D. Russell Crane

D. Russell Crane
Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus | BYU · School of Family Life

PhD

About

98
Publications
66,608
Reads
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3,365
Citations
Introduction
Editor of Contemporary Family Therapy. Primary research: cost effectiveness of the profession and practice of MFT and family health outcomes. Author of Fundamentals of Marital Therapy, Handbook of Families and Health, Handbook of Families and Poverty, and Handbook of Families and Work. Received AAMFT Cumulative Contributions to MFT Research Award in 2007. Former Chair of AAMFT’s Commission on Accreditation for MFT Education.
Additional affiliations
January 2007 - December 2011
Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus
Position
  • Director of the Comprehensive Clinic
Description
  • Direction of staff, clinical services and research. The clinic is a multi-disciplinary training, research and clinical services center that houses several of the clinical training programs: psychology, MFT, social work, and communicative disorders.
January 2000 - December 2006
Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus
Position
  • Managing Director
Description
  • Personnel and budget management of research arm of the School of Family Life. Develop research initiatives and outreach programs on issues important for marriage and family relationships.
January 1996 - July 1996
University of Kent
Position
  • visiting professor
Education
September 1978 - May 1979
Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus
Field of study
  • Marriage & Family Therapy
September 1975 - May 1978
Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus
Field of study
  • Marriage & Family Therapy
September 1973 - May 1975

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
Full-text available
This purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the treatment of Oppositional Defiant Disorder, with a specific focus on cost analyses. In general the literature shows that while there has been substantial research on Oppositional Defiant Disorder there has been little focus on the costs involved. A search of the major databases in psycho...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine patterns in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) outpatient mental health services including cost and length of services, return to care rates, and dropout by the presence of commonly co-morbid mental health conditions, modality and provider type. Methodology This study is a longitudinal, retrospective stud...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of the cost-effectiveness research for the practice and profession of family therapy in real-world health care settings. Given that an earlier re-view covered publications up to 2012 (Crane & Christenson, 2012), the present review will address work since the earlier review. Findings related to sch...
Article
This purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the cost-effectiveness research for the profession and practice of marriage and family therapy. Studies based on four sources of data were considered: (1) a western United States HMO covering 180,000 subscribers; (2) the Kansas State Medicaid system with over 300,000 beneficiaries; (3) Cigna, a...
Article
Full-text available
This longitudinal, retrospective study examines patterns in eating disorder outpatient mental health treatment by age. Participants (n = 5,445) included patients treated for an eating disorder, with claims for treatment from Cigna, a leading health care insurance provider in the United States. Treatments for individuals 55 and older were less expen...
Book
Full-text available
The first text on Medical Family Therapy (MedFT), entitled "Medical Family Therapy: A Biopsychosocial Approach to Families with Health Problems," was published in 1992. Its authors, Susan McDaniel, Jeri Hepworth, and Bill Doherty, shared a vision that it would be adopted by individuals from all different healthcare disciplines who practiced from a...
Chapter
Full-text available
This purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the cost-effectiveness research for the profession and practice of marriage and family therapy. Studies based on four sources of data were considered: (1) a western United States HMO covering 180,000 subscribers; (2) the Kansas State Medicaid system with over 300,000 beneficiaries; (3) Cigna, a...
Article
Full-text available
Results from studies conducted over the past 30 years within established medical systems demonstrate that family therapy is an effective and relatively inexpensive modality of psychotherapy treatment (e.g., Crane & Payne, 2011). In addition, as a group of independently licensed treatment providers, Marriage and Family Therapists (MFTs) provide care...
Article
This exploratory, observational study was designed to reveal descriptive information regarding therapists' actual practices with preschool- and school-aged children in a single session of family therapy and to investigate change mechanisms in family play therapy that have been proposed to make this approach effective. A purposive sample of 30 famil...
Article
Depression is one of the most common concerns that bring clients to treatment. Although marriage and family therapy has been shown to be an effective treatment, little research exists regarding the cost-effectiveness of related services. In this study, we examined claims data for 164,667 individuals diagnosed with depression to determine (a) differ...
Article
Manuscript of a journal article. Thesis (M.A.) B.Y.U. Dept. of Child Development and Family Relationships. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 15-16).
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides a summary of efficacy and effectiveness research for family therapy. Section one review efficacy studies for a number of mental health problems and concerns including conduct disorder, substance abuse, depression and a number of other mental health problems. The second section discusses the effectiveness of family therapy in ter...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a call by researchers for estimates of the treatment effectiveness and cost effectiveness for relational problems, very little has been done to answer this call. The present study is an examination of actual treatment costs and recidivism rates for patients treated for a relational problem (either in individual or conjoint therapy sessions)...
Article
Despite a number of studies investigating the effect of pharmacotherapy on treatment costs for schizophrenia patients, there has been little attention given to the effect of family intervention. In this study, data from the Kansas Medicaid system were used to analyze healthcare costs for 164 schizophrenia patients who had participated in family int...
Data
This study examined the cost of substance use disorders treatment in a large healthcare organization. A survival analysis demonstrated that family therapy utilised the least number of sessions (M = 2.41) when treating substance use disorders followed by individual therapy (M = 3.38) and mixed therapy (M = 6.40). Family therapy was the least costly...
Article
Full-text available
Health care in the United States is failing; the system as we know it is in financial ruins (e.g.,Himmelstein et al. 2009; World Health Organization 2000). As the prevalence of chronicillness and health disparities continues to increase, many healthcare systems maintain thatthey are operating through a fragmented model of care that is inefficient, ex...
Article
Full-text available
Administrative data from Cigna for 149 somatoform cases were analyzed to determine the cost, number of sessions, dropout rates, and recidivism rates. Comparisons on these outcomes were made between medical doctors, psychologists, master's nurses, master's social workers, marriage and family therapists, and professional counselors. Recidivism rates...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual dysfunctions are serious mental health issues that affect an estimated 1 in 3 Americans, yet many people with sexual dysfunctions do not seek treatment. Health services research on variables related to access, barriers, costs, and outcomes of treatment may help improve the quality of care. The current research is a retrospective analysis of...
Article
Full-text available
A number of studies have examined variables associated with health care use. However, no study is known to have considered health care use among people seeking services for marital and family problems. In this study, health care use of persons (N=110) seeking these services was investigated to determine the strongest psychosocial correlates of heal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The traditional career path of MFTs eventually ends in private practice, with a significant of their incomes came from private pay. This path has been changing in the past decade. More MFTs are working in agencies now than ever, and many of them are in management roles which require skills to secure funding and interact with other service providing...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we sought to explore the biopsychosocial connections between relational adjustment, hostility, and physical functioning of individuals who attended psychotherapy. Assessments were given at therapy intake, 6months post intake, and 12months after therapy intake. Path analyses between relational adjustment, hostility, and physical functi...
Article
In an effort to understand how psychotherapy is practiced in the "real world," outpatient claims data were examined to determine the cost of individual and family therapy provided by marital and family therapists, master's nurses, master's social workers, medical doctors, psychologists, or professional counselors. Claims for 490,000 unique persons...
Article
Dropouts are frequent in mental health care. Several client factors have been identified as dropout predictors, including ethnic minority status, race, low SES, and more severe symptoms. Research on therapist and process variables is less common, and findings are inconsistent. This study used administrative data for 434,317 patients from CIGNA Beha...
Article
Full-text available
While research documents the effectiveness of marriage and family therapy (MFT) as a clinical practice, few studies have focused on the MFT profession. This study examined the influence of the MFT license on family therapy treatment effectiveness. Outcome measures included treatment dropouts, recidivism, and cost effectiveness. Data spanning 2001 t...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this study was to determine predictors of children's health care use in families that were presenting for couple and family therapy. Participants completed a battery of assessments addressing various aspects of biopsychosocial functioning. Best subsets multiple regressions were used to determine which variables were best suited as predi...
Article
Full-text available
In a review of literature on clinical licensure programs and certified mental health disciplines, no studies specifically compared didactic methods and clinical training standards for family-based interventions. Consequently, consumers and insurers of these services have no basis from which to evaluate the relative competency of each of the mental...
Article
In order to compete in a financially sensitive health care system, family systems-based treatments must demonstrate effective clinical results as well as cost-effectiveness. Cost-effectiveness research can demonstrate to health care insurers and policy makers which treatments are viable options for implementation. The present literature review iden...
Article
This paper provides a summary of the cost-effectiveness research for family therapy. Data were available from four different sources in the United States: (1) a health maintenance organization with 180,000 subscribers; (2) the Medicaid system of the State of Kansas; (3) CIGNA Behavioral Health, a division of a health insurance company with nine mil...
Article
Full-text available
Health care research applied to couples and families has been hampered by the high cost of obtaining and hand reviewing medical charts. Fortunately, self-report of medical use has been shown to be a useful measure of medical utilization with individuals. However, no such research has been reported to see if the same is true for couples and families...
Article
Full-text available
Psychosocial intervention has been found to be related to subsequent reductions in health care use. Studies generally measure this ‘‘offset effect’’ by combining medical use categories into one outcome variable, such as outpatient doctor visits. However, using a general outcome variable may obscure more specific patterns of reduction. In an effort...
Article
Full-text available
In response to a series of national policy reports regarding what has been termed the "quality chasm" in health and mental health care in the United States, in January 2003, the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy convened a task force to develop core competencies (CC) for the practice of marriage and family therapy (MFT). The task...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the differences in cognitive and behavioral steps in the divorce process for men and women. Two studies of 589 clinical couples were analyzed comparing the responses of men and women on the 14 items of the Marital Status Inventory (MSI). Women were found to make specific plans about divorce and implement these plans. Women w...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides a summary of effectiveness research on the costs of including family therapy in mental health services. Data was available from four different sources: (1) a large western Health Maintenance Organization with 180,000 subscribers in the local Utah region; (2) the Medicaid system of the entire State of Kansas in the United State...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper provides a summary of efficacy and effectiveness research for family therapy. Section one review efficacy studies for a number of mental health problems and concerns including conduct disorder, substance abuse, depression and a number of other mental health problems. The second section discusses the effectiveness of family therapy in ter...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper provides a summary of efficacy and effectiveness research for family therapy. Section one review efficacy studies for a number of mental health problems and concerns including conduct disorder, substance abuse, depression and a number of other mental health problems. The second section discusses the effectiveness of family therapy in ter...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides a summary of effectiveness research on the costs of including family therapy in mental health services. Data was available from three different sources: 1) a large western Health Maintenance Organization with 180,000 subscribers in the local Utah region; 2) the Medicaid system of the entire State of Kansas in the United States;...
Article
Full-text available
Associations among three dimensions of parenting (support, behavioral control, psychological control) and measures of adolescent depression, delinquency, and academic achievement were assessed in a sample of African American youth. All data were adolescent self-reports by way of school-administered questionnaires in random samples of classrooms in...
Book
Handbook of Families and Health: Interdisciplinary Perspectives presentsstate-of-the-art summaries of research related to couple, marital, and familyinfluences on health. Editors D. Russell Crane and Elaine S. Marshall, alongwith a distinguished group of contributors across various disciplines, bringcomplementary perspectives to a wide range of fam...
Article
Full-text available
This longitudinal, retrospective study investigated the healthcare costs of youth treated for conduct disorder in the Kansas Medicaid system. Along with a comprehensive range of services, youth received in-office individual therapy, in-office family therapy, or in-home family therapy. Data was available for 3753 youth. Overall, 3086 youth received...
Article
The present study investigated the associations between family functioning, acculturation between parents and their adolescents, and adolescent adjustment problems. Chinese adolescents and their parents (N= 41) living in the United States and Canada participated in this study. Results showed that differences in acculturation between parents and ado...
Article
Full-text available
Due to methodological limitations, past meta-analytic research was not able to identify which treatment was most effective for specific marital distress levels. By converting pre-and post-test scores from marital research into equivalent Dyadic Adjustment Scale scores, it was possible to isolate mild, moderate, and severe levels of mar-ital distres...
Article
This paper presents some suggestions for the implementation of Behavioural Family Therapy for families with young children. It attempts to bridge the gap between clinical research and practice by emphasizing the process of therapy delivery rather than the specific content of the behavioural approach. Suggestions for teaching behaviour management sk...
Article
In this article, we investigated the estimated cost to the Medicare program for covering psychotherapy services provided by marriage and family therapists (MFTs). Historical trends were identified by using psychotherapy cost and utilization data for the years 1999-2001. Using these trends, projections for the years 2002-2006 were made with MFTs inc...
Article
Full-text available
This was an exploratory study examining the relationship between the therapist characteristics of age, experience, gender, and profession and the medical utilization of clients. Marriage and family therapists, clinical social workers, and psychologists participated in the study along with 197 clients as identified by archival research methods. The...
Article
Research has shown that people reduce their use of health care after individual, marital, and family therapy, which is known as the "offset effect." However, little research has been done to learn if high utilizers of health care reduce health care usage after therapy. Medical records of research participants (n = 65) from a health maintenance orga...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to identify Marital Status Inventory (MSI) scores that could be used as cutoff points for degrees of marital distress. Cutoff scores are useful in clinical work as a way to estimate degrees of marital distress, differentiate couples for treatments, and to provide uniformity across studies. Subjects consisted of 474 couples r...
Article
In 1998, John Gottman and his associates published an article which asserted that training ‘active listening’ between couples was an ineffective therapeutic intervention. Not surprisingly, this claim generated considerable controversy, particularly in relation to treatment and educational models that were heavily dependent on active listening as a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Health care professionals and families face new and diverse challenges in the current health care market. With the move toward managed care, providers have been required to look for ways to make services more effi­cient. At the same time, families have struggled to find affordable coverage that meets their needs. Contemporary research has supplied...
Article
Effective models of clinical training have been and continue to be a primary topic of discussion in the field of family therapy, particularly given the needs of evidence-based practice. This article outlines the major historical and contemporary struggles of one such model of clinical training and practice: the scientist-practitioner model. Through...
Article
The paper summarizes the experience of a 4-year research project conducted in a large Health Maintenance Organization. Obstacles and solutions related to doing research in this type of system are presented. Suggestions for those seeking to conduct research programs in similar settings are provided.
Article
We discuss the status of the scientist-practitioner model in marriage and family therapy (MFT) doctoral programs. Issues discussed include a lack of faculty research role models in doctoral programs, "farming out" the majority of research courses to other disciplines, problems with curriculum, and how the culture of MFT does not support research. W...
Article
Articles published in prominent family science journals over a 14-year period were analyzed for their attention to U.S. ethnic groups. Articles were analyzed in terms of their ethnic population of interest, topic of study, type of implication for applied professionals, funding source, and sample characteristics. A number of findings indicate an inc...
Article
Full-text available
Using longitudinal data from the 1987 to 1988 (Wave I) and 1992 to 1993 (Wave II) National Survey of Family and Households, the authors compared long-term cohabiting, married, and remarried couples in four areas of relationship quality at Wave II (happiness, communication, fairness, and disagreements). Comparisons were made after controlling for pr...
Article
Full-text available
This study was to examine the effect of triangulation on depression in children. Clinical samples and nonclinical samples were taken from Utah and Illinois. Families were assessed for marital satisfaction and stability, family triangulation, and children's depression levels by the Marital Adjustment Test, Marital Status Inventory, Nuclear Family Tr...
Article
Research has shown that people reduce their use of health care after individual psychotherapy. However, little research has been done to learn if marital and family therapy has a similar effect. Subjects (n = 292) from a health-maintenance organization were randomly selected according to the type of therapy they had received. Subjects' medical reco...
Article
Full-text available
This study demonstrates the usefulness of the KMSS and RDAS in distinguishing between the maritally distressed and nondistressed. For conceptual and statistical clarity, many marital interaction and marital therapy research measures, use a single cutoff score. It was determined that the cutoff score is 17 for the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale (...
Article
Full-text available
Social support or husbands' and wives' friendships have theoretical and empirical support, showing benefit on marital satisfaction. The current study was designed to assess the association between friendships and couples in therapy as compared with a sample of volunteer couples. Discussions with friends about family problems were positively associa...
Article
Full-text available
Social support or husbands' and wives' friendships have theoretical and empirical support, showing benefit on marital satisfaction. The current study was designed to assess the association between friendships and couples in therapy as compared with a sample of volunteer couples. Discussions with friends about family problems were positively associa...
Book
The purpose of this book is to present a basic method for "how to do marital or couples therapy". In order to present methods that "work", it draws from those treatment methods that have been empirically verified. It identifies, presents and discusses the elements common to all of the tested treatment models. New information includes a presentatio...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to predict divorce in a marital-distressed and therapy-seeking population. The sample was from the case records of the Marriage and Family Therapy Clinic at Brigham Young University. Demographic and psychological data as well as Marital Status Inventory (MSI) and Marital Adjustment Test (MAT) scores were available for...
Article
Full-text available
The existing research on the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) indicated that there were problems with some of the subscales and individual items. This study was designed to improve the instrument by following the standards of construct hierarchy. Through previous research and the analyses in this study, the subscales were found to contain some items t...
Article
Americans are spending 12-14% of their income on health care, and costs are rising about 11-12% per year. These increases are fueled by many social problems and are not limited strictly to health matters. Many alternatives have been examined to limit the rapidly increasing costs. The long-term results of these efforts are likely to be a reduction i...
Article
This paper is written in response to the critique of my health care article (Crane, 1995) written by Patterson and Scherger (1 995). My original article set out to identify changes in the healthcare venue and to explain potential adjustments that educators and practitioner s can make in anticipation of those changes.
Article
Full-text available
This study involved a 10-year review of the major marriage and family therapy related journals for articles involving racial and ethnic minorities. Despite an awareness of the importance of such scholarship, fewer than 5% of published articles focused on racial and ethnic minority populations and issues. This review of the marriage and family thera...
Article
Full-text available
On the basis of personal experience and understanding of the Chinese culture as a native of the People's Republic of China, the author gives some of the reasons why Chinese-Americans under-utilize mental health facilities and addresses issues that might arise in marriage and family therapy with people from China. Subcultural differences and variabl...
Article
Full-text available
This study was an attempt to replicate the original factor analysis done by Spanier when he created the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS). Unlike previous studies, this one used a sample of distressed and nondistressed couples. The same factor analysis procedures Spanier used in developing the DAS were used with these samples. The Dyadic Satisfaction S...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to predict therapy dropouts using data gathered at marital therpay intake. Intake data included standardized assessments and demographic information. The sample consisted of 474 couples who were seeking marital therapy and who attended at least one therapy session. Seventy-two couples met the dropout criteria, and a ra...
Article
This study explored the effects of spouses' wake and sleep patterns on marital adjustment. A total of 150 couples from three states completed questions on wake/sleep patterns, marital interaction, marital adjustment, and problem solving. Couples whose wake and sleep patterns were mismatched (e.g., an evening person married to a morning person) repo...
Article
Three of the most popular marital adjustment measures are the Dyadic Adjustment Scale IDAS), the Marital Adjustment Test (MATJ, and 11:-Revised Mariral Adjustment Test IRMA T). 'rile these measures mess similar dimensions, urdividual items on the tests are weighted dif-ferently and the scales have different ranges, all of which make direct comparis...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present article was to demonstrate a systemic treatment of depression for a 70 year-old woman. In this treatment, other family members were unavailable, but a family therapy systems perspective was used throughout. Results of the demonstration ABAB single case design and two year followup were suggestive of treatment effectivenes...
Article
Several ‘family systems therapists have discussed the value of observing families’ spatial relationships as an aid in diagnosing family structure and processes. For example, Haley (1976) notes that: “When the family members seat themselves, sometimes the organization of the family is clarified” (p. 18). Minuchin (1974) also discusses the same idea...
Article
The present study sought to incorporate recent suggestions for reciprocity research into an experimental design which could use behavioral base rate change as a method for determining nonverbal reciprocity in nondistressed couples. This study examined reciprocity by surreptitiously manipulating the touching behavior of one spouse, and monitoring re...
Article
Clients seen in two marriage and family therapy training clinics were surveyed regarding treatment outcome. They rated their therapist's skill level on several therapist variables including “experience,”“confident,”“concerned,” how well the treatment used seemed to “fit” their view of the problem and if the therapist seemed to “know how to deal” wi...
Article
Recent authors have encouraged the use of single-case experimental design in family therapy research. However, several issues related to the application of these designs have not been addressed. The present article suggests that the applicability of single-case methods to family therapy research may be limited. The first issue raised is the general...
Article
The Marital Status Inventory (MSI), a measure of divorce potential was given to couples in six independent samples. Scores from the five clinical sites and one marital enrichment sample (N = 241 couples) were used to provide adequate reliability, discriminant validity and predictive validity data. Compound probability for the five clinical sites su...
Chapter
Full-text available
Few observers would argue with the statement that the philosophy behind behavior modification has stirred controversy in psychology For some, behavior modification is a simplistic. mechanistic approach, which does not include the richness and complexity required to help human beings in their search for the fullness of life. To others. behavior modi...
Article
Personal space, a research area common to social psychology, is a dimension of interpersonal behavior potentially useful in assessing marital relationships. Personal space has been extensively researched and has been found to be smaller for husband-wife dyads than for same sex and opposite sex dyads (Hill, Blackman & Crane, 1982). The purpose of th...