Crystallee Crain

Crystallee Crain
California State University, East Bay | CSUEB

Doctor of Philosophy


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Publications (2)
Over the past five decades, arrest, incarceration, and correctional supervisory rates have risen dramatically. One collateral consequence of the upward trend concerns the millions of children who are deeply impacted by the effects of parental criminal justice involvement and the associated risks, yet remain relatively hidden from society and unders...


Project (1)
Research Statement This project explores the unique position of women, and in particular women of color who experience community and state violence. While most research focused on the feminine or women centered experiences, cis-gendered women hold the mainstream narrative. #ListenToHer is designed to be inclusive of gender expression when defining the scope or personal definitions and identities of being a woman. This research is inclusive of gender identities across the spectrum that identifies as woman or female. This includes, but is not limited to, experiences of violence within transgender, queer and gender-nonconforming communities within the United States. This will also include residents who may not be naturalized citizens are still faced with violation and harm based on perceptions of inferiority regarding racial, gender and sexuality differences. Past research involving both exposure and analysis of community violence rarely includes a differentiation between that and state violence as a key indicator of marginalization. As described by INCITE, “When we say women of color and trans people of color, we mean people of color who experience violence and who identify as women, transgender, queer, gender non conforming, Two Spirit, lesbian, bisexual, bull daggers, aggressives, dykes, gay butch, studs, gender queer, and those whose experiences are generally marginalized by movements resisting violence.” Through a national survey and in-depth interviews, this project will explore and expose the variety of avenues that women of color experience community and state violence. Participants will fill out survey questions that will then be used to identify relational contexts, places, space the private and public nature of thee experiences and the consequences of said violence. The in-depth interviews will be on a volunteer basis, and incentivized. At the beginning, middle and end of the survey participants will confirm or negate their interest in being interviewed. Participants will be asked to identify solutions and examples of remedies that have been helpful for them as they have had varying violent experiences. Intersectionality in Action Research Goals • Identify risk factors that increase the potential for community and state violence to occur • Establish what are common experiences and what are potential phenomena regarding how women of color experience violence within community and state regulated environments • Identify how women of color define community violence • Determine how women of color currently define state related violence, harm and violation • Document established linkages between experiences of community and state violence • Recognize and describe common experiences that women of color have that involve state actors, agents and representatives that match their definition of state violence, violation, or harm • Expand the interdisciplinary research to include qualitative and quantitative data on exposure to community and state violence among women of color