Cristina Botías

Cristina Botías
University of Sussex · Department of Evolution, Behaviour and Environment

PhD

About

48
Publications
26,042
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
6,873
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2013 - present
University of Sussex
Position
  • PostDoc Position
October 2012 - April 2013
Complutense University of Madrid
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (48)
Article
The increased use of pesticides has caused concern over the possible direct association of exposure to combinations of these compounds with bee health problems. There is growing proof that bees are regularly exposed to mixtures of agrochemicals, but most research has been focused on managed bees living in farmland, whereas little is known about exp...
Article
In recent years, an intense debate has been generated about the environmental risks posed by neonicotinoids, a group of widely-used, neurotoxic insecticides. When these systemic compounds are applied to seeds, low concentrations are subsequently found in the nectar and pollen of the crop, which are then collected and consumed by bees. Here we demon...
Article
Full-text available
Nosemosis caused by the microsporidia Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are among the most common pathologies affecting adult honey bees. N. apis infection has been associated with a reduced lifespan of infected bees and increased winter mortality, and its negative impact on colony strength and productivity has been described in several studies. By co...
Article
The Varroa destructor mite is a serious worldwide pest of honeybees that is usually controlled with pyrethroid-based acaricides. However, the intensive use of these substances over the past decades has led to the development of resistance in these mites. Here, Varroa samples collected between 2006 and 2021 from apiaries across Spain were studied to...
Article
Full-text available
Varroa destructor is considered one of the most devastating parasites of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, and a major problem for the beekeeping industry. Currently, the main method to control Varroa mites is the application of drugs that contain different acaricides as active ingredients. The pyrethroid tau-fluvalinate is one of the acaricides most...
Preprint
Varroa destructor is considered one of the most devastating parasites of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, and a major problem for the beekeeping industry. Currently, the main method to control Varroa mites is the application of drugs that contain different acaricides as active ingredients. The pyrethroid tau-fluvalinate is one of the acaricides most...
Article
Full-text available
A pesar de que España es uno de los países con mayor diversidad de polinizadores silvestres y, que de su conservación depende el futuro de nuestros cultivos y por tanto de nuestra alimentación, lo cierto es que hoy día seguimos sin conocer el estado de conservación de gran parte de esta fauna, una demanda histórica de la sociedad cien- tífica que s...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between pesticides and pollinators, while attracting no shortage of attention from scientists, regulators, and the public, has proven resistant to scientific synthesis and fractious in matters of policy and public opinion. This is in part because the issue has been approached in a compartmentalized and intradisciplinary way, such t...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing concern that pollinators are in decline, potentially threatening biodiversity and sustainable food production on a global scale. In general, there is consensus on the multifactorial origin of this problem, and pesticides are regarded as one of the factors involved. Pollinators can be exposed to pesticides through different routes...
Article
Full-text available
Concerns regarding the impact of neonicotinoid exposure on bee populations recently led to an EU-wide moratorium on the use of certain neonicotinoids on flowering crops. Currently evidence regarding the impact, if any, the moratorium has had on bees’ exposure is limited. We sampled pollen and nectar from bumblebee colonies in rural and peri-urban h...
Article
Full-text available
1.There is growing concern that declines in some managed and wild bee pollinator populations threaten biodiversity, the functioning of vital ecological processes and sustainable food production on a global scale. 2.In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that sub‐lethal exposure to the neurotoxic class of insecticides (neonicotinoids) c...
Article
There is a pressing need to better understand the factors contributing to declines of wild pollinators such as bumblebees. Many different contributors have been postulated including: loss of flower-rich habitats and nesting sites; monotonous diets; impacts of invasive pathogens; exposure to pesticides such as neonicotinoids. Past research has tende...
Article
Reproduction has been shown to be costly for survival in a wide diversity of taxa. The resulting trade-off, termed the reproduction-survival trade-off, is thought to be one of the most fundamental forces of life-history evolution. In insects the pleiotropic effect of juvenile hormone (JH), antagonistically regulating reproduction and pathogen resis...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, many pollinators have declined in abundance and diversity worldwide, presenting a potential threat to agricultural productivity, biodiversity and the functioning of natural ecosystems. One of the most debated factors proposed to be contributing to pollinator declines is exposure to pesticides, particularly neonicotinoids, a widely...
Article
There is considerable and ongoing debate as to the harm inflicted on bees by exposure to agricultural pesticides. In part, the lack of consensus reflects a shortage of information on field-realistic levels of exposure. Here, we quantify concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides in the pollen of oilseed rape, and in pollen of wildf...
Article
To accurately estimate exposure of bees to pesticides, analytical methods are needed to enable quantification of nanogram/gram (ng/g) levels of contaminants in small samples of pollen or the individual insects. A modified QuEChERS extraction method coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) anal...
Article
Full-text available
Nosema ceranae is present in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies worldwide. Studies on the comparative virulence of N. ceranae and N. apis showed significant differences in individual mortality, and the prevalence of N. ceranae seems to be predominant in both the continental and the Mediterranean climate regions. This study attempted to monitor...
Article
Ghazoul is accurate in pointing out that we have no population data on the majority of pollinators, that the data we do have are biased toward a small number of taxa (bumblebees, honey bees, and butterflies), and that data are far better for Europe and North America than for elsewhere. These points
Article
Full-text available
Bees are subject to numerous pressures in the modern world. The abundance and diversity of flowers has declined, bees are chronically exposed to cocktails of agrochemicals, and they are simultaneously exposed to novel parasites accidentally spread by humans. Climate change is likely to exacerbate these problems in the future. Stressors do not act i...
Article
Nosemosis type C caused by the microsporidium Nosema ceranae is one of the most widespread of the adult honey bee diseases, and due to its detrimental effects on both strength and productivity of honey bee colonies, an appropriate control of this disease is advisable. Fumagillin is the only veterinary medicament recommended by the World Organizatio...
Article
Full-text available
The microorganisms Ascosphaera apis, Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius are the three most important pathogens that affect honeybee brood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of these pathogens in honeybee colonies and to elucidate their role in the honeybee colony losses in Spain. In order to get it, a multipl...
Article
Nosema ceranae is a parasite of the epithelial ventricular cells of the honey bee that belongs to the microsporidian phylum, a biological group of single-cell, spore-forming obligate intracellular parasites found in all major animal lineages. The ability of host cells to accommodate a large parasitic burden for several days suggests that these para...
Article
The worldwide beekeeping sector has been facing a grave threat, with losses up to 100-1000 times greater than those previously reported. Despite the scale of this honey bee mortality, the causes underlying this phenomenon remain unclear, yet they are thought to be multifactorial processes. Nosema ceranae, a microsporidium recently detected in the E...
Article
The intestinal honey bee parasite Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia) is at the root of colony losses in some regions while in others its presence causes no direct mortality. This is the case for Spain and France, respectively. It is hypothesized that differences in honey bee responses to N. ceranae infection could be due to the degree of virulence of N...
Article
Acarapis woodi is an internal obligate parasite of the respiratory system of honey bees which provokes significant economic losses in many geographical areas. The main aim of this study was assess the A. woodi role in the "higher honey bee colony losses phenomenon" in Spain. Therefore, a new polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to amplify...
Article
Full-text available
The microsporidium Nosema ceranae is a newly prevalent parasite of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera). Although this parasite is presently spreading across the world into its novel host, the mechanisms by it which affects the bees and how bees respond are not well understood. We therefore performed an extensive characterization of the parasite...
Article
RNA viruses that affect honeybees have been involved in colony losses reported around the world. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of honeybee viruses during 2006-2007 in Spanish professional apiaries, and their association with colony losses. Four hundred and fifty-six samples from apiaries located in diff...
Article
Although Nosema ceranae was first isolated from the Asian honeybee (Apis cerana) in Asia and then subsequently recognized as a widespread gut parasite of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera), its origins and primary host are yet to be accurately established. In this study we examined the possibility of an Asian origin for the parasite by looking f...
Article
Full-text available
Given the key role played by honey bees in almost all terrestrial ecosystems, maintaining bee populations in adequate sanitary conditions is crucial for these essential pollinators to continue their work. From the beginning of the 21st century, beekeepers have reported a progressive increase in the overwintering mortality of honey bee colonies worl...
Article
Nosemosis is one of the most widespread of the adult honey bee diseases and causes major economic losses to beekeepers. Two microsporidia have been described infecting honey bees worldwide, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, whose seasonality and pathology differ markedly. An increasing prevalence of microsporidian infections in honey bees has been ob...
Article
Nosema ceranae has been suggested to be replacing Nosema apis in some populations of Apis mellifera honeybees. However, this replacement from one to the other is not supported when studying the distribution and prevalence of both microsporidia in professional apiaries in Spanish territories (transverse study), their seasonal pattern in experimental...
Article
Full-text available
Microsporidiosis of adult honeybees caused by Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae is a common worldwide disease with negative impacts on colony strength and productivity. Few options are available to control the disease at present. The role of the queen in bee population renewal and the replacement of bee losses due to Nosema infection is vital to maint...
Article
Microsporidiosis caused by infection with Nosema apis or Nosema ceranae has become one of the most widespread diseases of honey bees and can cause important economic losses for beekeepers. Honey can be contaminated by spores of both species and it has been reported as a suitable matrix to study the field prevalence of other honey bee sporulated pat...
Article
Full-text available
Nosema ceranae is a relatively new and widespread parasite of the western honeybee Apis mellifera that provokes a new form of nosemosis. In comparison to Nosema apis, which has been infecting the honeybee for much longer, N. ceranae seems to have co-evolved less with this host, causing a more virulent disease. Given that N. apis and N. ceranae are...
Article
In the last century, nosemosis caused by Nosema apis is traditionally considered as a low-prevalence disease of Apis mellifera, even though it occurs worldwide. Colonies affected by N. apis display low levels of infection during summer, a small peak in autumn and usually a slow rise during winter. However, nosemosis due to Nosema ceranae is conside...
Article
Full-text available
As pollination is a critical process in both human-managed and natural terrestrial ecosystems, pollinators provide essential services to both nature and humans. Pollination is mainly due to the action of different insects, such as the bumblebee and the honeybee. These important ecological and economic roles have led to widespread concern over the r...
Article
Full-text available
The biological cycle of Nosema spp. in honeybees depends on temperature. When expressed as total spore counts per day after infection, the biotic potentials of Nosema apis and N. ceranae at 33°C were similar, but a higher proportion of immature stages of N. ceranae than of N. apis were seen. At 25 and 37°C, the biotic potential of N. ceranae was hi...
Article
In recent years, honeybees (Apis mellifera) have been strangely disappearing from their hives, and strong colonies have suddenly become weak and died. The precise aetiology underlying the disappearance of the bees remains a mystery. However, during the same period, Nosema ceranae, a microsporidium of the Asian bee Apis cerana, seems to have coloniz...
Article
The importance of transmission factor identification is of great epidemiological significance. The bee-eater (Merops apiaster) is a widely distributed insectivorous bird, locally abundant mainly in arid and semi-arid areas of southern Europe, northern Africa and western Asia but recently has been seen breeding in central Europe and Great Britain. B...
Article
Full-text available
La entomología forense -estudio de los insectos que aparecen en los cadáveres- es una disciplina relativamente joven en cuanto a su aplicación. En España ha evolucionado lentamente, experimentando un notable crecimiento en las últimas décadas, tanto en el número de trabajos como en el de grupos de investigación dedicados a ello, adquiriendo un esta...

Projects

Projects (2)
Project
1. To unravel the genetic background of the Mediterranean honey bee subspecies 2. To describe and understand their adaptation to Mediterranean environmental conditions 3. Identify their resilience to climatic change
Project
To evaluate the extent to which pesticides contribute to the current demise of wild and managed bee populations