D. Randy Garrison

D. Randy Garrison
The University of Calgary | HBI · Werklund School of Education

EdD University of British Columbia

About

127
Publications
405,128
Reads
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32,657
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2012 - July 2014
The University of Calgary
Position
  • Professor
September 1996 - August 2001
University of Alberta
Position
  • Head of Faculty

Publications

Publications (127)
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to explore the dynamics of an online educational experience through the lens of the Community of Inquiry framework. Transcript analysis of online discussion postings and the Community of Inquiry survey were applied to understand the progression and integration of each of the Community of Inquiry presences. The results...
Book
The third edition of E-Learning in the 21st Century provides a coherent, comprehensive, and empirically-based framework for understanding e-learning in higher education. Garrison draws on his decades of experience and extensive research in the field to explore technological, pedagogical, and organizational implications. The third edition has been f...
Chapter
Full-text available
Great geniuses are nurtured in rich environments. Certainly geniuses such as Newton, Darwin and Picasso were intellectually gifted and dedicated, but they did not emerge in a vacuum. Individuals of great accomplishment are immersed in the culture of their times. The idea that great thinkers and artists are solitary geniuses without being influenced...
Article
Full-text available
Metacognition is a required cognitive ability to achieve deep and meaningful learning that must be viewed from both an individual and social perspective. Recently, the transition from the earliest individualistic models to an acknowledgement of metacognition as socially situated and socially constructed has precipitated the study of metacognition i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This presentation reports initial findings from phase one of an applied meta-analysis of empirical quantitative studies based on the Community Inquiry (CoI) framework (Garrison, Anderson and Archer, 2000) and the Community of Inquiry instrument (Arbaugh et al., 2008). A research alliance comprised of Drs. M. Cleveland-Innes, D. R. Garrison, M. Kool...
Article
Full-text available
The Community of Inquiry (CoI) model views the online learning experience as a function of the relationship between three elements: social presence, teaching presence, and cognitive presence. The proposed panel and chapter will focus on how the CoI framework can be used to guide the design and implementation of online courses through the explicatio...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT University continuing,studies has entered an extended period of change,and transformation. In such challenging times, the essential ingredients for survival are a clear vision, strategic goals, and proactive leadership. These issues are explored,in this paper,through,the example,of one institution. Characteristics of transformational leade...
Article
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This article documents the institutional change and leadership associated with blended learning innovation in higher education. Two case studies are provided that demonstrate how transformational institutional change related to blended teaching and learning approaches is predicated upon committed collaborative leadership that engages all levels of...
Article
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This article describes an institutional course redesign initiative in terms of leadership, support, and preliminary findings, based on the Inquiry Through Blended Learning (ITBL) program created to support faculty engaging in blended course redesign. Garrison, Anderson, and Archer’s (2000) Community of Inquiry framework has been adapted to a blende...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores links between the concepts and models of self-directed and self-regulated learning. The focus is on the covert (person) and overt (behaviour and environment) aspects that link the fields of self-directed and self-regulated learning. Ways in which each of these areas of study address the private and shared worlds of the learner e...
Chapter
Full-text available
Online learning offers the opportunity to examine and rethink the teaching and learning enterprise in education broadly. Online learning can be conceived of as the new distance education, where issues such as interaction and dialogue are introduced back into the distance education model. However, regardless of education delivery mode-face-to-face,...
Chapter
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Half TitleTitleCopyrightSeries InfoContentsPrefaceThe Authors
Chapter
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Conceptual FoundationCommunity of InquiryReal and Virtual CommunitiesConclusion
Chapter
Blended Faculty Community of InquiryCampuswide InitiativesConclusion
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The Era of EngagementTipping PointFinal Thoughts
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Small Class CoursesLarge Enrollment CoursesProject-Based CoursesConclusion
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New ApproachesApplying the PrinciplesAssessmentConclusion
Chapter
Planning and DesignFacilitation StrategiesDirect Instruction and AssessmentConclusion
Article
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This chapter discusses the epistemological assumptions and theoretical foundations of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework. Specifically, it addresses the central concepts of community, collaboration, constructivism, inquiry, discourse, metacognition, co-regulation, and motivation. The primary goal is to reinforce the CoI's theoretical coherenc...
Chapter
Interest in Blended LearningBlended Learning DescribedChangeThe FrameworkConclusion
Article
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p> A recent book by Clayton M. Christensen, Associate Professor of Business at Harvard University, discusses the sometimes devastating impact in the corporate environment of what he refers to as "disruptive technologies." Successful, well-managed firms that dominate their markets have sometimes gone into a sharp decline or even collapsed when a new...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effect of time on the development of a community of inquiry by examining an online course offered over two different time periods. The study was guided by the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, The Internet and Higher Education 20007. Garrison , D. R. , Anderson , T. and Archer , W. 20...
Article
Full-text available
The second edition of E-Learning in the 21st Century provides a coherent, comprehensive, and empirically-based framework for understanding e-learning in higher education. Garrison draws on his decades of experience and extensive research in the field to explore the technological, pedagogical, and organizational implications of e-learning. Most impo...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this chapter is to explain the capability of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework as a research model to study student learning and satisfaction. The framework identifies three elements (social, cognitive, and teaching presence) that contribute directly to the success of an e-learning experience through the development of an effe...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on deep and meaningful learning approaches and outcomes associated with online and blended communities of inquiry. Applying mixed methodology for the research design, the study used transcript analysis, learning outcomes, perceived learning, satisfaction, and interviews to assess learning processes and outcomes. The findings for...
Article
Full-text available
The causal relationships among the three presences in the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework are explored and tested in this paper. The CoI framework has been used extensively in the research and practice of online and blended learning contexts. With the development of a survey instrument based on the CoI framework, it is possible to test the hyp...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides a personal perspective about the development of the seminal papers associated with the Community of Inquiry Framework. The framework and its construction are described. The main part of the paper explores the evolution of the framework and its associated methodology. Finally, research associated with the validation of the fram...
Article
Full-text available
The Community of Inquiry Framework is based on the premise that online learning is a collaborative constructivist activity. However, not all courses are similarly oriented. In general, courses can be divided into constructivist and objectivist. In constructivist courses, learners develop solutions to problems through sustained discourse and inquiry...
Chapter
Full-text available
Students experiencing an online educational community for the first time experience adjustment in the role of learner. Findings from a study of adjustment to online learning from the instructor’s point of view validate five main areas of adjustment identified in previous research: technology, instructor role, modes of interaction, self-identity and...
Chapter
The adult education literature emphasizes communitybuilding in order to increase effectiveness and success ofonline teaching and learning. In this chapter theCommunity of Inquiry Framework that was developed by Garrison, Anderson and Archer (2000) has been introduced as a promising theory for adult learning in onlineenvironments. The chapter discus...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses findings of a mixed method research project with the goal to study the development of a community of inquiry in online and blended learning environments. A graduate course delivered online and blended format was the focus of the study. Data was gathered from the Community of Inquiry Survey and transcript analysis of online disc...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses findings of a mixed method approach to a study of the development of a community of inquiry in an online and a blended learning environment. A graduate course delivered online and in a blended format was the context of the study. Data were gathered from the Community of Inquiry Survey, transcript analysis of online discussions,...
Article
Full-text available
This study outlines the process of adjustment learners experience when first participating in an online environment. Findings from a pilot study of adjustment to online learning environments validate differences found in three presences in an online community of inquiry. Using pre- and post-questionnaires, students enrolled in entry-level courses i...
Article
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It is argued in this article that the convergence of collaborative constructivist ideas and emerging instructional technologies are transforming higher education. The article begins with an overview of instructional and communications technology and how this technology is being used in the service of either sustaining or transforming teaching and l...
Article
Full-text available
The Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework has become a prominent model of teaching and learning in online and blended learning environments. Considerable research has been conducted which employs the framework with promising results, resulting in wide use to inform the practice of online and blended teaching and learning. For the CoI model to contin...
Article
Full-text available
The focus of this chapter is on a framework that has drawn considerable interest in creating collaborative communities of inquiry in online learning environments (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000). The goal is to provide an overview and update of the Community of Inquiry Framework with a particular focus on social, cognitive and teaching presence...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter presents a theoretical model of online learning, the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework, which is grounded in John Dewey's progressive understanding of education. The CoI framework is a process model of online learning which views the online educational experience as arising from the interaction of three presences - social presence,...
Article
Full-text available
Learners experiencing an online educational community for the first time can explain the adjustment required for participation. Findings from a study of adjustment to online learning environments validate differences found in 3 presences in an online community of inquiry. Using pre- and post-questionnaires, students enrolled in entry-level courses...
Chapter
Full-text available
The adult education literature emphasizes community building in order to increase effectiveness and success of online teaching and learning. In this chapter the Community of Inquiry Framework that was developed by Garrison, Anderson and Archer (2000) has been introduced as a promising theory for adult learning in online environments. The chapter di...
Article
Full-text available
This article reports on the multi-institutional development and validation of an instrument that attempts to operationalize Garrison, Anderson and Archer's Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework (2000). The results of the study suggest that the instrument is a valid, reliable, and efficient measure of the dimensions of social presence and cognitive p...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to explore the dynamics of an online educational experience through the lens of the Community of Inquiry framework. Transcript analysis of online discussion postings and the Community of Inquiry survey were applied to understand the progression and integration of each of the Community of Inquiry presences. The results...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to explore the dynamics of an online educational experience through the lens of the Community of Inquiry framework. Transcript analysis of online discussion postings and the Community of Inquiry survey were applied in order to understand the progression and integration of each of the Community of Inquiry presences. The...
Article
Full-text available
Re-broadcast of a presentation on original research entitled: Community of Inquiry Framework: Validation and instrument development.
Presentation
Full-text available
This is a PowerPoint of a presentation based on the article: Arbaugh, J. B., Cleveland-Innes, M., Diaz, S., Garrison, D. R., Ice, P., Richardson, J. Shea, P., & Swan, K. (2008). Developing a community of inquiry instrument: Testing a measure of the Community of Inquiry framework using a multi-institutional sample. Internet and Higher Education, 11,...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines work related to the development and validation of a measurement tool for the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework in online settings. The framework consists of three elements: social presence, teaching presence and cognitive presence, each of which is integral to the instrument. The 34 item instrument, and thus framework, was...
Book
This groundbreaking book offers a down-to-earth resource for the practical application of blended learning in higher education as well as a comprehensive examination of the topic. Well-grounded in research, Blended Learning in Higher Education clearly demonstrates how the blended learning approach embraces the traditional values of face-to-face tea...
Chapter
This study outlines the process of adjustment learners experience when first participating in an online environment. Findings from a pilot study of adjustment to online learning environments validate differences found in three presences in an online community of inquiry. Using pre- and post-questionnaires, students enrolled in entry-level courses i...
Article
Full-text available
Since its publication in The Internet and Higher Education, Garrison, Anderson, and Archer's [Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2–3), 87–105.] community of inquiry (CoI) framework has generated substantial...
Article
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This paper explores four issues that have emerged from the research on social, cognitive and teaching presence in an online community of inquiry. The early research in the area of online communities of inquiry has raised several issues with regard to the creation and maintenance of social, cognitive and teaching presence that require further resear...
Article
Full-text available
Transcript analysis is an important methodology to study asynchronous online educational discourse. The purpose of this study is to revisit reliability and validity issues associated with transcript analysis. The goal is to provide researchers with guidance in coding transcripts. For validity reasons, it is suggested that the first step is to selec...
Article
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This paper uses the community of inquiry model to describe the principles of collaboration. The principles describe social and cognitive presence issues associated with the three functions of teaching presence—design, facilitation and direction. Guidelines are discussed for each of the principles.
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on understanding the social and teaching presence required to create a blended faculty development community of inquiry. Garrison, Anderson and Archer’s community of inquiry framework was used to analyze transcripts from the face-to-face and online sessions of a faculty learning community focused on blended learning course redesi...
Article
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The traditional lecture method has not only persisted in modern day universities, it has become entrenched as part of a university tradition. This presents a challenge to curriculum designers and planning teams in being able to blend traditional approaches to teaching and learning with the resources now available through Internet technologies. This...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed the depth of online learning, with a focus on the nature of online interaction in four distance education course designs. The Study Process Questionnaire was used to measure the shift in students' approach to learning from the beginning to the end of the courses. Design had a significant impact on the nature of the interaction a...
Article
Full-text available
The focus of this study was to understand how a blended learning approach can support the inquiry process (cognitive presence) in a faculty development context. The findings from this study indicate that there are several key differences and similarities in cognitive presence between face-to-face and online discussions. These differences and simila...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to validate an instrument to study role adjustment of students new to an online community of inquiry. The community of inquiry conceptual model for online learning was used to shape this research and identify the core elements and conditions associated with role adjustment to online learning (Garrison, Anderson and Arch...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to provide a discussion of the transformative potential of blended learning in the context of the challenges facing higher education. Based upon a description of blended learning, its potential to support deep and meaningful learning is discussed. From here, a shift to the need to rethink and restructure the learning ex...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to validate an instrument to study role adjustment of students new to an online community of inquiry. The community of inquiry conceptual model for online learning was used to shape this research and identify the core elements and conditions associated with role adjustment to online learning (Garrison, Anderson and Arch...
Article
Full-text available
THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY was to advance understanding of how to facilitate higher levels of learning when using asynchronous text-based Internet communication technology. The framework used to guide this study is based on the community of inquiry model developed by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2000). Crucial methodological constructs congruent...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports findings from a pilot study of adjustment to the role of online learner in online learning environments. Using pre-and post-questionnaires, students enrolled in entry-level courses in two different graduate degree programs at Athabasca University, Canada, were asked to assess their adjustment to online learning. Responses were an...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that asynchronous online learning can create a rich cognitive presence capable of supporting effective, higher-order learning. It begins by exploring the properties of asynchronous online learning and their link with the dimensions of higher-order learning. The dimensions of higher-order learning emerge f...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a tool developed for the purpose of assessing teaching presence in online courses that make use of computer conferencing, and preliminary results from the use of this tool. The method of analysis is based on Garrison, Anderson, and Archer's [1] model of critical thinking and practical inquiry in a computer conferencing context....
Article
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This article describes a practical approach to judging the nature and quality of critical discourse in a computer conference. A model of a critical community of inquiry frames the research. A core concept in defining a community of inquiry is cognitive presence. In turn, the practical inquiry model operationalizes cognitive presence for the purpose...
Article
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The adoption of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in higher education has far out-paced our understanding of how this medium should be used so as to best promote higher-order learning. This medium is substantively different, in several important ways, from face-to-face classroom teaching. A number of other scholars are now trying to remedy this...
Article
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This paper discusses the potential and the methodological challenges of analyzing computer conference transcripts using quantitative content analysis. The paper is divided into six sections, which discuss: criteria for content analysis, research designs, types of content, units of analysis, ethical issues, and software to aid analysis. The discussi...
Article
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P class=author> Randy Garrison Abstract The premise of this article is that theoretical frameworks and models are essential to the long-term credibility and viability of a field of practice. In order to assess the theoretical challenges facing the field of distance education, the significant theoretical contributions to distance education in the la...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to provide conceptual order and a tool for the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and computer conferencing in supporting an educational experience. Central to the study introduced here is a model of community inquiry that constitutes three elements essential to an educational transaction—cognitive presence, s...