Cynthia A Wenner

Cynthia A Wenner
Bastyr University · Department of Basic Sciences

Doctor of Philosophy

About

36
Publications
7,728
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1,859
Citations
Citations since 2016
0 Research Items
681 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
Introduction
Cynthia A Wenner currently works with the Department of Basic Sciences, Bastyr University. Cynthia does research in Immunology and Cell Biology. Her current projects are immunological studies assessing the modulatory effects of mushroom and plant extracts on immune response pathways.
Additional affiliations
July 1997 - present
Bastyr University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (36)
Article
Objective: To determine if aqueous, polysaccharide-containing Echinacea purpurea extracts taken orally increase pro-inflammatory cytokine responses ex vivo. Design: In two separate studies, the levels of TNF-alpha (TNF), interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and IL-6) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) secreted by phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral bloo...
Article
Objective: Lomatium dissectum is a plant native to the Western US traditionally used in the Native American culture to treat influenza, which remains a persistent threat to human health. Evidence suggests that dysregulation of cytokines and chemokines, including CXCL10, is the primary factor leading to poor prognosis in highly pathogenic influenza...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. Orally administered preparations from the Trametes versicolor (Tv) mushroom have been hypothesized to improve immune response in women with breast cancer after standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Methods. A phase I, two-center, dose escalation study was done to determine the maximum tolerated dose of a Tv preparation when taken da...
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Full-text available
An N of 1 trial is a multiple crossover study in a single participant. N of 1trials can combine the benefits of individualized patient practice and evidence-based medicine and are amenable to complementary and alternative medicine practice and research. This article will review the basic structure of N of 1trials, discuss how they are commonly used...
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Advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer has high mortality rates and limited treatment options. Novel therapies are needed to better contend with this disease. Polysaccharide-K® (PSK), an extract of the mushroom Trametes versicolor, has immunomodulatory and tumor suppressive activities. PSK is used in Asia as a cancer immunotherapy. However,...
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Full-text available
The therapeutic effect of trastuzumab monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy has been shown to be partially dependent on functional natural killer (NK) cells. Novel agents that enhance NK cell function could potentially improve the antitumor effect of trastuzumab. We recently identified polysaccharide krestin (PSK), a natural product extracted from medi...
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Polysaccharide krestin (PSK) is a mushroom extract that has been long used in Asia and recently in Western countries as a treatment for cancer due to its presumed immune potentiating effects. Although there have been reports of clinical responses after patients have ingested PSK, the mechanism of action of the agent remains undefined. The current s...
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Woody fungi and yeast preparations show promise in cancer treatment by activating anti-tumor immune responses. Macrophages (J774A.1) were treated with PSK, Reishi extract, scleroglucan or vehicle control. Pre-incubation with TLR4 blocking antibody inhibited TNF-alpha secretion by both J774A.1 cells and primary splenocytes but had inconclusive effec...
Article
Echinacea is a top-selling herbal remedy that purportedly acts as an immunostimulant. However, the specific immunomodulatory effects of Echinacea remain to be elucidated. We focused on defining the effects of Echinacea purpurea extracts in dendritic cells (DCs), which generate innate and adaptive immune responses. We hypothesized that E. purpurea e...
Article
Certain fatty acid amides from Echinacea spp. have demonstrated moderate to high cannabinoid activity. As a result, CB2 activation is currently hypothesized to be the basis of activity for immunomodulation by Echinacea spp. PPARgamma, an orphan nuclear receptor and lipid sensor, is known to inhibit IL-2 production and be activated by fatty acid der...
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This article reviews the evidence that the functioning of both the innate and the adaptive immune system plays a role in preventing relapse in women with breast cancer. Lymphocytes, including T cells, T regulatory cells, and natural killer cells, and their cytokine release patterns are implicated in both primary prevention and recurrence of breast...
Article
The effects of mycological extracts on inflammatory cytokine secretion in J774A.1 mouse macrophage cell cultures (wild type peritoneal macrophages and TLR4-deficient mice (C57B1/6 TLR4 (-/-)) involving the pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition (PAMP) receptors TLR-4 and dectin-1 were investigated [1]. Trametes versicolor extract Polysac...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immune status of women with stage I-III breast cancer after receiving external beam radiotherapy (RT). Fourteen stage I-III, estrogen or progesterone receptor-positive or-negative (FER/PR +\-), postsurgical breast cancer patients undergoing a standard course of chemotherapy and radiation were studied. C...
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Data from multiple epidemiologic and clinical studies on immune effects of conventional cancer treatment and the clinical benefits of polysaccharide immune therapy suggest that immune function has a role in breast cancer prevention. Immune therapy utilizing the polysaccharide constituents of Trametes versicolor (Tv) as concurrent adjuvant cancer th...
Article
Because many people with chronic medical conditions use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), understanding their psychosocial characteristics may be useful for identifying effective interventions. The health locus of control (HLOC) measures the perception of controlling one's own health outcomes by various attributes. People with a high in...
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The medicinal plant Echinacea is widely used to treat upper respiratory infections and is reported to stimulate the human immune system. A major constituent class of Echinacea, the alkylamides, has immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies show that alkylamides are oxidized by cytochrome P450 enzymes, but the immunomodulatory activity of these produ...
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In this pilot study (n = 10), we investigated whether daily ingestion of a delayed release 4-species probiotic supplement over an 8-week period would enhance innate immune function in a nonelderly adult population. The parameters of innate immunity assessed were natural killer cell activity, phagocytic activity, and salivary secretory immunoglobuli...
Article
Alkylamides present in Echinacea species have reported immunomodulatory actions, yet their direct effects on T lymphocytes, key mediators of antiviral immunity, are poorly understood. We hypothesized that constituents present in ethanolic extracts of Echinacea species exert direct immunomodulatory effects on human Jurkat T cells. Modulation of IL-2...
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Full-text available
A phase I dose-escalating clinical trial of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata was conducted in 13 HIV positive patients and five HIV uninfected, healthy volunteers. The objectives were primarily to assess safety and tolerability and secondarily to assess effects on plasma virion HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4(+) lymphocyte levels. No subjects...
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Full-text available
A phase I dose-escalating clinical trial of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata was conducted in 13 HIV positive patients and five HIV uninfected, healthy volunteers. The objectives were primarily to assess safety and tolerability and secondarily to assess effects on plasma virion HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4+ lymphocyte levels. No subjects us...
Article
This article reviews the existing scientific literature reporting effects of botanical substances on the prevention and treatment of gynecological cancers. Anticancer effects were reported for 14 of 27 herbal substances searched for, 8 of which had reported effects specifically in gynecological cancer models. Research reviewed included in vitro stu...
Article
This article reviews the existing scientific literature reporting effects of botanical substances on the prevention and treatment of gynecological cancers. Anticancer effects were reported for 14 of 27 herbal substances searched for, 8 of which had reported effects specifically in gynecological cancer models. Research reviewed included in vitro stu...
Article
To investigate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practices provided to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, provider experience in HIV disease, patients' characteristics, provider perceptions of treatment effectiveness, and feasibility and interest in future studies. Mailed survey. 117 providers, recruited from profes...
Article
Selective cytokine gene expression by T cell subsets underlies polarization of cellular and humoral immune responses. Our interest has been to define the molecular basis for restricted cytokine expression by Th1 and Th2 cells. IL-4 is selectively expressed by Th2 cells, providing a model for Th2-specific gene expression. To allow for promoter analy...
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Full-text available
IL-12 and IL-4 direct T cell development toward Th1 and Th2 phenotypes, respectively. While IFN-gamma and IFN-alpha have been reported to regulate Th1 development as well, the mechanism and cellular locus of their effects are unclear. In this study, we use a TCR-transgenic system to examine the actions of these cytokines on CD4+ T cell phenotype de...

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