous magnitude of 2 billion tons of alloys produced per year demands a change in design philosophy to make materials environmentally, economically, and socially more sustainable. This disqualifies the use of critical elements that are rare or have questionable origin. Amongst the major alloy strengthening mechanisms, a high-dispersion of se...
Article
Full-text available
There are several facets of aluminum when it comes to sustainability. While it helps to save fuel due to its low density, producing it from ores is very energy-intensive. Recycling it shifts the balance towards higher sustainability, because the energy needed to melt aluminum from scrap is only about 5% of that consumed in ore reduction. The amount...
Article
Full-text available
Significance About 90% of all mechanical service failures are caused by fatigue. Avoiding fatigue failure requires addressing the wide knowledge gap regarding the micromechanical processes governing damage under cyclic loading, which may be fundamentally different from that under static loading. This is particularly true for deformation-induced mar...
Preprint
Full-text available
High-entropy alloys are solid solutions of multiple principal elements, capable of reaching composition and feature regimes inaccessible for dilute materials. Discovering those with valuable properties, however, relies on serendipity, as thermodynamic alloy design rules alone often fail in high-dimensional composition spaces. Here, we propose an ac...
Article
Full-text available
Ever more stringent regulations on greenhouse gas emissions from transportation motivate efforts to revisit materials used for vehicles1. High-strength aluminium alloys often used in aircrafts could help reduce the weight of automobiles, but are susceptible to environmental degradation2,3. Hydrogen ‘embrittlement’ is often indicated as the main cul...
Article
Full-text available
Steel production causes a third of all industrial CO2 emissions due to the use of carbon-based substances as reductants for iron ores, making it a key driver of global warming. Therefore, research efforts aim at replacing these reductants with sustainably produced hydrogen. Hydrogen-based direct reduction (HyDR) is an attractive processing technolo...
Article
Full-text available
Fossil-free ironmaking is indispensable for reducing massive anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the steel industry. Hydrogen-based direct reduction (HyDR) is among the most attractive solutions for green ironmaking, with high technology readiness. The underlying mechanisms governing this process are characterized by a complex interaction of several che...
Article
The ultimate goal for structural materials is achieving both high strength and ductility. However, increasing one of these properties can usually decrease the other, resulting in the so-called strength-ductility trade-off. According to the Considère criterion, increased strain hardening rates are demanded at higher strains to prevent necking and st...
Article
The third-generation advanced high strength medium manganese steels aim at high-performance automobile sheet steel applications. Micro-alloying of steels is considered an effective method to enhance mechanical properties through grain refinement and precipitation hardening. However, in the context of cold-rolled, intercritically annealed medium-man...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fossil-free ironmaking is indispensable for reducing massive anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the steel industry. Hydrogen-based direct reduction (HyDR) is among the most attractive solutions for green ironmaking, with high technology readiness. The underlying mechanisms governing this process are characterized by a complex interaction of several che...
Article
To develop novel Invar alloys in the practically infinite compositional space of multicomponent alloys, rapid alloy prototyping is used to investigate five multicomponent Invar alloys with 5 at.% addition of Al, Cr, Cu, Mn and Si to a super Invar alloy (Fe63Ni32Co5; at.%), respectively. All alloys show abnormally low thermal expansion coefficients...
Article
The influence of hydrogen on the mechanical behavior of Inconel 718 fabricated by laser powder-bed-fusion was investigated through a series of tensile experiments. Samples subjected to two different post-fabrication heat treatments, viz. direct aging (DA) and homogenization plus aging (HA), were tested. Detailed microstructural characterization sho...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ever more stringent regulations on greenhouse gas emissions from transportation motivate efforts to revisit materials used for vehicles. High-strength Al-alloys often used in aircrafts could help reduce the weight of automobiles, but are susceptible to environmental degradation. Hydrogen (H) "embrittlement" is often pointed as the main culprit, how...
Article
The third-generation advanced high strength medium manganese (3–12 wt.%) steels typically consist of ultrafine-grained dual-phase (austenite-ferrite) microstructure, obtained through the intercritical annealing of martensite at temperatures typically ≤ 0.5Tmelt, where the bulk diffusion of Mn is extremely slow. Yet, the manganese partitioning plays...
Article
Full-text available
The design of high performance structural materials is always pursuing combinations of excellent yet often mutually exclusive properties such as mechanical strength, ductility and thermal stability. Although crystal-glass composite alloys provide better ductility compared to fully amorphous alloys, their thermal stability is poor, due to heterogene...
Article
The design of high performance structural materials is always pursuing combinations of excellent yet often mutually exclusive properties such as mechanical strength, ductility and thermal stability. Although crystal-glass composite alloys provide better ductility compared to fully amorphous alloys, their thermal stability is poor, due to heterogene...
Article
Parts produced by laser powder-bed fusion (LPBF) show unique microstructures consisting of dislocation structures and an oxide nanoparticle dispersion usually embedded in epitaxially-grown grains. Thermomechanical processing is an alternative to enhance the microstructure of such materials. However, the deformation mechanisms and the resulting micr...
Article
Full-text available
The lack of strength and damage tolerance can limit the applications of conventional soft magnetic materials (SMMs), particularly in mechanically loaded functional devices. Therefore, strengthening and toughening of SMMs is critically important. However, conventional strengthening concepts usually significantly deteriorate soft magnetic properties,...
Article
Alloys manufactured by laser powder-bed fusion have intrinsic and hierarchical microstructural features inherited from fast solidification (up to 10⁴ K/s) and subsequent thermal cycles. This creates epitaxial grains, dislocation cell structures, and second-phase oxide nanoparticles. Epitaxial grains follow a pattern where finer grains are found in...
Article
Medium manganese steels are promising alloys for highly demanding sheet steel applications. However, cold-rolled intercritically annealed ultrafine-grained dual-phase medium manganese steels exhibit Lüders banding, which is detrimental for the mechanical properties and for the surface finish after forming. Therefore, it is essential to prevent the...
Article
Full-text available
Iron- and steelmaking is the largest single industrial CO2 emitter, accounting for 6.5% of all CO2 emissions on the planet. This fact challenges the current technologies to achieve carbon-lean steel production and to align with the requirement of a drastic reduction of 80% in all CO2 emissions by around 2050. Thus, alternative reduction technologie...
Article
Full-text available
Dislocations are one-dimensional defects in crystals, enabling their deformation, mechanical response, and transport properties. Less well known is their influence on material chemistry. The severe lattice distortion at these defects drives solute segregation to them, resulting in strong, localized spatial variations in chemistry that determine mic...
Article
By considering the valence-electron concentration of 3d transition-metal alloys and compounds, we develop 3d high-entropy alloy Mn12.1Fe34.2Co33.5Ni12.3Cu7.9 with 8.7 electrons per atom, which is identical to that of Fe65Ni35 Invar. We carry out x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, magnetization, thermal expansion, and elastic modulus m...
Article
Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is one of the most dangerous yet most elusive embrittlement problems in metallic materials. Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) are particularly prone to HE, as evidenced by the serious degradation of their load-bearing capacity with the presence of typically only a few parts-per-million H. This strongly impedes their f...
Article
Full-text available
Since its first emergence in 2004, the high-entropy alloy (HEA) concept has aimed at stabilizing single-or dual-phase multi-element solid solutions through high mixing entropy. Here, this strategy is changed and renders such massive solid solutions metastable, to trigger spinodal decomposition for improving the alloys' magnetic properties. The moti...
Article
In this study, we reveal that strain partitioning control is an essential technique to improve the mechanical response of medium-Mn steels by the micro digital image correlation analysis. An Fe-12Mn-0.06C-3Al (wt%) steel, which shows transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) and twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP), was used as a model alloy. Two alte...
Article
Twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) and phase transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) are two effective mechanisms for achieving good combination of strength and ductility in metallic materials, such as steels and high entropy alloys (HEAs). A further enhancement of the strength-ductility combination can be achieved by grain refinement owing to the...
Article
Full-text available
Segregation to grain boundaries affects their cohesion, corrosion, and embrittlement and plays a critical role in heterogeneous nucleation. In order to quantitatively study segregation and low-dimensional phase separation at grain boundaries, here, we apply a density-based phase-field model. The current model describes the grain-boundary thermodyna...
Article
Full-text available
High-performance lightweight materials are urgently needed, given the pressing quest for weight reduction and the associated energy savings and emission reduction. Here, by incorporating the multi-principal element feature of compositionally complex alloys, we develop the concept of lightweight steels further and propose a new class of compositiona...
Article
Hydrogen embrittlement in 304L austenitic stainless steel fabricated by laser powder-bed-fusion (LPBF) was investigated and compared to conventionally produced 304L samples with two different processing histories; casting plus annealing (CA) and CA plus thermomechanical treatment (CA-TMT). Interestingly, no significant difference in the amount of d...
Article
Full-text available
High strength Al-alloys are highly susceptible to intergranular embrittlement, which severely limits their lifetime. This article summarizes our recent work on the effect of solute segregation in the precipitation behavior at grain boundaries (GBs) compared to the grain interiors. Solute segregation could accelerate the precipitation behavior at GB...
Article
This study investigates the high strain-rate tensile properties of a cold-rolled medium-Mn steel (Fe-12Mn-3Al-0.05C % in mass fraction) designed to have a multi-phase microstructure and positive strain-rate sensitivity. At the intercritical annealing temperature of 585 °C, increasing the annealing time from 0.5 h to 8 h increased the phase volume f...
Article
The combination of different phase constituents to realize a mechanical composite effect for superior strength-ductility synergy has become an important strategy in microstructure design in advanced high-strength steels. Introducing multiple phases in the microstructure essentially produces a large number of phase boundaries. Such hetero-interfaces...
Article
Full-text available
open access links: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11661-020-05947-2 https://rdcu.be/b6P8O https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-020-05947-2 This is a viewpoint paper on recent progress in the understanding of the microstructure–property relations of advanced high-strength steels (AHSS). These alloys constitute a class of high-strength, for...
Article
The formation of κ-carbides in austenite Fe-30Mn-9Al-1.2C (wt. %) lightweight steels is tuned via alloying of Si (0, 1, 2 wt. %), an element that can remarkably raise the activities of Al and C based on thermodynamic calculations. Ordered L12 nano-domains (with a size <1 nm), lacking elemental partition, were observed in the solution-treated steel...
Article
Strain partitioning and localization were investigated in a high-Mn steel (17.1 wt.% Mn) during tensile testing by a correlative probing approach including in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, micro- digital image correlation (μ-DIC) and electron microscopy. By combining Warren's theory with the μ-DIC analysis, we monitored the formation of plana...
Article
Conductive and yet strong copper alloys are essential materials in highly mechanically loaded electrical devices. We demonstrate a novel in-situ synthesis approach via laser metal deposition (LMD) in a lean copper alloy, Cu-3.4Cr-0.6Nb (at.%). Strengthening in the lean alloy comes from chromium nano-scale precipitates formed in-situ (4 nm diameter;...
Article
Full-text available
Further development of high chromium cast irons (HCCI) is based on tailoring the microstructure, necessitating an accurate control over the phase transformation and carbide precipitation temperatures and can be achieved by thermal treatments (TT). To understand the underlying mechanisms controlling the transformation kinetics during the different s...
Article
Superplasticity proceeds from fine-grained structures and requires high intrinsic resistance to grain growth at the deformation temperature. Here, we show that a mixture of two kinds of brittle ordered phases enables superplastic behavior through dynamic recrystallization in an equiatomic medium-entropy VCoNi alloy as a model material. The alloy an...
Preprint
Hydrogen embrittlement in 304L (18wt.% Cr, 8-10wt.% Ni) austenitic stainless steel (ASS) fabricated by laser powder-bed-fusion (LPBF) was investigated by tensile testing after electrochemical hydrogen pre-charging and compared to conventionally available 304L ASSs with two different processing histories, (i) casting plus annealing (CA) and (ii) CA...
Article
Full-text available
The boundary between two crystal grains can decompose into arrays of facets with distinct crystallographic character. Faceting occurs to minimize the system’s free energy, i.e., when the total interfacial energy of all facets is below that of the topologically shortest interface plane. In a model Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy, we show that faceting occurs at i...