Cristina Pita

Cristina Pita
International Institute for Environment and Development · Shaping Sustainable Markets

PhD in Social and Environmental Sustainability

About

125
Publications
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Publications

Publications (125)
Article
Full-text available
There are strong links between heritage and the environment yet, heritage is not fully included in existing ecosystem‐based frameworks. Different understandings of heritage values exist, and heritage values are not yet related to key value categories in environmental values research. To address this gap and facilitate a common values‐based approach...
Article
Coastal and Maritime Cultural Heritage (CMCH) is an important asset in coastal areas. However, this heritage has been exposed to several environmental and human-created threats. This paper presents three European coastal regions with relevant CMCH and important tourism destinations: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), the Small Isles (Scotland, UK) and Marsa...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal and marine cultural heritage (CMCH) is at risk due to its location and its often indefinable value. As these risks are likely to intensify in the future, there is an urgent need to build CMCH resilience. We argue that the current CMCH risk management paradigm narrowly focuses on the present and preservation. This tends to exclude debates ab...
Conference Paper
Recent review papers have addressed progress in stock assessment and forecasting for fished cephalopods but there remains a need to develop appropriate management for many European cephalopod fisheries, given that cephalopods are not quota species under the Common Fisheries Policy. Here we briefly review potential barriers to sustainable fishing an...
Chapter
Full-text available
The establishment of Fisheries Local Action Groups (FLAGs) in EU Member States aims at increasing employment and territorial cohesion in coastal and inland fisheries-dependent communities through local initiatives funded by the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF). The locally-defined priorities relevant for small-scale fisheries range from...
Article
Full-text available
The global trade in cephalopods is a multi-billion dollar business involving the fishing and production of more than ten commercially valuable species. It also contributes, in whole or in part, to the subsistence and economic livelihoods of thousands of coastal communities around the world. The importance of cephalopods as a major cultural, social,...
Article
Full-text available
The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) eco-labeling program provides fisheries a pathway to demonstrate their sustainability by undergoing an environmental certification. Like other standard-setters, the MSC’s ‘theory of change’ presumes that markets use this information to select for sustainable products, providing an incentive for producers to impr...
Article
Full-text available
The dataset presented in this article contains information about marine Area-Based Management Tools (ABMTs) used to assess their contribution to the United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. Following the scope of the analysis, ABMTs were identified by scrutinizing international and regional legal sources related to ocean management in the...
Article
Area-Based Management Tools (ABMTs) are spatial instruments for conservation and managing different forms of ocean use. A multitude of ABMTs exists in marine areas within and beyond national jurisdiction, ranging from tools for the regulation of specific human activities (e.g. fisheries, shipping, or mining) to cross-sectoral tools (e.g. such as ma...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal zones are historically rich with unique land/seascapes, tangible artifacts, and intangible cultural heritage. Coastal and maritime cultural heritage (CMCH) contends with various constraining conditions of the sea and shore—both geophysical and socially constructed—which we delineate to identify risks and threats to its sustainable managemen...
Technical Report
The Working Group on Resilience and Marine Ecosystem Services (WGRMES) aims to improve scientific understanding and capacity to design data collection networks and methodologies in order to analyze the ecological, economic, social, and institutional dimensions of marine ecosystem services. The group progressed work in relation to five objectives:...
Article
Full-text available
The high economic value of fisheries was historically associated to commercial teleost fishes. Since the 1970s, despite some elasmobranchs becoming an important target or a bycatch, relatively little research has been carried out on this group because of their low economic value. Due to their specific life history characteristics, sharks and rays a...
Preprint
Full-text available
The global cephalopod trade is a multi-billion-dollar industry that involves shing and captive breeding of a dozen species of high commercial value. It also contributes wholly or partly to the income and subsistence of thousands of families around the world. Despite its broad ecological, social, and economic importance, limited research has been co...
Article
Full-text available
Improved access to markets by small-scale fisheries (SSF), as called by Sustainable Development Goal 14b and other global and Mediterranean policy documents, is impeded by the existing organisation of value chains and market structures, which are typically antagonistic to the nature of SSF. This article analyses the markets in the Mediterranean to...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing consideration of gender balance in conservation science and practice has been reflected in the setting of global commitments. Yet, women remain under-represented in science and conservation decision-making. We compiled and analyzed data on the representation of women in hiring, publishing, funding, and leadership positions in Europea...
Preprint
Full-text available
In order to encourage cephalopod fisheries along the pathway towards sustainability, we developed a Sustainability Toolkit for Cephalopod Fisheries. This document was developed to engage cephalopod fishery and value chain stakeholders who are seeking (or already) following a pathway to sustainability. Our main aim is to provide information for stak...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Frangoudes, K., Toonen, H., Macias, J. V., Ferguson, L., Flannery, W., Hansen, C. J., Sousa, L., Pita, C., da Silva, A. M. F., Mylona, D., Azzopardi, E., & Roio, M. (2021). A participatory risk assessment and sustainable use framework for maritime cultural heritage. PERICLES.
Research
Full-text available
This policy brief aims at providing a concise summary of scientific information that can help managers and policy-makers make informed decisions about the sustainability of cephalopod fisheries. It contains 10 important current issues affecting cephalopods and proposed possible solutions regarding the following topics: natural highs and lows in abu...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This booklet provides a summary of the main results obtained during the last three and a quarter years (2018-2021) of the Cephs & Chefs project, including: a brief overview of the octopus global trade network, with focus on the Portuguese and Spanish markets and value chains; an outline of market initiatives for cephalopod fisheries; insights about...
Article
The European Union (EU) is one of the most important markets for cephalopods in the world. Currently, small-scale fisheries targeting octopus in the EU are of considerable social and economic importance, especially in southern European waters where more octopus are consumed as part of the traditional diet. Octopus in Europe are excluded from quota...
Article
Full-text available
Like most ocean regions today, the European and contiguous seas experience cumulative impacts from local human activities and global pressures. They are largely in poor environmental condition with deteriorating trends. Despite several success stories, European policies for marine conservation fall short of being effective. Acknowledging the challe...
Article
Full-text available
The profile of small-scale fisheries has been raised through a dedicated target within the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG14b) that calls for the provision of ‘access of small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets’. By focusing on access to fisheries resources in the context of European Union, in this article we...
Article
Marine recreational fishing (MRF) in Portugal is a traditional leisure activity with considerable importance for coastal populations. In the absence of available information from the national data collection framework, this article aims to review the existing information on MRF across the country. MRF was an open access fishery until recently, but...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Working Group on Cephalopod Fisheries and Life History (WGCEPH) improves knowledge about and the assessment of cephalopods as an exploited resource. WGCEPH report provides information on status and trends in cephalopod stocks; preliminary assessments of selected stocks update information on life history parameters; social and economic profile...
Chapter
Small-scale fisheries play a major role in Europe, employing large numbers of people, shaping the socio-economic life of coastal communities, and providing fresh, high-quality seafood to local, regional, national and international markets. This chapter synthesises findings from the 25 country chapters in this volume, bringing together key lessons r...
Chapter
Small-scale fisheries in Europe have historically rarely received the attention they deserve. Fishery scholars and policy makers worldwide have until recently paid scant attention to the diversity of the fisheries sector, or to the existence of small-scale fleets and their fishing communities. For far too long, small-scale fishing activity has been...
Chapter
A large portion of the Portuguese fisheries is characterised as small-scale fisheries, since 85% of the fleet is comprised of small-scale vessels employing static gears. Small-scale fisheries in Portugal target multiple species and employ a wide range of fishing gear, such as set gillnets, trammel nets, set longlines, handlines, pole-and-lines, and...
Article
Full-text available
Marine landings in Portugal have decreased at a higher rate than fishing effort in the last 20 years. Identifying the variables driving the quantity and composition of landings is pivotal to understand the dynamics of the fisheries sector, which entails complex social and environmental aspects. In this study, we investigate the main drivers of mari...
Article
Full-text available
The perceptions of fishers towards the Arrábida Marine Park, a marine protected area (MPA) in the west coast of Portugal, were studied through face-to-face interviews in two different moments of the MPA life cycle. Fishers' perceptions about the MPA and the impact it had on the fishing activity over time were identified just before the full impleme...
Book
This book offers a comprehensive account of the status and dynamics of people participating in the small-scale fisheries (SSF) of Europe. It covers the situation of SSF in 25 coastal countries, thereby providing a portrait of almost every coastal country on the continent and analyzing the recent evolution of the sector. Small-scale fisheries are ar...
Technical Report
Measuring the full economic cost of marine litter is complex due to the wide range of economic, social and environmental impacts, the range of sectors impacted by marine litter and the geographic spread of those affected, and the different economic techniques used to do it. However, the scientific community has started to develop economic studies t...
Article
Full-text available
Transboundary conservation has an important, yet often undervalued, role in the international conservation regime. When applied to the legally ambiguous and interconnected marine environment this is magnified. The lack of clear guidance for transboundary marine conservation from the international conservation community exacerbates this problem, lea...
Article
The archipelago of the Azores (mid-north Atlantic Ocean) is an outermost region of the European Union (EU) in which small-scale fisheries are a strong component of the local economy. Bottom longlining and handlining are the most important Azorean fisheries in landing values, fishing vessels and fishers. Despite their high selectivity and low discar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract Small-scale fisheries (SSF) account for more than half the world’s catch and employ more than 90% of people engaged in fisheries. Galicia (NW Spain) has supported important shellfisheries (considered as SSF) throughout history. Currently, Galician shellfisheries involve more than 3 800 direct employments yielding in 2018 9.519 tonnes of bi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This deliverable is an output of the synthesis of our work in WP2, “Eliciting a Deep Understanding of Maritime and Coastal CH,” in particular from the following tasks:  Task 2.1: A global review of current understanding of maritime and coastal CH  Task 2.3 CH through a literature review of “Space, Place, and Identity” and how they inform CH persp...
Article
Small-scale fisheries contribute to around half of the global catch, still small-scale fisheries tend to be often ignored. Lately, the visibility of small-scale fisheries is increasing, and there are calls to collect bioecological, economic, social, and cultural data in order to improve our understanding of the activity and contribute to the sustai...
Chapter
Full-text available
Several factors affect the ability of small-scale fishers to secure their livelihoods. Particularly relevant is their capacity to sell their fish, receive remunerative prices, and add value to their catches. In general, catches from small-scale fisheries have a superior quality and freshness, but this does not always lead to better prices or higher...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the European Union, discards represent a major source of undocumented mortality, contributing to the overfishing of European fish stocks. However, little attention has been given by the scientific community to discards in the European Union’s small-scale fisheries (SSF). This is mainly due to the fact that discards are mostly generated by indust...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the relatively high number of spearfishing practitioners in Portugal, scientific information on spearfishing is limited. A web‐based survey was conducted to obtain socio‐economic information on Portuguese spearfishers, identify the most common fishing habitats, target species, fishing effort, and evaluate their perceptions towards managemen...
Chapter
Full-text available
Abstract In the European Union, discards represent a major source of undocu-mented mortality, contributing to the overfishing of European fish stocks. However, little attention has been given by the scientific community to discards in European Union Small Scale Fisheries (SSF). This is mainly due to the fact that discards are mostly generated by in...
Data
This repository, developed under the ICES Science Fund Project, includes detailed and innovative information about the different human uses and impacts on the oceans and their drivers. Research on marine social-ecological systems (SES) and sustainability goes with calls for deep social change (Steffen et al. 2015). Most of the research done on mar...
Article
Fishers’ participation in the fishery management decision-making process is generally low, particularly in smallscale fisheries (SSF). Within the overarching goal of improving fisheries governance, fishers’ participation is crucial. Yet, how can fishers participate in the decision-making processes which affect their actions, and to what extent do f...
Article
In Portugal, the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) dominates the total catches and landings from small scale fisheries. The small-scale fisheries have been targeting the common octopus for a long time and it is consistently one of the most important commercial fishing resources in the country. Questionnaires were conducted in 13 fishing ports in th...
Technical Report
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“(...) representa e identifica a distribuição espacial e temporal dos usos e das atividades existentes e potenciais, procedendo também à identificação dos valores naturais e culturais com relevância estratégica para a sustentabilidade ambiental e a solidariedade intergeracional (…)” (Artigo 9.º do Decreto-Lei n.º 38/2015, de 12 de março). O Plano...
Article
Full-text available
Fisheries products are globally traded commodities, which have led to varying degrees of social and economic dependency for producing regions. These dependencies become more evident at times of major demand or supply shocks. Resilience to such shocks is intertwined with, and rooted in, the intra-sectoral structure and governance frameworks. This wo...
Article
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A growing concern is arising to recognise that ecosystem services (ES) production often requires the integration of non-natural capital with natural capital in a process known as co- production. Several studies explore co-production in different terrestrial ecosystems, such as agriculture or water delivery, but less attention has been paid to marin...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Existe una creciente preocupación sobre el impacto de la pesca marítima recreativa (PMR) en los ecosistemas marinos, y sobre sus efectos combinados con otras actividades humanas, como la pesca comercial, especialmente en los niveles tróficos superiores. Por otro lado, los pescadores recreativos proporcionan considerables beneficios económicos a tra...
Article
Full-text available
The World Ocean presents many opportunities, with the blue economy projected to at least double in the next two decades. However, capitalizing on these opportunities presents significant challenges and a multi-sectoral, integrated approach to managing marine socio-ecological systems will be required to achieve the full benefits projected for the bl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The gender dimensions in EU fisheries are frequently not taken into account, especially in coastal areas where SSF are highly important, such as Galicia (Northwest of Spain). Intertidal shellfish harvesting in Galicia (mainly focus on clams and cockles) is carried out almost exclusively by women (3300), but women also have a key role through the e...
Presentation
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The Azores deep-sea bottom hook-and-line fishing might be strongly impacted by the upcoming European Landing Obligation (LO), although having low discards of about 10% of the catch. In this study, fishers were interviewed to assess their perceptions about the LO, and existing and new discard avoidance practices. The LO is perceived as inappropria...
Chapter
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Gender equity and equality is the fourth guiding principle of the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries (SSF Guidelines), and sits within its wider human rights framework. The SSF Guidelines contain acknowledgement of the roles of women in the small-scale fisheries value chain, the need for gender equity and equality i...