Crystal M Cooper

Crystal M Cooper
Cook Children's Health Care System · Department of Neurosciences

PhD

About

64
Publications
11,500
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,651
Citations

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
Background Delivery of effective antidepressant treatment has been hampered by a lack of objective tools for predicting or monitoring treatment response. This study aimed to address this gap, by testing novel dynamic resting-state functional network markers of antidepressant response. Methods The Establishing Moderators and Biosignatures of Antide...
Article
Background The brain circuitry of depression and anxiety/fear is well-established, involving regions such as the limbic system and prefrontal cortex. We expand prior literature by examining the extent to which four discrete factors of anxiety (immediate state anxiety, physiological/panic, neuroticism/worry, and agitation/restlessness) among depress...
Article
Background The lack of biomarkers to inform antidepressant selection is a key challenge in personalized depression treatment. This work identifies candidate biomarkers by building deep learning predictors of individual treatment outcomes using reward processing measures from functional MRI, clinical assessments, and demographics. Methods Participa...
Article
Full-text available
The understanding and treatment of psychiatric disorders, which are known to be neurobiologically and clinically heterogeneous, could benefit from the data-driven identification of disease subtypes. Here, we report the identification of two clinically relevant subtypes of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) on...
Article
Objective : To identify data-driven subgroups in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in order to elucidate underlying neural correlates and determine if these subgroups have utility in predicting response to antidepressant versus placebo. Methods : Using 27 clinical measures at baseline of Establishing Moderators and Biosignatures of Antidepressant Re...
Article
Background Treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) is imprecise and often involves trial-and-error to determine the most effective approach. To facilitate optimal treatment selection and inform timely adjustment, the current study investigated whether neurocognitive variables could predict an antidepressant response in a treatment-specific ma...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Heterogeneity in major depressive disorder (MDD) is well recognized but not well understood. Core depressive features are reward and emotional symptoms, which reflect dysfunctions in the positive valence (PV) and negative valence (NV) systems, respectively. This study assessed whether PV and NV systems (based on selected symptoms) were...
Article
Full-text available
Activation of the kynurenine pathway (KP), an important downstream effect of inflammation, is a driver of depression and neurodegeneration. Damage from the end product of KP activation, quinolinic acid, may be responsible specifically for impairment in hippocampally mediated memory function, among its effects. We hypothesized that associative memor...
Article
Full-text available
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious, heterogeneous disorder accompanied by brain-related changes, many of which are still to be discovered or refined. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a neuroimaging technique used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF; perfusion) to understand brain function and detect differences among groups. CBF difference...
Article
Full-text available
Medications to treat major depressive disorder (MDD) are not equally effective across patients. Given that neural response to rewards is altered in MDD and given that reward-related circuitry is modulated by dopamine and serotonin, we examined, for the first time, whether reward-related neural activity moderated response to sertraline, an antidepre...
Article
Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with abnormal connectivity across emotion and reward circuits as well as other established circuits that may negatively impact treatment response. The goal of this study was to perform an exploratory re-analysis of archival data from a clinical trial to identify moderators of treatment outcom...
Article
Full-text available
Antidepressants are widely prescribed, but their efficacy relative to placebo is modest, in part because the clinical diagnosis of major depression encompasses biologically heterogeneous conditions. Here, we sought to identify a neurobiological signature of response to antidepressant treatment as compared to placebo. We designed a latent-space mach...
Article
Background Standard guidelines recommend selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as first-line antidepressants for adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), but success is limited and patients who fail to benefit are often switched to non-SSRI agents. This study investigated whether brain and behavior-based markers of reward processing m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Uncertainty in selecting the appropriate antidepressant for each patient is a major challenge in treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). No biologically driven markers are currently available to improve precision in treatment selection, thus leading to a trial-and-error process and prolonged morbidity for most patients. This study developed d...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Despite the widespread awareness of functional magnetic resonance imaging findings suggesting a role for cortical connectivity networks in treatment selection for major depressive disorder, its clinical utility remains limited. Recent methodological advances have revealed functional magnetic resonance imaging–like connectivity networks u...
Article
Full-text available
The efficacy of antidepressant treatment for depression is controversial due to only modest superiority demonstrated over placebo. However, neurobiological heterogeneity within depression may limit overall antidepressant efficacy. We sought to identify a neurobiological phenotype responsive to antidepressant treatment by testing pretreatment brain...
Article
Depression has a chronic and recurrent course often with early onset and is the leading cause of disability worldwide. In contrast to diagnoses for other conditions which rely on precise medical tests, the diagnosis of depression still focuses exclusively on symptom reports. As a result, heterogeneous patient groups are included under broad categor...
Article
Objective: Major depressive disorder is associated with aberrant resting-state functional connectivity across multiple brain networks supporting emotion processing, executive function, and reward processing. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patterns of resting-state connectivity between brain regions predict differential outcome...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been associated with brain-related changes. However, biomarkers have yet to be defined that could "accurately" identify antidepressant-responsive patterns and reduce the trial-and-error process in treatment selection. Cerebral blood perfusion, as measured by Arterial Spin Labelling (ASL), has been us...
Article
Background: Our lab has previously found that structural integrity in tracts from the raphe nucleus (RN) to the amygdala, measured by fractional anisotropy (FA), predicts remission to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in major depressive disorder (MDD). This could potentially serve as a biomarker for remission that can guide clinical...
Article
Background: Baseline rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) activity is a well-replicated nonspecific predictor of depression improvement. The rACC is a key hub of the default mode network, which prior studies indicate is hyperactive in major depressive disorder. Because default mode network downregulation is reliant on input from the salience n...
Article
Background: Despite the fact that higher levels of anxiety and anhedonia in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are linked to poorer treatment outcomes, mechanisms contributing to these clinical presentations remain unclear. Neuroticism, impaired cognitive control, and blunted reward learning may be critical processes involved in MDD and may help to e...
Article
This study aimed to identify biomarkers of major depressive disorder (MDD), by relating neuroimage‐derived measures to binary (MDD/control), ordinal (severe MDD/mild MDD/control), or continuous (depression severity) outcomes. To address MDD heterogeneity, factors (severity of psychic depression, motivation, anxiety, psychosis, and sleep disturbance...
Article
Background: One in three clinical trial patients with major depressive disorder report symptomatic improvement with placebo. Strategies to mitigate the effect of placebo responses have focused on modifying study design with variable success. Identifying and excluding or controlling for individuals with a high likelihood of responding to placebo ma...
Article
Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly heterogeneous condition in terms of symptom presentation and, likely, underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, it is possible that only certain individuals with MDD are well-suited to antidepressants. A potentially fruitful approach to parsing this heterogeneity is to focus on promising endophe...
Article
To date, there are no biomarkers for major depressive disorder (MDD) treatment response in clinical use. Such biomarkers could allow for individualized treatment selection, reducing time spent on ineffective treatments and the burden of MDD. In search of such a biomarker, multisite pretreatment and early-treatment (1 week into treatment) structural...
Article
Importance Major depressive disorder (MDD) remains challenging to treat. Although several clinical and demographic variables have been found to predict poor antidepressant response, these markers have not been robustly replicated to warrant implementation in clinical care. Increased pretreatment rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) theta activi...
Article
The current study aimed to characterize the multifaceted nature of anxiety in patients with major depression by evaluating distinct anxiety factors. We then related these derived anxiety factors to performance on a Flanker Task of cognitive control, in order to further validate these factors. Data were collected from 195 patients with nonpsychotic...
Article
With the proliferation of multi-site neuroimaging studies, there is a greater need for handling non-biological variance introduced by differences in MRI scanners and acquisition protocols. Such unwanted sources of variation, which we refer to as "scanner effects", can hinder the detection of imaging features associated with clinical covariates of i...
Article
Introduction: Previous investigations of test-retest reliability of cerebral blood flow (CBF) at rest measured with pseudo-continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (pCASL) demonstrated good reliability, but are limited by the use of similar scanner platforms. In the present study we examined test-retest reliability of CBF in regions implicated in emotion...
Preprint
Full-text available
With the proliferation of multi-site neuroimaging studies, there is a greater need for handling non-biological variance introduced by differences in MRI scanners and acquisition protocols. Such unwanted sources of variation, which we refer to as “scanner effects”, can hinder the detection of imaging features associated with clinical covariates of i...
Article
Background: Reduced cortical thickness is a candidate biological marker of depression, although findings are inconsistent. This could reflect analytic heterogeneity, such as use of region-wise cortical thickness based on the Freesurfer Desikan-Killiany (DK) atlas or surface-based morphometry (SBM). The Freesurfer Destrieux (DS) atlas (more, smalle...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders are highly co-morbid. Research has shown conflicting evidence for white matter alteration and amygdala volume reduction in mood and anxiety disorders. To date, no studies have examined differences in structural connectivity between anxious depressed and non-anxious depressed individ...
Article
Full-text available
Growing evidence suggests that loudness dependency of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) and resting EEG alpha and theta may be biological markers for predicting response to antidepressants. In spite of this promise, little is known about the joint reliability of these markers, and thus their clinical applicability. New, standardized procedures wer...
Article
Background: Personality dysfunction represents one of the only predictors of differential response between active treatments for depression to have replicated. In this study, we examine whether depressed patients with higher neuroticism scores, a marker of personality dysfunction, show differences versus depressed patients with lower scores in the...
Article
Unlabelled: Remission rates for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are low and unpredictable for any given antidepressant. No biological or clinical marker has demonstrated sufficient ability to match individuals to efficacious treatment. Biosignatures developed from the systematic exploration of multiple biological markers, which optimize treatment...
Article
Full-text available
Roughly 26-32% of U. S. veterans who served in the 1991 Persian Gulf War report suffering from chronic health problems. Memory complaints are regularly reported by ill Gulf War veterans (GWV), but limited data verify their complaints. This study investigated episodic memory and brain function in a nationally representative sample of GWV, using a fa...
Data
Table S1. Demographic and clinical variables Table S2. FA in white matter parcellated ROIs Table S3. Outcome measures from probabilistic tractography Table S4. Correlation coefficient for relationship between FA in ROIs (top) and tractography (bottom) and clinical measures by site.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disorder characterized by widespread brain abnormalities. The literature is mixed as to whether or not white matter abnormalities are associated with MDD. This study sought to examine fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter tracts in individuals with MDD using diffusion tensor imagin...
Article
Anhedonia, disrupted reward processing, is a core symptom of major depressive disorder. Recent findings demonstrate altered reward-related ventral striatal reactivity in depressed individuals, but the extent to which this is specific to anhedonia remains poorly understood. The authors examined the effect of anhedonia on reward expectancy (expected...
Article
Full-text available
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is clinically, and likely pathophysiologically, heterogeneous. A potentially fruitful approach to parsing this heterogeneity is to focus on promising endophenotypes. Guided by the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative, we used source localization of scalp-recorded EEG resting data to examine the neural corr...
Article
Full-text available
Longitudinal investigation of the neural correlates of reward processing in depression may represent an important step in defining effective biomarkers for antidepressant treatment outcome prediction, but the reliability of reward-related activation is not well understood. Thirty-seven healthy control participants were scanned using fMRI while perf...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade, many studies have used automated processes to analyze magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data such as cortical thickness, which is one indicator of neuronal health. Due to the convenience of image processing software (e.g., FreeSurfer), standard practice is to rely on automated results without performing visual inspection of inter...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background / Purpose: We analyzed the test-retest reliability of automated cortical thickness (CT) and cortical volume (CV) measures acquired from different sites. Main conclusion: Cortical thickness and cortical volume measures should be used carefully.
Article
Full-text available
Roughly 26-32% of US veterans, who served in the first Gulf War, report suffering from chronic health problems ( Golomb, 2008 , Proceedings of the National Academies of Science, 105, 4295). The present study investigated the memory deficits reported by these ill Gulf War veterans (GWV) using a face-name associative memory paradigm administered duri...
Article
Age-related declines in associative memory are proposed to result from deficits in older adults' ability to recollect the past. The present experiment investigated the ability of older adults to compensate for deficits in recollecting the past by using plausibility. Participants studied a list of word pairs that shared category or rhyme relations....
Article
Older adults experience a selective associative memory deficit by demonstrating intact item memory relative to impaired associative memory when compared with younger adults. Age-related deficits in associative memory have been suggested to arise from declines in attentional resources, and the role of attention during encoding and retrieval in assoc...
Article
The present research examined the influence of prior knowledge on children's free recall, cued recall, recognition memory, and source memory judgments for a series of similar real-life events. Forty children (5-12 years old) attended 4 thematic birthday parties and were later interviewed about the events that transpired during the parties using the...

Projects

Project (1)
Project