D. Wayne Osgood

D. Wayne Osgood
Pennsylvania State University | Penn State · Department of Sociology and Criminology

About

145
Publications
35,692
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14,000
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August 1996 - August 2016
Pennsylvania State University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (145)
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Drawing on criminological research about peer delinquency and self-control, we employ a network perspective to identify the potential paths linking impulsivity, peers, and delinquency. We systematically integrate relevant processes into a set of dynamic network models that evaluate these interconnected pathways. Methods Our analyses use...
Article
This study examines developmental change across adolescence in the similarity of friends versus nonfriends. This differential in similarity is a key aspect of the organization of the peer context of development: The stronger the correlation between friends for an attribute, the more the attribute delineates clustering and divisions of friendships....
Preprint
Objectives: Despite abundant attention to offending specialization in criminology, scholars have only recently started to explore opportunity-driven explanations for within-individual patterns of specialization. The current study examines whether unstructured socializing with specific friends can explain within-individual changes in adolescents’ de...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Despite abundant attention to offending specialization in criminology, scholars have only recently started to explore opportunity-driven explanations for within-individual patterns of specialization. The current study examines whether unstructured socializing with specific friends can explain within-individual changes in adolescents’ deg...
Article
Moffitt’s social mimicry hypothesis states that the sudden rise in offending during adolescence is partly the result of adolescence-limited delinquents modeling the behavior of their life-course persistent peers. We test this hypothesis using social network data from 7,742 adolescents followed from 6th to 12th grades to consider whether having a pe...
Article
The current study compares estimates of peer influence from an analytic approach that explicitly address network processes with those from traditional approaches that do not. Using longitudinal network data from the PROmoting School–community–university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience peers project, we obtain estimates of social influence on mul...
Article
We examine gender differences in the extent to which the social network processes of peer influence and friend selection explain why adolescents tend to exhibit similar risky behaviors as their friends for three problem behaviors (smoking, drinking, and delinquency). Using dynamic Stochastic Actor-Oriented Models (SAOMs), we analyze five waves of d...
Article
We examine whether economic crimes are committed to fund drug addiction and/or to fund a hedonistic lifestyle. To address motivation, we estimate reciprocal relationships between economic crime and drug use and between economic crime and hedonistic activity generally. Analyses are based on event calendar data collected from 715 male offenders. Both...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the role of school-based friendship networks in prevention programs during adolescence. These programs intersect with a life course perspective because they are designed to create a turning point at which adolescents’ developmental trajectories will shift away from problem behaviors such as substance use and delinquency. Eva...
Chapter
This chapter examines adolescents’ friendship patterns from 6th through 12th grade, and investigates the impact on friendship networks of two transitions in the institutionalized life course, one from elementary to middle school and the other from middle to high school. Using information from 51 networks in 26 school districts, this study considers...
Article
This study investigates the influence of structural transitions to high school on adolescents’ friendship networks and academic grades from 6th through 12th grade, in a direct comparison of students who do and do not transition. We utilize data from 14,462 youth in 51 networks from 26 districts (Promoting School–Community Partnerships to Enhance Re...
Article
This randomized trial tested a strategy originally developed for school settings, the Pax Good Behavior Game (PAX GBG), in the new context of afterschool programs. We examined this approach in afterschool since 70% of all juvenile crime occurs between the hours of 3–6 pm, making afterschool an important setting for prevention and promotion. Dual-ca...
Article
Full-text available
Positive youth development (PYD) deserves more empirical attention, particularly among children of diverse racial-ethnic backgrounds. Given the need among families for monitoring and supervision during out-of-school time, community-based afterschool is a potentially promotive ecological setting. This study explores the quality of afterschool experi...
Article
Full-text available
This article expands research on normative school transitions (NSTs) from elementary to middle school or middle to high school by examining the extent to which they disrupt structures of friendship networks. Social network analysis is used to quantify aspects of connectedness likely relevant to student experiences of social support. Data were drawn...
Article
We tested whether effects of the Strengthening Families Program for Youth 10-14 (SFP10-14) diffused from intervention participants to their friends. We also tested which program effects on participants accounted for diffusion. Data are from 5,449 students (51% female; mean initial age = 12.3 years) in the PROmoting School-community-university Partn...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of afterschool hours for youth development is widely acknowledged, and afterschool settings have recently received increasing attention as an important venue for youth interventions, bringing a growing need for reliable and valid measures of afterschool quality. This study examined the extent to which the two observational tools, tha...
Article
Seeking to reduce problematic peer influence is a prominent theme of programs to prevent adolescent problem behavior. To support the refinement of this aspect of prevention programming, we examined peer influence and selection processes for three problem behaviors (delinquency, alcohol use, and smoking). We assessed not only the overall strengths o...
Article
This study examines the effects of young adult transitions into marriage and cohabitation on criminal offending and substance use, and whether those effects changed since the 1970s as marriage rates declined and cohabitation rates rose dramatically. It also examines whether any beneficial effects of cohabitation depend on marriage intentions. Using...
Article
We tested 2 hypotheses derived from Moffitt's (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. We tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent be...
Article
Prospective longitudinal data from over 14,000 youth residing in 28 communities in the rural United States were analyzed to examine the emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups in early adolescence. Youth were surveyed on 5 occasions between fall of 6th grade and spring of 9th grade. At each assessment, youth reported the names of up to 7 same-grad...
Conference Paper
Evidence-based substance use prevention programs targeting middle school youth can alter peer networks in ways that reduce peer influence towards problem behavior through at least two distinct mechanisms. Specifically, programs could (a) decrease the influence potential (indegree centrality) of youth displaying high initial levels of problem behavi...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Many evaluation studies assess how interventions impact individuals, but there is an increasing interest in clarifying how interventions can impact larger social settings. One process that can lead to these setting-level effects is diffusion, in which intervention effects spread from participants to non-participants. Diffusion may be...
Article
Background: Meeting potential sexual/romantic partners for mutual pleasure is one of the main reasons young adults go to bars. However, not all sexual contacts are positive and consensual, and aggression related to sexual advances is a common experience. Sometimes such aggression is related to misperceptions in making and receiving sexual advances...
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigates the possibility that friendship networks connect adolescents to influence from a broader group of adults beyond their own families. In doing so, we combine two rich traditions of research on adult influence on children and adolescents. Family research has suggested a number of ways in which effective parenting can red...
Article
Many evaluation studies assess the direct effect of an intervention on individuals, but there is an increasing interest in clarifying how interventions can impact larger social settings. One process that can lead to these setting-level effects is diffusion, in which intervention effects spread from participants to non-participants. Diffusion may be...
Article
This study addresses not only influence and selection of friends as sources of similarity in alcohol use, but also peer processes leading drinkers to be chosen as friends more often than non-drinkers, which increases the number of adolescents subject to their influence. Analyses apply a stochastic actor-based model to friendship networks assessed f...
Article
We test the hypothesis that an evidence-based preventive intervention will change adolescent friendship networks to reduce the potential for peer influence toward antisocial behavior. Altering adolescents' friendship networks in this way is a promising avenue for achieving setting-level prevention benefits such as expanding the reach and durability...
Article
Full-text available
Research Summary This article presents results from a randomized control trial of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program; 3,820 students enrolled in 195 classrooms in 31 schools in seven cities were surveyed six times over 5 years (pretests and posttests in Year 1 and four annual follow-up surveys). The results indicate tha...
Article
This study examines the effect of situational variables on whether third parties intervene in conflicts in barroom settings, and whether they are aggressive or not when they intervene. Based on research on bystander intervention in emergencies, we hypothesized that third parties would be most likely to become involved in incidents with features tha...
Article
Little systematic research has focused on motivations for aggression and most of the existing research is qualitative and atheoretical. This study increases existing knowledge by using the theory of coercive actions to quantify the apparent motives of individuals involved in barroom aggression. Objectives were to examine: gender differences in the...
Article
This study concerns changes across the lifespan in the frequency of participation in a variety of leisure activities common in everyday life, particularly how those changes are related to family and work roles. This focus on leisure is of general sociological interest because it provides a bridge between the organization of the life course imposed...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Though research has identified effective family and school prevention approaches, evaluations of interventions in afterschool programs have demonstrated mixed effects (Dynarski et al., 2005). Results are more positive when programs are based upon the developmental-ecological principles of appropriate structure and support and, use emp...
Conference Paper
Universal substance use prevention programs typically include a focus on peer relationship processes that may be related to substance use initiation. Logic models typically emphasize building refusal skills and increasing positive peer influences. Our goal is to conceptualize the potential impact of these programs in terms of contemporary views of...
Conference Paper
Background: The past decade has witnessed a rapidly growing interest in the role of afterschool programs suggesting that afterschool programs are linked to positive youth outcomes. However, the effectiveness of afterschool programs may be dependent upon program quality. Unstructured and disorganized afterschool programs might have harmful effects b...
Article
Collective efficacy refers to a perceived sense of connectedness and willingness to intervene among youth, and is a potential aspect of positive youth development (Larson in Am Psychol 55:170-183, 2000; Lerner et al. in Child Dev 71:11-20, 2000; Sampson et al. in Science 277:918-924, 1997). Theoretically, those who feel connected to a group that is...
Article
Companions are central to explanations of the risky nature of unstructured and unsupervised socializing, yet we know little about whom adolescents are with when hanging out. We examine predictors of how often friendship dyads hang out via multilevel analyses of longitudinal friendship-level data on over 5,000 middle schoolers. Adolescents hang out...
Chapter
This discussion of Fingerman and colleagues’ chapter on relationships between young adults and their parents probes the notion of young adults’ need for support from their parents and families. We illustrate Settersten’s point that our culture treats the transition to adulthood as a “private trouble” for families to manage on their own by contrasti...
Article
We examine whether particular types of stress are related to particular types of crime or whether all types of stress are related to all types of crime. Our estimates are based on analyses of within-individual change over a 36 month period among recently incarcerated offenders. We find that assault is most strongly related to family stress, suggest...
Article
This chapter focuses on life course criminology, and particularly the relationship between crime and age as expressed in the age-crime curve. It considers within-individual differences such as persistence and desistance, and the impact of life transitions, such as marriage and entering the workforce, on offending. It advocates future studies on the...
Article
Full-text available
Although studies have demonstrated that an adolescent's parents and friends both influence adolescent substance use, it is not known whether the parenting experienced by one's friends also affects one's own use. Drawing on conceptions of shared parenting and the tenets of coercion theory, we investigated the extent to which three domains of parenti...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a long history of youth gang problems in the United States, there remains a paucity of evaluations identifying promising or effective gang prevention and intervention programs. One primary prevention program that has received limited support is Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.). An earlier national evaluation of the G.R.E....
Article
In order to better understand the social context of barroom aggression, the aim was to identify common locations ('hotspots') for aggression in bars and examine the association of hotspots with aggression severity and environmental characteristics. Aggression hotspots were identified using narrative descriptions and data recorded on premises' floor...
Article
Full-text available
Using annual cross-sectional data from Monitoring the Future, the present study examined trends in high school seniors' current and anticipated civic participation and beliefs over a 30-year period. We examined overall trends and patterns based on youths' post-high school educational plans. Findings point to declines in recent cohorts' involvement...
Article
To develop new strategies for preventing violence in high-risk licensed premises, we identify behavioural indicators of apparent motives for aggression in these settings and outline the implications of different motivations for prevention. The four types of motives for aggressive or coercive acts defined by the theory of coercive actions framed the...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from the Monitoring the Future study, this paper presents historical trends in U.S. high school seniors' work values across 30 years (1976 to 2005. Adolescents across three decades highly valued most aspects of work examined. Recent cohorts showed declines in the importance of work, values for job security, and various potential intrinsi...
Article
Full-text available
A majority of school-based prevention programs target the modification of setting-level social dynamics, either explicitly (e.g., by changing schools' organizational, cultural or instructional systems that influence children's relationships), or implicitly (e.g., by altering behavioral norms designed to influence children's social affiliations and...
Article
This paper introduces new longitudinal network data from the “Promoting School-Community-University Partnerships to Enhance Resilience” or “PROSPER” peers project. In 28 communities, grade-level sociometric friendship nominations were collected from two cohorts of middle school students as they moved from 6th, to 9th grade. As an illustration and d...
Article
Full-text available
The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program is a gang- and delinquency-prevention program delivered by law enforcement officers within a school setting. Originally designed in 1991 by Phoenix-area law enforcement agencies to address local needs, the program quickly spread across the United States. In this article, we describe th...
Chapter
The goal of developmental and life course criminology is to understand patterns of crime and delinquency over the life course. To date, research in this field has devoted a great deal of attention to describing patterns of change in the dependent variable over different ages, often in the form of trajectories or growth curves of offending in relati...
Article
Most criminological theories predict an inverse relationship between employment and crime, but teenagers' involvement in paid work during the school year is correlated positively with delinquency and substance use. Whether the work–delinquency association is causal or spurious has been debated for a long time. This study estimates the effect of pai...
Article
Full-text available
D. Wayne Osgood, E. Michael Foster, and Mark E. Courtney examine the transition to adulthood for youth involved in social service and justice systems during childhood and adolescence. They survey the challenges faced by youth in the mental health system, the foster care system, the juvenile justice system, the criminal justice system, and special e...
Article
Full-text available
Since the Environmental Movement began, adolescents' views have been largely ignored in studies of public opinion. The article presents a descriptive analysis of trends in the environmental attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of high school seniors from 1976 to 2005 using data from the Monitoring the Future study. Across a range of indicators, enviro...
Chapter
IntroductionThe Movement to Community CoalitionsThe Communities that Care Model (Ctc)The Importance of Coalition ProcessesInvestigating Coalition OutcomesConclusion References
Article
Full-text available
Despite the public health burden of adolescent substance use, delinquency, and other problem behavior, few comprehensive models of disseminating evidence-based prevention programs to communities have demonstrated positive youth outcomes at a population level, capacity to maintain program fidelity, and sustainability. We examined whether the Communi...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the public health importance of alcohol-free social programs for college students, the majority of existing campus strategies have not been empirically evaluated. This study utilized repeated daily reports to examine the association between attendance at campus-led alcohol-free programming and alcohol use on specific days while controlling...
Article
Full-text available
Because research shows a close association between offending and victimization, recent work has argued that theories that account for crime should explain victimization as well. The current study uses a new approach to examine the extent of the overlap between offenders who commit violent crime and victims of violence to determine whether it is wor...
Article
We tested social comparison predictions about cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parents’ differential treatment of siblings and both youth depressive symptoms and sibling relationship qualities from middle childhood to late adolescence, controlling for dyadic parent-child relationships and siblings’ ratings of parents’ fairness....
Chapter
For centuries, criminologists have observed thatmost criminal offenses showa sharp rise in prevalence during adolescence, For centuries, criminologists have observed thatmost criminal offenses showa sharp rise in prevalence during adolescence, followed by a relatively rapid decline in the early twenties (Hirschi & Gottfredson, 1983; Quetelet, 1984...
Article
We undertook the first broad-scale quasi-experimental evaluation of youth outcomes in communities using the Communities That Care program (Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano, R. F., Jr. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass Inc, Publishers, 1992a), which targets adolescent problem behaviors. We evaluated 15 risk factors and 6 outcomes (substance use and deli...
Article
The links between changes in sibling conflict and intimacy and changes in perceived peer social competence and depression symptoms were examined from middle childhood through adolescence. Participants were mothers, fathers and first- and second-born siblings from 197 White, working/middle class, two-parent families. Peer competence peaked in early...
Article
The authors examined siblings' dyadic and differential conflict frequency with mothers and fathers from 7 to 19 years of age. Participants were first- and second-borns from 201 families who reported their conflict with each parent in 4 home interviews spaced over 5 years. Multilevel models examining trajectories of conflict frequency across age and...
Article
The authors examined siblings' dyadic and differential experiences of parental warmth from 7 to 19 years of age. Participants were first- and second-borns from 201 families who reported on their warmth with each parent in 4 home interviews spaced over 5 years. Supporting an individual development hypothesis, multilevel model analyses revealed decli...
Article
Specialization in violence is an important scientific and policy topic, and over the past several decades, many analysis techniques for studying specialization have emerged. Research in this area continues to be hampered, however, by remaining methodological problems. To overcome these problems, we propose a new method for studying specialization i...
Article
The development of gender attitudes in 402 youth (201 firstborn and 201 secondborn siblings) in 201 European American families was examined using data collected on seven occasions across 9 years. Pooling across siblings and using multilevel modeling, we examined gender attitude development from ages 7 to 19. Consistent with an ecological perspectiv...
Article
A previously published effectiveness study of Project ALERT delivered in schools by outside providers from Cooperative Extension found no positive effects for the adult or teen-assisted delivery of the curriculum despite high-quality implementation. Those findings and the likelihood that more outside providers will deliver evidence-based drug preve...
Article
In the decade after high school, young people continue to rely on their families in many ways-sometimes for financial support, sometimes for help with childcare, and sometimes for continued shelter. But what about those young people who confront special difficulties during this period, many of whom can count on little help from their families? On Y...
Article
To clarify environmental predictors of bar-room aggression by differentiating relationships due to nightly variations versus across bar variations, frequency versus severity of aggression and patron versus staff aggression. Male-female pairs of researcher-observers conducted 1334 observations in 118 large capacity (> 300) bars and clubs in Toronto,...
Article
Changes in sibling intimacy and conflict were charted from middle childhood through adolescence, and family structure and relationship correlates of change were examined. Participants were mothers, fathers, and firstborn (M=11.82 years at Time 1) and secondborn (M=9.22 years) siblings from 200 White, working/middle class, 2-parent families. Sibling...
Article
Previous research has found that greater autonomy for incarcerated adolescents is associated with pro-social outcomes. The present paper interprets the pro-social impact of autonomy in terms of three established lines of research in social psychology: leadership style, coercive social control, and reactance. In addition, it attempts to clarify whet...
Article
Group treatment programs for incarcerated adolescents attempt to use the social influence of peer groups as a means both for generating acceptance of treatment goals and for creating pro-social change. On the basis of social psychological research in laboratory and educational settings, we predicted that group cooperation plays a pivotal role in th...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between level of intoxication and the frequency and severity of aggression at the person, incident, visit, and bar level for aggressive incidents observed in bars or clubs. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analysis of 1025 incidents of aggression documented by trained observers during 1334...
Article
This study examined the development of baserate estimation skills for everyday social events and attitudes. Subjects in grades one, three, and six responded to questions concerning their own rates of behavior and attitudes, and their estimates of baserates of behaviors and attitudes for their classmates. The findings indicate a general increase in...