Cristina Sin

Cristina Sin
Interdisciplinary Research Centre for Education and Development (CeiED)

PhD, Lancaster University

About

86
Publications
9,518
Reads
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878
Citations
Introduction
Cristina Sin works at the Portuguese Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education (A3ES) and at the Centre For Research in Higher Education Policies (CIPES). Cristina does research in European higher education policy, quality assurance/enhancement in higher education, internationalisation etc. Her most recent publication is the coedited book "European Higher Education and the Internal Market: Tensions Between European Policy and National Sovereignty".
Additional affiliations
October 2008 - March 2011
Lancaster University
Position
  • Researh Associate

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the results of preliminary research into how Portuguese academics and employers perceive the responsibility of different higher education stakeholders—students, teaching staff, higher education institutions, employers, and policy-makers—for developing graduate employability. The study was conducted 8 years after the implementatio...
Article
Full-text available
Student-centred learning has gradually come to the foreground of the Bologna Process. In parallel, learning outcomes have been advocated as key degree descriptors, illustrative of student-centred approaches. This paper examines learning outcomes in their diverse understandings and enactment in three European countries – England, Portugal and Denmar...
Article
The paper examines to whom Portuguese students attribute responsibility for the development of employability, and what extra-curricular activities they undertake to improve their employability. Particular focus lies upon how far students internalise responsibility for employability and if/how they seek to position themselves in the job market. The...
Article
Full-text available
The paper analyses employability as a floating signifier – a construct that accommodates different and often contending meanings. A preliminary analysis of scholarly literature identifies two opposed interpretations of employability – an individual responsibility versus a comprehensive context-aware construct. These are subsequently applied to the...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter analyses how the topic of teaching and learning has evolved in the political discourse of the Bologna Process and of the policy actors who shape European higher education policy. This exercise is particularly stimulating because learning and teaching evolved from a topic of little significance to a forefront concern and a dimension pre...
Article
Full-text available
The paper analyses the influence of COVID-19 on Portuguese institutions' intake of international students and their responses to the pandemic. Two dimensions are considered: quantitative impact on international enrolments and higher education institu-tions' strategies for the recruitment and support of international students. The first dimension is...
Article
Growing numbers of students from non-Portuguese speaking countries, designated as ‘non-Lusophone students’, signal the diversification of the international student population in Portugal. Until recently, international students came almost exclusively from other Portuguese-speaking countries. Employing social network analysis, the paper analyses the...
Book
Full-text available
This book discusses and analyses global policies and practices aimed at promoting equity in higher education participation and attainment. Although the massification of higher education systems has facilitated the participation of students from deprived backgrounds, socioeconomic inequalities persist in access to the most prestigious institutions a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Although the number of places available in Portuguese public higher education institutions is higher than the number of candidates, some applicants are still left out. Moreover, for those who get a place, inequalities are evident in the admission to the most selective institutions and programmes. This chapter aims to (i) identify and characterise t...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter analyses inequalities in the transition from upper secondary to higher education in Portugal, using empirical data from the General-Directorate of Education and Science Statistics (DGEEC). It argues that educational inequalities are already present in Portuguese students’ trajectories before higher education and that the transition to...
Chapter
Full-text available
The concluding chapter highlights that the commitment with equity in the analysed contexts has increased social justice and contributed to a reduction of social inequalities. However, the policies employed to improve equity are not homogenous since they depend on the local, educational, historical, economic and political conditions that favour the...
Article
This is the introduction to a special issue focused on offering new perspectives and analytical approaches to better understand academic inbreeding. The seven papers of this special issue offer original analyses and new avenues of research on this highly resilient social phenomenon in academic settings. The findings and arguments forwarded by these...
Conference Paper
According to the European strategy for universities, these higher education institutions are uniquely located at the crossroads of education, research and innovation, serving both society and economy. Universities contribute to consolidate the European Education Area (EEA) and the European Research Area (ERA). Traditionally, teaching has been the d...
Book
Full-text available
Este estudo tem como um dos seus principais objetivos perceber até que ponto a massificação do acesso ao ensino superior tem contribuído para colmatar ou acentuar desigualdades no acesso, sucesso e permanência/abandono dos estudantes no ensino superior português. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a expansão do ensino superior em P...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recently, African countries have been making efforts to expand their higher education systems. However, neither capacity nor quality have kept pace with demand, leading to a steady increase in students studying abroad. In this paper, we aim to analyse the development of enrolments in Portugal, one of the main destinations for students from Portugue...
Article
This paper analyses the patterns of international student enrolments in Portugal to understand what makes Portuguese higher education attractive. Employing a database of enrolments in Portuguese higher education institutions in 2017/2018, it uses correspondence analysis to characterise the flows of students coming from different countries and the v...
Chapter
Full-text available
The European Union’s (EU) decision to become ‘the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based society in the world’ by 2000 included key policies such as the creation of a European Research Area (ERA) and a European Higher Education Area (EHEA) capable of attracting academics from other countries. Recruiting the best academics, and especially the...
Article
The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between academic inbreeding in Portugal and research collaboration, using co‐authored publications as proxies. As previous research has shown that inbreeding is detrimental for research collaborations, it is hypothesised that academic inbreeding will lead to smaller research networks and, consequ...
Conference Paper
In recent years, Portuguese higher education institutions (HEIs) have intensified efforts to recruit international students as a result of several factors, such as declining numbers of national candidates because of a downward demographic trend, reduced state funding following the economic crisis, and the Statute of the International Student, a pie...
Article
The integration of coursework in doctoral programmes is becoming increasingly common worldwide. In Portugal, too, coursework is now part of many doctorates and is usually assigned to the first year. This paper aims to understand if coursework is also an element of the relatively recent industrial doctorates in Portugal and, in this case, if it repr...
Chapter
This chapter analyses whether the profile of students enrolled in industrial doctorates in Portugal reflects the dual culture of industry and academia. Based on student perceptions, the following aspects are analysed: motivations and expectations, the personality traits perceived to be in tune with the demands of industrial doctorates and the skill...
Article
This article explores the perceptions of Portuguese students enrolled in industrial doctorates, regarding potential conflicts that may arise from their supervision, their research topic and their research outputs. The study uses data collected from focus groups and subjected to content analysis. The findings suggest that industrial doctoral student...
Book
This book analyses the structural and institutional transformations undergone by doctoral education, and the extent to which these transformations are in line with social, political and doctoral candidates' expectations. Higher education has gone through profound changes driven by the massification and diversification of the student body, the rise...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses the strategies employed by two Portuguese institutions to integrate international students as well as these students’ perceptions of their social and academic integration, based on semi-structured interviews with institutional top and middle managers and focus groups with international students. Our findings suggest that institu...
Article
Public institutions in Portugal have not invested in strategies to attract international students until recently, when the adoption of new legislation and a national strategy for internationalization created more appealing conditions for it. This article aims to study the strategies institutions employ to recruit international students in a country...
Article
Full-text available
In Portugal, research productivity is nowadays essential for the positive assessment of academics, research units and study programmes. Academic inbreeding has been highlighted in the literature as one of the factors influencing research productivity. This paper tests the hypothesis that inbreeding is detrimental for research productivity, measured...
Article
The paper investigates the approaches employed for attracting international full-degree students in three countries on the periphery of Europe/the European Economic Area: Norway, Poland and Portugal. These countries, considered semi-peripheral regarding international student recruitment, have shorter traditions for incoming mobility than countries...
Article
Purpose Industrial doctorates have arisen in recent decades as a new form of doctoral education which has the potential to innovate the curriculum, among other things. Such programmes run in a number of countries including Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Estonia or Italy. In Portugal, industrial doctorates are very recent. The purpose of this paper is to...
Article
Full-text available
Since 2009, Portuguese higher education institutions have been developing their own internal quality assurance systems and policies as a result of the reforms of higher education quality assurance in Europe and Portugal. This paper analyses how far Portuguese universities, within the remit of their internal quality assurance systems, define and emp...
Chapter
Sin and Tavares put forward some arguments why the Bologna Process, by pursuing its convergence ambitions, could have the potential to act as an instrument for the creation of a higher education market in Europe, with academic degrees as the products. This would help the integration efforts of the European Union in a policy area explicitly excluded...
Chapter
The conclusion chapter brings together the insights gained through the exploration of the multiple forces, drivers and actors that have been shaping European policy in the area of higher education. The global tendencies towards liberalisation of markets and neoliberal thinking have influenced the rhetoric about higher education and its purposes. Eu...
Book
This book analyses European higher education policies and their three main drivers: the European Commission, the European Court of Justice and the building of the European Higher Education Area through the Bologna Process. Central to the volume is the issue of European institutions’ intervention in higher education: building a common area for highe...
Article
This article documents the changes that occurred in Portugal after the adoption of the new higher education quality assurance framework in 2007. The most obvious results of the new higher education evaluation and accreditation agency’s actions can be observed primarily at the level of teaching‑program provision. Accreditation activities resulted in...
Article
Full-text available
Aquest article documenta l’evolució que ha tingut lloc a Portugal després de l’adopció del nou marc de garantia de la qualitat en l’educació superior en 2007. Els resultats més evidents de les operacions de la nova agència d’avaluació i acreditació de l’educació superior s’han observat principalment en l’àmbit de l’oferta d’ensenyaments. Les activi...
Article
This study explores Portuguese academics’ acceptance of employability as a purpose for higher education further to the Bologna reforms, focusing on their understandings of employability and their teaching practices. The data were gathered through focus groups in which participated around 70 academics from 3 disciplinary areas, belonging to differen...
Chapter
https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-94-017-9553-1_149-1
Poster
Full-text available
The paper aims to investigate the approaches employed for attracting international students in three different countries from the periphery of Europe (Norway, Poland and Portugal), further to the to changing global environment in higher education. First, it analyses national policies and strategies, focusing on policy rationales, actors and instrum...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The reduction of the first degree in Portugal, driven by the Bologna reforms, has resulted in a perceived loss of its value in the society and the labour market. The implementation of the reforms coincided with the severe economic crisis and the job scarcity currently affecting the labour market. This paper aims to investigate student perceptions o...
Article
Internal quality assurance systems are expected to improve the institutions’ core mission of teaching and learning. Using data gathered through an online survey, distributed in 2014/2015, to the teaching staff of all Portuguese private and public higher education institutions, this paper examines the impact of internal quality assurance systems on...
Article
The article examines how far the key Bologna objective of student mobility has been achieved in Portuguese higher education institutions and the main factors shaping it. It analyzes credit mobility, outgoing and incoming, between Portugal and Europe. Although mobility overall has risen, incoming mobility has grown faster, making Portugal an importe...
Article
The paper examines comparatively the curricula of six Physics MSc degrees from three countries (England, Portugal and Denmark) in the European policy context driven by the Bologna Process, which advocates degree comparability and student-centred learning. Degree programme descriptions were analysed and interviews were conducted with students and le...
Article
The paper presents and analyses quantitative data on student perceptions about the employability of the first degree, and their trajectory choices on graduation. The purpose of this paper is to assess the value of the first degree as a positional good in Portugal, further to the degree’s reduced duration after the implementation of the Bologna Proc...
Book
The book aims at developing a critical analysis of the fulfilment of the major objectives of the Bologna Process, including enhanced employability and the relevance of first cycle degrees in the labour market, increased attractiveness of the European Higher Education Area, and increased mobility. The initial part of the book discusses the nature of...
Article
The paper analyses the impact of programme accreditation in Portugal further to the operations of the Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education, which were initiated in 2009. Tracking the evolution of study programmes, the paper found that, out of the initial 5262 programmes on offer in 2009/2010, 40% have been either discontinued...
Chapter
This chapter brings together the insights gained after analysing the Bologna Process against a complex background of European policies and after looking into the effects of the Bologna Process on Portuguese higher education. How far has higher education in Portugal moved towards the political ambitions entertained at the European level regarding em...
Chapter
This chapter investigates the consequences of the Bologna reforms on the employability of first-cycle graduates. National statistics reveal that the first degree is losing ground in favour of the master degree. Unemployment rates, including long-term unemployment, are higher for first-degree holders than for master degree holders, indicating that t...
Chapter
This chapter analyses the implementation problems of the Bologna Process in relation to the steering mechanisms based on the Open Method of Coordination (OMC). In areas such as education, which the European treaties have reserved for the legal command of national authorities (subsidiarity principle), the traditional ‘Community method’ of passing Eu...
Chapter
This chapter considers the main policy initiatives that have shaped European higher education directly or indirectly. It offers a broad picture of the higher education policy context in which the Bologna Process has unfolded, the place of the Bologna reforms within it and its relationship with this broader policy context. It considers the expanding...
Chapter
This chapter presents an overview of the characteristics of political processes in Portugal to explain the reasons for the lengthy implementation of the Bologna Process. A brief description of the evolution of the higher education system following the 1974 revolution is presented, including the implementation of the polytechnic sector and the devel...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the European agenda driving policy change. The idea of a European Higher Education Area (EHEA) was initially linked to the enlargement of the European Union to include Central and Eastern European countries. The central political purpose of the EHEA, as expressed in the Bologna Declaration, was to ensure greater compatibilit...
Chapter
The impact of Bologna on student mobility, its positive effects and unintended consequences, and the factors which influence mobility represent the focus of this chapter. Since Bologna’s launch, mobility has grown at a faster rate in Portugal than the European average. Yet, the latest figures show mobility to lie at a modest 7.4 % of graduates, far...
Chapter
In this chapter, we analyse the general issues of policy implementation in Europe. Policy definition and implementation is a complex problem in the European Union due to the presence of a large number of member states, each with very diverse economic, social and cultural interests needing to be accommodated. The successive enlargements of the numbe...
Chapter
One of the objectives of the Bologna Process was to boost the drawing power and attractiveness of the European Higher Education Area, an objective closely linked to policies for the internationalisation of higher education. Until recently, Portugal did not have a consistent policy for internationalising higher education. In the early days of the Bo...
Chapter
This chapter will focus on the use of evaluative research in higher education policy analysis. The approach will be illustrated by reference to higher education policy in Scottish higher education, with particular reference to the longitudinal evaluative research of support of teaching and learning (T&L) (the Quality Enhancement Framework or QEF)....
Article
In recent years, initiatives for the improvement of teachingquality havebeen pursued both at European and national levels. Such is the case of the European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance (ESG) and of legislation passed by several European countries, including Portugal, in response to European policy developments driven by the Lisbon...
Article
In Portugal, the agency for assessment and accreditation of higher education has recently included in its remit, beyond programme accreditation, the certification of internal quality assurance systems. This implies lighter-touch accreditation, and aims to direct institutions towards improvement, in addition to accountability. Twelve institutions ha...
Article
Cross-border higher education (CBHE) has been changing the organizational boundaries of higher education institutions (HEIs). This study aims to analyze the shifting boundaries of Portuguese HEIs through the lens of the identity concept in organization theories, considering three contexts with different levels of regulation: African Portuguese-spea...
Article
Full-text available
This study argues that student-centred methods in the teaching of physics can be beneficial for students’ enculturation into the discipline and into a physicist’s profession. Interviews conducted with academics and students from six master degrees in physics in three different European countries suggest that student-driven classroom activities, col...
Chapter
Les résultats d'apprentissage ont été promus par le processus de Bologne comme un élément curriculaire révolutionnaire, capable d’innover la pédagogie et d'apporter une transparence et une comparabilité accrues entre les programmes universitaires. L'analyse de l’implémentation et de l'adoption des résultats d’apprentissage en programmes de Master (...
Article
Full-text available
The non-binding nature of the Bologna Declaration and loose policy-making and implementation through the open method of coordination (OMC) have led to varied national responses to the Bologna Process. The OMC has allowed countries room for manoeuvre to interpret Bologna policy and attach different degrees of importance to it. Looking at the interpl...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a new perspective for higher education policy research. It introduces the concept of policy object to designate the discrete preoccupation(s) of a policy text (e.g. a new governance regime, a quality system, or new degrees) and suggests that actor conceptualisations of the policy object intersect with other elements in the polic...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the relationship between epistemology, sociology, and learning and teaching in physics based on an examination of literature from research in science studies, history and philosophy of science, and physics pedagogic research. It reveals a mismatch between the positivist epistemological foundation which seems to underpin the teac...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses how middle managers perform and experience their role in enacting policy in Scottish higher education institutions. The policy focus is the quality enhancement framework (QEF) for learning and teaching in higher education, which was launched in 2003. The data-set was collected between 2008 and 2010, during the evaluation of the...
Chapter
One major achievement of the Bologna process regarding the quality assurance agenda is constituted by the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG) (Kohoutek, 2009; MAP-ESG steering group, 2011). ESG can be defined 'as a supranational (⋯) policy programme that includes three sets of standards accompa...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates institutional policies and academic practices of student assessment in four Portuguese higher education institutions (HEIs) in the wake of European policy developments driven by the Bologna Process. Specifically, it examines the correspondence between European policy recommendations related to student assessment (promotion o...
Article
Full-text available
This article compares the national-level requirements for master degree provision in England, Denmark and Portugal following the implementation of the Bologna Process, and ponders upon the reconcilability of these requirements in cross-national initiatives (e.g. joint degrees). In all three countries, master degrees have to comply with the national...
Article
This article aims to describe how academics in England, Denmark and Portugal understand the Bologna Process, their attitudes towards the initiative, and how understandings and attitudes determine action. It shows how contextually and culturally determined academic understandings, expectations, preferences, priorities and constraints are key influen...
Article
Full-text available
This article aims to analyse variances between some emerging projections for the master degree at high policy level and the diverse interpretations and forms observed in its implementation in the aftermath of the Bologna Process reforms. It thus examines European and national-level discourses regarding the master's place and purpose and, simultaneo...
Article
Full-text available
The research dimension of higher education programmes is usually discussed in association with doctoral studies. Against a background of scarce literature investigating research in a Master's degree, this article aims to analyse the place of research in Master's qualifications, first, as envisaged by official European and national documents acting...
Article
The paper examines the implementation and understandings of the master degree1 in three European countries in the wake of Bologna. The freedom of manoeuvre allowed by generic Bologna recommendations has resulted in a broad variety of patterns of organisation and linkage to the first cycle. The cases of England2, Denmark and Portugal are considered...
Article
This paper describes and analyses a concrete experience of the introduction of integrated masters by a Portuguese University. The Portuguese legislation allows not only the three-cycle structure but also integrated masters. Based on implementation analysis we address aspects, such as the design of study programmes, credits and student workload, mob...

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Project (1)
Archived project
This project aims to understand how Portuguese HEIs are responding to the multiple challenges confronting higher educational globally and how the policy initiatives of the last decade have shaped those institutional responses. The analysis will focus on four core areas, and their interplay, currently considered as key elements in that transformation: - The changes in the external and internal governance of higher education and the way these relate to institutional quality and performance; - The implementation of institutional policies aiming at improving the quality of the academic endeavour; - The institutional development of systems of performance management; - The analysis of changes in the balance of power and the concurrent re-definition of the role of academic and non-academic professionals.