Cristina Linares

Cristina Linares
Instituto de Salud Carlos III | ISCIII · School of National Health (ENS)

Doctora en Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública

About

227
Publications
36,217
Reads
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6,415
Citations
Citations since 2017
89 Research Items
4371 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
Additional affiliations
March 2008 - present
Instituto de Salud Carlos III
Position
  • Técnico superior de investigación
September 2003 - September 2005
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Position
  • Reseacher

Publications

Publications (227)
Article
Full-text available
The capacity for adaptation to climate change is limited, and the elderly rank high among the most exposed population groups. To date, few studies have addressed the issue of heat adaptation, and little is known about the long-term effects of exposure to heat. One indicator that allows the ascertainment of a population’s level of adaptation to heat...
Article
Background: In Spain, two synoptic-scale conditions influence heat wave formation. The first involves advection of warm and dry air masses carrying dust of Saharan origin (North African Dust (NAF) = 1). The second entails anticyclonic stagnation with high insolation and stability (NAF) = 0). Some studies show that the meteorological origin of these...
Article
Food security and food safety are two concepts related to food risks. The majority of studies regarding climate change and food risks are related to the security of food provision. The objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge of the influence of climate change on food production and food safety. The literature search was...
Article
Full-text available
Background The objective of this study was to identify which air pollutants, atmospheric variables and health determinants could influence COVID-19 mortality in Spain. This study used information from 41 of the 52 provinces in Spain (from Feb. 1, 2021 - May 31, 2021). Generalized Linear Models (GLM) with Poisson link were carried out for the provi...
Article
In Spain the average temperature has increased by 1.7°C since pre-industrial times. There has been an increase in heat waves both in terms of frequency and intensity, with a clear impact in terms of population health. The effect of heat waves on daily mortality presents important territorial differences. Gender also affects these impacts, as a dete...
Article
In contrast to research on heat waves, there are no studies in recent years that analyze the temporal evolution of threshold temperatures (Tthreshold) for extremely cold days (ECD). It is unknown whether threshold temperatures have increased more quickly than the minimum daily temperature (Tmin) in recent years. The objective of this study was to a...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to identify the combined role of environmental pollutants and atmospheric variables at short term on the rate of incidence (TIC) and on the hospital admission rate (TIHC) due to COVID-19 disease in Spain. This study used information from 41 of the 52 provinces of Spain (from Feb. 1, 2021 - May 31, 2021). Using TIC and TIHC as depen...
Article
Full-text available
Influyen la contaminación atmosférica y las variables meteorológicas en la mortalidad por COVID-19? Estudio comparativo de series temporales entre la primera y segunda ola en nueve provincias españolas ¿A poluição do ar e as variáveis meteorológicas influenciam a mortalidade por Covid-19? Estudo comparativo de séries temporais entre a primeira e a...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: EU is currently immersed in policy development to address the effects of climate change around the world. Key plans and processes for facilitating adaptation to high temperatures and for reducing the adverse effects on health are among the most urgent measures. Therefore, it is necessary to understand those factors that influence adaptati...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this research is to study the influence of atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables on the incidence rate of COVID-19 and the rate of hospital admissions due to COVID-19 during the first and second waves in nine Spanish provinces. Numerous studies analyze the effect of environmental and pollution variables separately, but few...
Article
Introduction: There is currently little knowledge and few published works on the subject of vulnerability to heat in rural environments at the country level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether rural areas are more vulnerable to extreme heat than urban areas in Spain. This study aimed to analyze whether a pattern of vuln...
Article
Full-text available
Background: While many studies analyse the effect of extreme thermal events on health, little has been written about the effects of extreme cold on mortality. This scarcity of papers is particularly relevant when we search studies about extreme cold on the health of rural population. Therefore, we tries to analyse the effect of cold waves on urban...
Article
Full-text available
Background: An area of current study concerns analysis of the possible adaptation of the population to heat, based on the temporal evolution of the minimum mortality temperature (MMT). It is important to know how is the evolution of the threshold temperatures (Tthreshold) due to these temperatures provide the basis for the activation of public heal...
Article
Full-text available
Background There are studies that analyze the role of meteorological variables on the incidence and severity of COVID-19, and others that explore the role played by air pollutants, but currently there are very few studies that analyze the impact of both effects together. This is the aim of the current study. We analyzed data corresponding to the pe...
Conference Paper
The results obtained in this study show that there are factors below the municipal level (district level) that should be considered as focus areas for health policy in order to decrease the impact of heat and promote the process of adaptation to heat in the context of climate change.
Article
Full-text available
Scientific evidence suggests that Saharan dust intrusions in Southern Europe contribute to the worsening of multiple pathologies and increase the concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants. However, few studies have examined whether Saharan dust intrusions influence the incidence and severity of COVID-19 cases. To address this q...
Chapter
In this chapter, we explore technology options to avoid indoor overheating in buildings, and most importantly, how these can be used to protect people. In particular, we highlight the possibilities of cool roofs in buildings and district cooling in cities.
Preprint
Full-text available
Scientific evidence suggests that Saharan dust intrusions in Southern Europe contribute to the worsening of multiple pathologies and increase the concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants. However, few studies have examined whether Saharan dust intrusions influence the incidence and severity of COVID-19 cases. To address this...
Article
The objective of this study was to analyze at the level of Spain’s 52 provinces province level the temporal evolution of Minimum Mortality Temperatures (MMT) from 1983-2018, in order to determine whether the increase in MMT would be sufficient to compensate for the increase in environmental temperatures in Spain for the period. It also aimed to ana...
Chapter
Full-text available
Recent research has addressed the special relationship between energy poverty and women. Despite that not many studies are yet available, results show that there might be strong gender inequalities connected with household’s energy deprivation. Furthermore, differentiated health impacts have been detected between men and women, putting women into a...
Article
The objective of this study was to analyze and compare the effect of high temperatures on daily mortality in the urban and rural populations in Madrid. Data were analyzed from municipalities in Madrid with a population of over 10,000 inhabitants during the period from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2020. Four groups were generated: Urban Metropoli...
Book
This publication collates and summarizes the most relevant evidence published on heatwaves, heat and public health prevention thereof since 2008, focusing primarily on the 53 Member States in the WHO European Region. Findings are organized around the elements the original guidance document identified as “core” to a comprehensive heat–health action...
Article
Research that analyzes the effect of different environmental factors on the impact of COVID-19 focus primarily on meteorological variables such as humidity and temperature or on air pollution variables. However, noise pollution is also a relevant environmental factor that contributes to the worsening of chronic cardiovascular diseases and even diab...
Article
Portugal (Southwestern Europe) experiences a high incidence of dry hazards such as drought, a phenomenon that entails a notable burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. For the first time in the Lisbon district, a time-series study was conducted to evaluate the impact of drought measured by the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standar...
Article
While there is much research that focuses on the association between cold waves and their impacts on daily mortality at the city level, few analyze the impact related to social context and demographic variables at levels lower than the municipal. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the percentage of people over age 65, income l...
Article
Según el Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE), el 17,9 % de los hogares más pobres declaran no disponer de espacio suficiente. Según Eurostat, en 2017, más de 2 300 000 personas vivían en situación de hacinamiento en España, un 5,1 % de la población. Por su parte, la pobreza energética, es decir no poder mantener la vivienda a una temperatura ad...
Article
El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar cómo los riesgos en la salud asociados a los eventos térmicos extremos se ven modificados por sexo y factores socioeconómicos y demográficos. Empleando la regresión de Poisson se calcularon los riesgos de morbimortalidad asociados a las olas de calor y frío. Se utilizó como variable dependiente la mortal...
Article
The increase in the frequency and intensity of heat waves is one of the most unquestionable effects of climate change. Therefore, the progressive increase in maximum temperatures will have a clear incidence on the increase in mortality, especially in countries that are vulnerable due to geographical location or their socioeconomic characteristics....
Article
Although there is significant scientific evidence on the impact of heat waves, there are few studies that analyze the effects of sociodemographic factors on the impact of heat waves below the municipal level. The objective of this study was to analyze the role of income level, percent of the population over age 65, existence of air conditioning uni...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic and the mobility limitations imposed to try to contain its spread have led to a drastic decrease in emissions of air pollutants and CO2. For the former, the drop in the atmospheric concentrations of the main urban air pollutants leads to a decrease in mortality attributable to air pollution. This has not been the case in the c...
Article
Full-text available
A performance assessment of two different indices (the Standardised Precipitation Index [SPI] and the Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index [SPEI]) for monitoring short-term and short–medium term drought impacts on daily specific-cause mortality in Spain was conducted. To achieve a comprehensive, nationwide view, a meta-analysis was p...
Article
Climate change causes or aggravates a wide range of exposures with multiple impacts on health, both direct and indirect. Early warning systems have been established to act on the risks posed by these exposures, permitting the timely activation of action plans to minimize health effects. These plans are usually activated individually. Although they...
Article
El incremento de las olas de calor en frecuencia e intensidad es uno de los efectos más incuestionables del cambio climático. Una forma de detectar la evolución del impacto del calor es a través del aumento de la denominada temperatura de mínima mortalidad (TMM). El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la evolución temporal de la TMM en dos provi...
Article
The Iberian Peninsula (IP) is recurrently affected by dust transport from the Sahara Desert and from the semi-arid Sahel regions. African dust is one of the most important sources of particulate matter in the southern Mediterranean. Therefore, it is vital to understand the underlying processes that lead to episodes of air pollution associated to th...
Article
In this paper we establish the attributable risk on respiratory and cardiovascular disorders related to tra�ffic intensity in Madrid. In contrast to previous related studies, the proposed approach directly associates road trafficc counts to patient emergency admission rates instead of using primary air pollutants. By applying Shapley values over gr...
Article
Spain is a country of southern Europe that is prone to drought, and it is likely that this type of hydrological extreme will become substantially more frequent and intense in the 21st century, which could lead to greater health risks if adequate adaptive measures are not taken. For the first time, we calculated the relative risks (RRs) of daily nat...
Article
Studies show a relationship between some mental illnesses and suicides and different environmental variables such as air pollution, characterized by stress at the neuropsychological level. Despite the fact that traffic noise is also a powerful neurological stressor, studies that relate traffic noise to these mental disorders are practically non-exi...
Article
The Mediterranean Basin is undergoing a warming trend with longer and warmer summers, an increase in the frequency and the severity of heat waves, changes in precipitation patterns and a reduction in rainfall amounts. In this unique populated region, which is characterized by significant gaps in the socio-economic levels particularly between the No...
Article
The Mediterranean Basin is undergoing a warming trend with longer and warmer summers, an increase in the frequency and the severity of heat waves, changes in precipitation patterns and a reduction in rainfall amounts. In this unique populated region, which is characterized by significant gaps in the socioeconomic levels particularly between the Nor...
Article
The objective of this study is to analyze the short-term effects of atmospheric pollutant concentrations (PM10, NO2 and O3) and heat and cold waves on the number of pre-term births and cases of low birth weight related to Saharan dust advection and biomass combustion. The dependent variables used in this analysis were the total number of births, bi...
Article
There is little doubt about the effects of drought events on human health in the present climate. Projections of climate change indicate an increase in the occurrence and severity of droughts in the 21st century in a number of regions, thus it is likely that these types of hydrological extremes could have more of an impact if appropriate adaptation...
Article
Full-text available
High temperatures have periodically affected large areas in Europe and urban settings. In particular, the deadly 2003 summer heat waves precipitated a multitude of national and subnational health prevention and research efforts. Building on these and other international experiences the WHO Regional Office for Europe developed and published in 2008...
Article
Introduction: Global warming is resulting in an increase in temperatures which is set to become more marked by the end of the century and depends on the accelerating pace of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Yet even in this scenario, so-called “cold waves” will continue to be generated and have an impact on health. Objectives: This stu...
Article
Climate change scenarios indicate an increase in the intensity and frequency of droughts in several regions of the world in the 21st century, especially in Southern Europe, highlighting the threat to global health. For the first time, a time-series diagnostic study has been conducted regarding the impact of droughts in Galicia, a region in north-we...
Article
Background: In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted with the aim of analysing the impact that high temperatures will have on mortality over different time horizons under different climate scenarios. Very few of these studies take into account the fact that the threshold temperature used to define a heat wave will vary over time, an...
Article
ground: Premature birth (less than 37 weeks of gestation) is the principal indicator of neonatal death during the first month of life and the second cause of death of children under age five. There are 15 million premature births (PTB) worldwide. Air pollution in cities, primarily the result of urban traffic, greatly impacts PTBs, though there are...
Article
Background: According to the WHO, low birth weight (<2500 gr) is a primary maternal health indicator as the cause of multiple morbi-mortality in the short and long-term. It is known that air pollution from road traffic (PM10, NO2) and O3 have an important impact on low birth weight (LBW), but there are few studies of this topic in Spain. The object...
Article
Aside from climatic factors, the impact of heat waves on mortality depends on the demographic and socio-economic structure of the population as well as variables relating to local housing. Hence, this study’s main aim was to ascertain whether there might be a differential impact of heat waves on daily mortality by area of residence. A time-series a...
Article
Background: While numerous studies have shown that the impact of cold waves is decreasing as result of various processes of adaptation, far fewer have analysed the time trend shown by such impact, and still fewer have done so for the different provinces of a single country, moreover using a specific cold waves definition for each. This study thus a...
Article
Full-text available
En España no existen trabajos actualizados sobre el impacto de la contaminación atmosférica sobre la mortalidad diaria a nivel provincial. Recientemente se han publicado tres artículos en relación al impacto que los niveles de PM10, NO2 y O3 tienen sobre la mortalidad diaria en las 52 capitales de provincia españolas, pero no existe una síntesis qu...
Article
Background: A high number of women report experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). It is of utmost importance to identify possible factors that precipitate IPV and incorporate them into police protocols for evaluating IPV risk. Scientific evidence shows that environmental temperature is associated with a risk of violent behavior. Objectives:...
Article
There are practically no studies which analyse whether the implementation of prevention plans been followed by a reduction in the effect of high temperatures on hospital admissions. The aim of this study was thus to analyse the time trend in such admissions and ascertain which diseases require a greater degree of gender-specific healthcare when the...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Few studies have analysed the relationship between environmental factors and Parkinson ’s disease (PD), and none have addressed the relationship between noise and PD. The objective is to explore whether there might be a short-term association between road traffic noise in the city of Madrid and PD-related demand for health care. Methods...
Article
Full-text available
Anticipating future workloads in a hospital may be of capital importance in order to distribute resources and improve patient attention. In this paper, we tackle the problem of predicting daily hospital admissions in Madrid due to circulatory and respiratory cases based on biometeorological indicators. A range of forecasting algorithms were propose...
Article
Introduction: Direct health effects of extreme temperatures are a significant environmental health problem in Lithuania, and could worsen further under climate change. This paper attempts to describe the change in environmental temperature conditions that the urban population of Vilnius could experience under climate change, and the effects such ch...
Article
Purpose: This study analyzes whether there are time patterns in different intimate partner violence (IPV) indicators and aims to obtain models that can predict the behavior of these time series. Methods: Univariate autoregressive moving average models (ARMA) were used to analyze the time series corresponding to the number of daily calls to the 016...
Article
Background: Studies that seek to link the impact of ozone with mortality display a number of uncertainties. This study sought to ascertain the functional relationship between ozone and mortality, and analyse its short-term impact on daily natural-, respiratory- and circulatory-cause mortality in Spain. Methods: We analysed data on daily natural- (I...
Article
Many of the studies that analyze the future impact of climate change on mortality assume that the temperature that constitutes a heat wave will not change over time. This is unlikely, however, given the process of adapting to heat changes, prevention plans, and improvements in social and health infrastructure. The objective of this study is to ana...
Article
Background: Road traffic is the most significant source of urban air pollution. PM2.5 is the air pollutant whose health effects have been most closely studied, and is the variable most commonly used as a proxy indicator of exposure to air pollution, whereas evidence on NO2 concentrations per se is still under study. In the case of Spain, there are...
Article
Introduction and objectives: To evaluate the impact of 2 smoking bans enacted in 2006 (partial ban) and 2011 (comprehensive ban) on hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease in the Spanish adult population. Methods: The study was performed in 14 provinces in Spain. Hospital admission records were collected for acute myocardial infarction (AMI)...
Article
Introduction: Studies that analyse the impact on mortality of particulate matter (PM) produced by biomass combustion from wildfires mostly focus on a single city or on cities in different countries, with very few concentrating on one country as a whole. Objective: Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyse the impact that PM has on daily mo...
Article
Background: Excessive summer heat is a serious environmental health problem in several European cities. Heat-related mortality and morbidity is likely to increase under climate change scenarios without adequate prevention based on locally relevant evidence. Methods: We modelled the urban climate of Antwerp for the summer season during the period...
Article
Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent neurological disease among young adults in Spain. A number of recent studies have linked traffic-related pollution, both chemical and acoustic, to the aetiology and exacerbation of neurodegenerative diseases. Objective: To analyse the existence of a significant short-term association betwe...
Article
Spain’s current heat wave prevention plans are activated according to administratively areas. This study analyses the determination of threshold temperatures for triggering prevention-plan activation by reference to isoclimatic areas, and describes the public health benefits.We subdivided the study area -the Madrid Autonomous Region (MAR)- into thr...
Article
Resumen Introducción y objetivos Evaluar el impacto de las 2 regulaciones de medidas sanitarias frente al tabaquismo de 2006 (ley parcial) y 2011(ley integral), sobre las hospitalizaciones por enfermedades cardiovasculares en la población adulta española. Métodos El estudio se realizó en 14 provincias de España. Se recogieron los ingresos hospita...
Book
Full-text available
Uno de los principales efectos directos que el cambio climático va a tener sobre la salud va a ser el aumento en frecuencia e intensidad de las olas de calor. La clara incidencia del calor sobre la mortalidad en los países del sur de Europa tuvo su más claro exponente en el verano de 2003 en el que se produjo un exceso de mortalidad en apenas un me...
Article
Introduction: There are scarce studies of time series that analysed the short-term association between emergency hospital admissions due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and environmental factors. The objective is to analyse the effect of heat waves, noise and air pollutants on urgent hospital admissions due to AD in Madrid. Methods: Longitudinal eco...
Article
Latest time-series research conducted in Madrid has reported associations of road traffic noise with cause-specific daily mortality. Based on the results from that research, this study presents the health impact of urban noise for the period 2003–2009 as the number of avoidable deaths from various cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic diseases...