Cristian Torres

Cristian Torres
University of Bío-Bío | UBB · Department of Basic Science

PhD

About

98
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (98)
Preprint
Background Little is known about the global distribution and environmental drivers of key microbial functional traits such as antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Soils are one of Earth’s largest reservoirs of ARGs, which are integral for soil microbial competition, and have potential implications for plant and human health. Yet, their diversity and...
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Studying population structure has made an essential contribution to understanding evolutionary processes and demographic history in forest ecology research. This inference process basically involves the identification of common genetic variants among individuals, then grouping the similar individuals into subpopulations. In this study, a spectral-b...
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Phylogenetic relationships of 12 species in Aleurodiscus sensu lato (Stereaceae, Russulales) described from the Patagonian forests of Chile and Argentina were investigated based on sequences of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer region ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS) and the D1-D2 domains of nuc 28S rDNA (28S). A new genus and a new species are presented, a...
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The species of the genus Potamolithus inhabiting the southwestern basin of the Andes are difficult to distinguish due to small size and similar shell morphology. Only Potamolithus australis and Potamolithus santiagensis have been traditionally recognized in this region, but the occurrence of several morphologically similar undescribed populations c...
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Nothofagus alessandrii (Nothofagaceae) is one of the most endangered trees from Chile due to high rates of habitat disturbance caused by human activities. Despite its conservation status, few molecular markers are available to study its population genetic, connectivity and to assist reproduction programs. Thus, the species needs urgent actions to r...
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Beneficial plant-associated microorganisms, such as fungal endophytes, are key partners that normally improve plant survival under different environmental stresses. It has been shown that microorganisms from extreme environments, like those associated with the roots of Antarctica plants, can be good partners to increase the performance of crop plan...
Preprint
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Nothofagus alessandrii (Nothofagaceae) is one of the most endangered trees from Chile. Despite its conservation status, few molecular markers are available to study its population genetic, connectivity and to assist reproduction programs. Novel polymorphic microsatellites from the genome of N. alessandrii were isolated and characterized using high-...
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In the Mediterranean portion of Central Chile, where anthropic disturbances are common and severe, precipitations could drastically decrease and temperatures increase due to climate change. In this ecological context, positive interactions between plants could increase in relevance since they can increase growth and survival in stressful conditions...
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The sewage snail Physa acuta, native to North America, is an effective invasive species around the world. In Chile, it was first reported in 2014 in the north central area of the country. So far, the species has not been recorded in southern Chile. Sampling performed in 2015 in three localities from Llanquihue Lake, Chilean Patagonia, only provided...
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Plant-fungi interactions have been identified as fundamental drivers of the plant host performance, particularly in cold environments where organic matter degradation rates are slow, precisely for the capacity of the fungal symbiont to enhance the availability of labile nitrogen (N) in the plant rhizosphere. Nevertheless, these positive effects app...
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Fungal endophyte associations have been suggested as a possible strategy of Antarctic vascular plants for surviving the extreme environmental conditions of Antarctica. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs are still poorly understood. The role of root fungal endophytes in nitrogen mineralization and nutrient uptake, as well as their impact o...
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In this review, we examine the functional roles of microbial symbionts in plant tolerance to cold and freezing stresses. The impacts of symbionts on antioxidant activity, hormonal signaling and host osmotic balance are described, including the effects of the bacterial endosymbionts Burkholderia, Pseudomonas and Azospirillum on photosynthesis and th...
Article
In stressful environments, a nurse plant can ameliorate harsh biotic and abiotic conditions for another plant species that grows within its canopy. This canopy can act as a barrier for herbivores, reducing damage to the protected plants inside, but it can also reduce access to pollinators possibly resulting in a tradeoff between survival and reprod...
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Aim Antarctica's remote and extreme terrestrial environments are inhabited by only two species of native vascular plants. We assessed genetic connectivity amongst Antarctic and South American populations of one of these species, Colobanthus quitensis, to determine its origin and age in Antarctica. Location Maritime Antarctic, sub‐Antarctic islands...
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Climatic change is pointed as one of the major challenges for global food security. Based on current models of climate change, reduction in precipitations and in turn, increase in the soil salinity will be a sharp constraint for crops productivity worldwide. In this context, root fungi appear as a new strategy to improve plant ecophysiological perf...
Article
Maritime Antarctica is one of the most stressful environments for plant life worldwide. However, two vascular plant species (Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis) have been able to colonize this hostile environment. Although it has been proposed that C. quitensis possesses tolerance mechanisms and adaptations allowing survival and growt...
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Multiple ecosystem functions need to be considered simultaneously to manage and protect the many ecosystem services that are essential to people and their environments. Despite this, cost effective, tangible, relatively simple, and globally‐relevant methodologies to monitor in situ soil multifunctionality, i.e. the provision of multiple ecosystem f...
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Antarctic vascular plants such as Deschampsia antarctica (Da) could generate more suitable micro-environmental conditions for the establishment of other plants like Colobanthus quitensis (Cq). Although positive plant–plant interactions have been shown to contribute to plant performance and establishment, little is known about how microorganisms mig...
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Antarctica is a stressful ecosystem with few vascular plants, an ideal system to test positive interactions. Here, plants such as Deschampsia antarctica could generate more suitable micro-environmental conditions for the establishment of other plants (facilitation). We examined the co-occurrence of vascular plant species in the Antarctic Peninsula...
Preprint
Increase in the soil salinity will be a conspicuous constraint for both native plant communities as well as several crops worldwide. In this context plant root-associated fungi appear as a new strategy to improve ecophysiological performance and yield of crops under abiotic stress. Here, we evaluated how the inoculation of fungal endophytes isolate...
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The two native Antarctic vascular plants, Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis, are mostly restricted to coastal habitats where they are often exposed to sea spray with high levels of salinity. Most of the studies regarding the ability of C. quitensis and D. antarctica to cope with abiotic stress have been focused on their physiological...
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Mutualistic symbiosis with fungal endophytes has been suggested as a possible mechanism for extreme environment colonization by Antarctic vascular plants. Fungal endophytes improve plant stress tolerance and performance by increasing plant hormone production and the uptake of water and nutrients. However, there are still gaps regarding the mechanis...
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Mutualistic symbiosis with fungal endophytes has been suggested as a possible mechanism for extreme environment colonization by Antarctic vascular plants. Fungal endophytes improve plant stress tolerance and performance by increasing plant hormone production and the uptake of water and nutrients. However, there are still gaps regarding the mechanis...
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It has been widely suggested that invasion success along broad environmental gradients may be partially due to phenotypic plasticity, but rapid evolution could also be a relevant factor for invasions. Seed and fruit traits can be relevant for plant invasiveness since they are related to dispersal, germination, and fitness. Some seed traits vary alo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Antarctica is one of the most stressful ecosystems worldwide with few vascular plants, which are limited by abiotic conditions. Here, plants such as Deschampsia antarctica ( Da ) could generate more suitable micro-environmental conditions for the establishment of other plants as Colobanthus quitensis ( Cq ). Although, plant-plant interaction is kno...
Preprint
Full-text available
Antarctica is one of the most stressful ecosystems worldwide with few vascular plants, which are limited by abiotic conditions. Here, plants such as Deschampsia antarctica ( Da ) could generate more suitable micro-environmental conditions for the establishment of other plants as Colobanthus quitensis ( Cq ). Although, plant-plant interaction is kno...
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Full-text available
The increase in temperature as consequence of the recent global warming has been reported to generate new ice-free areas in the Antarctic continent, facilitating the colonization and spread of plant populations. Consequently, Antarctic vascular plants have been observed extending their southern distribution. But as the environmental conditions towa...
Data
Pair-wise a posteriori comparisons (HSD Tukey test’s) between the net photosynthetic response of each population under current (t0) and future conditions estimated during three simulated growing seasons (t1:t3) Bonferroni correction was applied to all P values due to multiple comparisons.
Data
Summary of the results of independent one-way ANOVAs evaluating the effect of latitudinal origin (either population or temperature) on anatomical foliar traits and xanthophyll cycle pigment content of C. quitensis individuals sampled in the field The net photosynthetic performance (measured as net photosynthesis rate) is shown under each thermal co...
Data
Descriptive statistic of net photosynthesis measured (µmol CO2 m−2s−1) of each population under current (t0) and future conditions estimated during three simulated growing seasons (t1:t3) Mean, standard deviation (SD) and standard error (SE) are shown.
Preprint
Full-text available
The increase in temperature as consequence of the recent global warming has been reported to generate new ice-free areas in the Antarctic continent, propitiating the colonization and spread of plant populations. Consequently, antarctic vascular plants have been observed extending their southern distribution. But as the environmental conditions towa...
Preprint
Full-text available
The increase in temperature as consequence of the recent global warming has been reported to generate new ice-free areas in the Antarctic continent, propitiating the colonization and spread of plant populations. Consequently, antarctic vascular plants have been observed extending their southern distribution. But as the environmental conditions towa...
Article
It is proposed that marine fungi are a good alternative for remediation of areas contaminated with antibiotics due to their heterotrophic condition, adaptability to environmental changes, and specific resistance to stressors. With this assumption we investigated the fjords of Southern Chile, which are characterized by salmon farming. We evaluated t...
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It is proposed that marine fungi are a good alternative for remediation of areas contaminated with antibiotics due to their heterotrophic condition, adaptability to environmental changes, and specific resistance to stressors. With this assumption we investigated the fjords of Southern Chile, which are characterized by salmon farming. We evaluated t...
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Most climate and environmental change models predict significant increases in temperature and precipitation by the end of the 21st Century, for which the current functional output of certain symbioses may also be altered. In this context we address the following questions: 1) How the expected changes in abiotic factors (temperature, and water) diff...
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The climbing habit is a key innovation in plants: climbing taxa have higher species richness than non-climbing sister groups. We evaluated the hypothesis that climbing plant species show greater among-population genetic differentiation than non-climber species. We compared the among-population genetic distance in woody climbers (8 species, 30 popul...
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Throughout many regions of the world, climate change has limited the availability of water for irrigating crops. Indeed, current models of climate change predict that arid and semi-arid zones will be places where precipitation will drastically decrease. In this context plant root-associated fungi appear as a new strategy to improve ecophysiological...
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Several bacteria that are associated with macroalgae can use phycocolloids as a carbon source. Strain INACH002, isolated from decomposing Porphyra (Rhodo-phyta), in King George Island, Antarctica, was screened and characterized for the ability to produce agarase and alginate-lyase enzymatic activities. Our strain INACH002 was identified as a member...
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Salmon farming is the main economic activity in the fjords area of Southern Chile. This activity requires the use of antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, for the control and prevention of diseases, which have a negative impact on the environment. We analyzed the abilities of endemic marine fungi to biodegrade oxytetracycline, an antibiotic used ex...
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Aims: Positive interactions are defined as non-trophic interactions where at least one of the interacting species is benefited in terms of fitness and the other remains unaffected. Nevertheless, the bidirectional feedbacks between species may be positive, neutral, or negative. Thus, if facilitated species induce negative effects on their "nurses",...
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Antarctica is one of the less prone environments for plant invasions, nevertheless a growing number of non-native species have been registered in the last decades with negative effects on native flora. Here we assessed adaptive phenotypic plasticity in three photoprotective traits (non-photochemical quenching, total soluble sugars, and de-epoxidati...
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Background and aims: Disturbances, dispersal and biotic interactions are three major drivers of the spatial distribution of genotypes within populations, the last of which has been less studied than the other two. This study aimed to determine the role of competition and facilitation in the degree of conspecific genetic relatedness of nearby indiv...
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Climate and human impacts are changing the nitrogen (N) inputs and losses in terrestrial ecosystems. However, it is largely unknown how these two major drivers of global change will simultaneously influence the N cycle in drylands, the largest terrestrial biome on the planet. We conducted a global observational study to evaluate how aridity and hum...
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Antarctica is one of the most extreme environments for vascular plants occurrence worldwide, and only two native vascular plants have colonized this continent: Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis. Nevertheless, in recent years, several alien plant species has been found in Antarctica with negative effects on the native flora. In this s...
Article
Facilitation has been proposed to be a fundamental mechanism for plant coexistence, being particularly important in highly stressful environments such as alpine environments. In this type of environment, species called “cushion plants” can ameliorate the stressful conditions, acting as nurses for other plants. Of the several mechanisms proposed in...
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We isolated and identified a marine fungus strain from samples of sediments obtained from a sector of the Patagonian fjords. The LQRA39-P strain was identified as Epicoccum nigrum using microscopy techniques and corroborated using molecular techniques. We expect to prove that metabolic variation responses allow ubiquitous fungi to develop in marine...
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The Drake Passage arises as a likely route for gene flow into Antarctica, as it is the shortest path between this continent and the rest of the world. Despite this, long-distance dispersion into Antarctica could be particularly complex for terrestrial biota. To compare the levels of genetic diversity between Antarctic and South American populations...
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In a current article in the Journal of Vegetation Science, Casanova-Katny et al. addressed a comment about an article by Molina-Montenegro et al., which demonstrated the climate modification induced by the macrolichen Usnea antarctica and its role as facilitator. They provided useful corrections concerning species identification and pointed out sev...
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Ecological restoration is the deliberate action that speeds recovery from a degraded system by direct or indirect human intervention. Xerophytic formations are among the most degraded ecosystems where low water availability makes reintroduction plans unsuccessful and extremely expensive. Roots inoculation with endophytic fungi has been reported as...
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The biogeochemical cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are interlinked by primary production, respiration and decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems1. It has been suggested that the C, N and P cycles could become uncoupled under rapid climate change because of the different degrees of control exerted on the supply of these elemen...
Article
The biogeochemical cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are interlinked by primary production, respiration and decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. It has been suggested that the C, N and P cycles could become uncoupled under rapid climate change because of the different degrees of control exerted on the supply of these element...
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Full-text available
Is physiological performance a suitable proxy of fitness in plants? Although, several studies have been conducted to measure some fitness-related traits and physiological performance, direct assessments are seldom found in the literature. Here, we assessed the physiology-fitness relationship using second-generation individuals of the invasive plant...
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High diversification of woody seeder lineages is characteristic of the south-western cape floristic region (CFR), South Africa, which has been explained as a consequence of its mild Mediterranean climate and reliable winter rainfall. Such climatic regime reduces the risk of post-fire recruitment failure, acting as an ecological filter that favours...