Cristián Santibáñez

Cristián Santibáñez
Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción | UCSC · Linguistics / CIEDE

Doctor of Philosophy

About

78
Publications
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Introduction
Cristián Santibáñez does research in Argumentation Theory, Philosophy of Language, Philosophy of Science and Epistemology. Current projects are: 'Immigrants’ Argumentative competence and Practice: A linguistic characterization' 'A Cross-Cultural Study of Argument Orientations' 'Argumentation in Elderly People' 'Lexicon, narration and argumentation: cognitive development, ecological challenges and educational proposals.'
Additional affiliations
July 2001 - August 2005
University of Houston
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (78)
Article
Full-text available
Manifestar la opinión frente a diversas situaciones que nos acontecen es una actividad diaria. Sin embargo, es poco lo que sabemos acerca de cómo realizan esta actividad grupos etarios particulares. Esta investigación reporta algunos resultados relativos a las relaciones existentes entre variables socioculturales de los adultos mayores de tres ciud...
Article
Full-text available
Qué tipos de estructuras condicionales expresan los adultos mayores cuando discuten contenidos dilemáticos, es la pregunta de investigación que motivó este trabajo. Para responder la pregunta se discute primero la importancia del pensamiento condicional e hipotético; luego el trabajo sigue con el análisis de diálogos argumentativos de adultos mayor...
Article
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This paper reports the results of an empirical study on argumentativeness in the discourse of Chilean elderly people and young university students. Argumentativeness means speaker’s willingness to deliver or evade the use of reasons in a dialogue when there is a difference of opinion. From the theoretical point of view, different approaches to...
Article
This project investigates orientations toward interpersonal arguing among Chilean seniors ( N = 243), having a mean age of 72 years. We found no prior attention to seniors in the interpersonal arguing literature, and only a little to Chileans. Sited within the US framework for studying interpersonal arguing (see Hample, 2016 ), this project collect...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, I propose to understand argumentative decoupling-that is, the structural fact of the argumentative chain self-referring to one (or more) of its constituents (reason, data, conclusion, point of view) in subsequent arguments-as part of the way in which cognitive decoupling representation works. In order to support this claim, I make us...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims at proposing a concept of a critical agent in dialogue with the practice of deliberative democracy, considering what reason-giving means. For this purpose, this paper first discusses what being or tending to be critical of oneself or third parties would mean. This section mainly draws on ideas from the theory of argumentation and in...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen: En este trabajo discutimos los cambios y alcances recientes que ha expe-rimentado la teoría de la metáfora conceptual, preguntándonos tanto por las conse-cuencias internas en la teoría, como por los efectos de estos cambios para la disciplina lingüística. Especial atención le hemos dado a los cambios de énfasis que van desde entender la co...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen. En este trabajo se analiza comparadamente la calidad argumentativa de adultos mayores y jóvenes universitarios chilenos. Utilizando la noción y tipos de esquemas argumentativos propuestos por la teoría integrada de la estructura argumentativa (Marraud, 2013), se caracteriza la producción de argumentos de ambos grupos que dan su opinión sob...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
I propose that we produce some of the most important inferences in a deliberative context, when we reason metaphorically. Just as we select a particular hypothesis because it covers certain facts in the best way and then explains the events, we select a particular conceptual metaphor because it allows us to mediate the social or cultural difference...
Article
Full-text available
En este trabajo se analiza comparadamente la calidad argumentativa de adultos mayores y jóvenes universitarios chilenos. Utilizando la noción y tipos de esquemas argumentativos propuestos por la teoría integrada de la estructura argumentativa (Marraud, 2013), se caracteriza la producción de argumentos de ambos grupos que dan su opinión sobre un dil...
Article
Full-text available
This article aims to show how textual data analysis can be applied to the study of argumentation. This is an alternative methodology allowing to trace back massive qualitative data standing for cognitive skill displays, the analysis of which would allow to provide feedback, for instance, to the educational system. Textual data analysis was done in...
Article
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En este trabajo propongo entender el desacoplamiento argumentativo, esto es, el hecho estructural de la argumentación de presentar algo como dato y luego la misma información como conclusión en otro argumento, como desacoplamiento de representaciones. Para lograr tal aproximación, discuto perspectivas provenientes de teorías cognitivas y evolutivas...
Article
Full-text available
Este trabajo aborda la manipulación desde una perspectiva conversacional capaz de identificar los mecanismos subyacentes a un intercambio calificado socialmente como “manipulativo”. En toda manipulación tiene lugar un desplazamiento entre dos cuestiones diferentes: una cuestión (Q2), no explicitada en el intercambio comunicacional, es presentada po...
Article
Full-text available
La investigación compara la complejidad argumentativa individual escrita en tareas sociocientíficas de estudiantes universitarios de Psicología, en función del momento de cursado (ingresante/avanzado) y de la presencia de un sistema de representación externa adicional (gráfico). Participaron 72 estudiantes de una universidad argentina. Éstos emitie...
Article
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In this paper the role of images in argumentative settings is analyzed from a cognitive angle. In particular, the proposal of this paper is to see visual argumentation as a specific form of extended and distributed cognition. In order to develop this idea, some of Wittgenstein’s insights are used to put evidence produced by research on temporal-spa...
Article
Full-text available
En este trabajo se discuten algunos resultados de una investigación sobre la facultad argumentativa en adultos mayores (sobre 65 años de edad) de tres regiones de Chile, particularmente las respuestas escritas a un dilema social. Los resultados indican que aquellos adultos mayores que optan por empatizar con el protagonista del dilema social son en...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to characterize the activity of arguing, justifying and explaining in young children by analysing natural interactions between children extracted from situations of play and role play in kindergarten. In order to fulfil this objective, first of all empirical research mainly from the field of psychology and education science are revi...
Book
Full-text available
Si no se esgrimieran razones que justifiquen una idea, plan, decisión o acción, quizás nuestros brazos y piernas hubiesen evolucionado monstruosamente para que un semejante acatara, golpe seco y decidido mediante, nuestras ideas, planes y acciones. Ciertamente no hay que entender el acto de argumentar como uno representativo de un comportamiento pr...
Chapter
1. Introducción En el marco de recientes acusaciones de manipulaciones alrededor del mundo, como por ejemplo la atribuida a Volkswagen o al espionaje ruso en la última elección norteamericana, parece necesario reflexionar sobre el problema uniendo algunos de los avances contemporáneos que se han hecho tanto desde la filosofía como desde la lingüíst...
Article
Este trabajo procura aportar distinciones conceptuales de la familia de comportamientos lingüísticos y psicológicos compuesta por el autoengaño, el engaño, la mentira y la manipulación, que se han agrupado aquí bajo la rúbrica de engaño generalizado. Estas distinciones permitirán luego analizar pragmática y argumentativamente los intentos por justi...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen: En este trabajo se discuten algunos resultados de una investigación sobre la facultad argumentativa en adultos mayores (sobre 65 años de edad) de tres regiones de Chile, particularmente las respuestas escritas a un dilema social. Los resultados indican que aquellos adultos mayores que optan por empatizar con el protagonista del dilema soci...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen: En el presente artículo utilizamos el concepto de filosofía formalizada de Hansson, así como las categorías de idealización simplificada y perfeccionista que se le asocian, con el fin de proponer un metaanálisis de tres enfoques teóricos de la argumentación, a saber, la pragmadialéctica de van Eemeren y Grootendorst, los esquemas argumenta...
Article
Full-text available
According to a growing literature in many fields of the social sciences and humanities defending the mind-modularity thesis, the brain is composed of mutually inconsistent modules that contain contradictory beliefs. What consequences could this view have on persuasive behaviour? In order to sketch an answer, first the family of concepts of what is...
Research
Full-text available
Tradução de artigo: TEORIA DA ARGUMENTAÇÃO COMO EPISTEMOLOGIA APLICADA, de Cristián Santibáñez, publicada na Revista EID&A
Article
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Resumen / Abstract Se ofrece una respuesta inicial a la pregunta sobre el recorrido evolutivo de la competencia argumentativa. Se asume decididamente la hipótesis de la intencionalidad colectiva y la cooperación como rasgos estructurales que permiten entender la argumentación como un fenómeno normativo. Se concluye que la argumentación fue producto...
Article
Full-text available
In this work we propose a multimodal analysis of the journalistic argumentative discourse that combines image and verbal components. Two international news items that have caused impact internationally are analyzed. The methodological tools used come from contemporary argumentative theories, semiotic-discursive analysis, and the functional grammati...
Article
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Este artículo tiene por objetivo aportar en la explicación de la función que cumplen las subcompetencias cognitivas mindreading y la representación mental en la actividad inferencial y el comportamiento argumentativo. El texto discute varias explicaciones alternativas existentes en la literatura filosófica y cognitiva, decantándose por una perspect...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the first empirical results aiming to characterize argumentative practices in Chile. We described features of Chilean interpersonal arguing among university students, compared those results with others obtained in the United States, and also compared the associations among variables from country to country. Chilean men displayed...
Article
Full-text available
Este trabajo se propone analizar el desarrollo de las estrategias argumentativas de niños de 3, 4 y 5 años. En un trabajo previo, hemos desarrollado un sistema de categorías que conceptualizan las estrategias argumentativas utilizadas por los niños de esa edad. En este estudio se analizan las estrategias argumentativas, así como los recursos lingüí...
Article
Full-text available
El ascenso en diversos países europeos de partidos conservadores con tendencia euroescéptica es un fenómeno relevante respecto de las fuerzas de dispersión que surgen, en períodos de crisis económica, en el seno de los procesos de integración regional. Este trabajo describe algunos aspectos salientes de la argumentación empleada por uno de dichos p...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper a tentative explanation of the competence of argumentation from an evolutionary point of view is offered. Because in contemporary argumentation theory and the informal logic approach the evolutionary perspective has been neglected, this paper gives an initial overview on the matter with the hope that core aspects of the argumentative...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper the theoretical power of the concept of robustness is discussed in order to characterize the argumentative competence of a speaker. This notion is countered with the extended use of the idea complexity. As a general background some empirical results are used to support the theoretical discussion. The paper mainly relies on the theory...
Article
Full-text available
One of the core meta-theoretical pillars of the pragma-dialectics (PD) theory of argumentation is the notion of functionalization which, according to the authors (van Eemeren & Grootendorst, 1984), consists of seeing argumentation as a type of intentional or purposeful activity. From this point of view, this activity is a process in which the uses...
Article
Full-text available
En este trabajo se pone a prueba un sistema de categorías para analizar las estrategias argumentativas que despliegan niños en situaciones de juego en el contexto educativo. Se indaga si el sistema resulta adecuado para describir y evaluar las estrategias argumentativas de niños de 3, 4 y 5 años en el contexto del jardín de infantes. El estudio emp...
Article
Full-text available
One of the core meta-theoretical pillars of the pragma-dialectics (PD) theory of argumentation is the notion of functionalization which, according to the authors (van Eemeren & Grootendorst, 1984), consists of seeing argumentation as a type of intentional or purposeful activity. From this point of view, this activity is a process in which the uses...
Article
Full-text available
First, we offer theoretical resemblance of the representation of practical reasoning, beginning with the distinction between demonstrative and dialectical syllogism. We make reference to the Toulmin's critique against to the dominant deductivism in his time. Then we give arguments to sustain the heuristic relevance of Toulmin's model to understand...
Article
Full-text available
What is the use of argumentation? Discussing theoretically and empirically the value and the function of argumentation.This paper has two main goals. First, discussing some conceptual issues about the value and function of the argumentative practice taking into consideration some critical position to the standard perspective on the matter; and seco...
Article
What is the use of argumentation? Discussing theoretically and empirically the value and the function of argumentation.This paper has two main goals. First, discussing some conceptual issues about the value and function of the argumentative practice taking into consideration some critical position to the standard perspective on the matter; and seco...
Article
First, we offer theoretical resemblance of the representation of practical reasoning, beginning with the distinction between demonstrative and dialectical syllogism. We make reference to the Toulmin's critique against to the dominant deductivism in his time. Then we give arguments to sustain the heuristic relevance of Toulmin's model to understand...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN – La crisis económica internacional por la que atraviesan los países centrales europeos se ha correspondido en los últimos años con una fuerte crítica generalizada a la política y accionar de sus gobernan-tes. En este marco, la asunción de Mariano Rajoy y el cambio de color político en España implicaban la posibilidad de una nueva orientaci...
Article
Full-text available
The principle of relevance of Sperber and Wilson (1995) underestimates the role of cooperation, and the theory’s inclination toward an individual intentionality is problematic. These are two of the critical observations that this paper introduces and discusses. Through a constant counterpoint with the aforementioned authors, the core arguments of t...
Article
Full-text available
Mercier and Sperber (2011a, 2011b; Mercier, 2011a, 2011b, 2011c, and 2011d) have pre-sented a stimulating and provocative new theory of reasoning: the argu-mentative theory of reasoning. They maintain that argumentation is a meta-representational module. In their evolutionary view of argumen-tation, the function of this module would be to regulate...
Article
Full-text available
Mercier and Sperber (2011a, 2011b; Mercier, 2011a, 2011b, 2011c, and 2011d) have presented a stimulating and provocative new theory of reasoning: the argumentative theory of reasoning. They maintain that argumentation is a meta-representational module. In their evolutionary view of argumentation, the function of this module would be to regulate the...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper the conception of argumentation theory as applied epistemology is discussed. The point of departure is the description of four perspectives that are considered as founders of the modern theory of argumentation, in order to observe whether there was a similar concept in those theories or if they provided the patterns to go into that di...
Article
Full-text available
el principio de relevancia de Sperber y Wilson (1995) subestima el papel de la cooperación, y su inclinación hacia una intención individual es problemática. estas son dos de las observaciones críticas que este trabajo plantea a la teoría de estos autores. en un contrapunto constante con la aproximación de Sperber y Wilson, en cada sección de este a...
Article
Full-text available
The hypothesis under discussion here is that there is conceptual similarity between Russell's idea of instinctive/intuitive belief as expounded in The Problems of Philosophy, and Wittgenstein's idea of a hinge proposition as presented in On Certainty. As conceptual similarities need qualifying in order to be precise, this paper will discuss the sim...
Article
Full-text available
John Searle maintains that social institutions are only possible because humans have language, and once the social institutions are created by means of a certain linguistic logic form, other institutions will appear without the awareness of the language users. In this paper this explanation of the organization of social institutions will be under s...
Article
The hypothesis under discussion here is that there is conceptual similarity between Russell's idea of instinctive/intuitive belief as expounded in The Problems of Philosophy, and Wittgenstein's idea of a hinge proposition as presented in On Certainty. As conceptual similarities need qualifying in order to be precise, this paper will discuss the sim...
Article
Full-text available
The principle of relevance of Sperber and Wilson (1995) underestimates the role of cooperation, and the theory's inclination toward an individual intentionality is problematic. These are two of the critical observations that this paper introduces and discusses. Through a constant counterpoint with the aforementioned authors, the core arguments of t...
Article
Full-text available
John Searle maintains that social institutions are only possible because humans have language, and once the social institutions are created by means of a certain linguistic logic form, other institutions will appear without the awareness of the language users. In this paper this explanation of the organization of social institutions will be under s...
Article
In this paper some of the latest interpretations of Ludwig Wittgenstein's On Certainty are analysed in order to distinguish to what extent it is possible to talk about a 'third' Wittgenstein. The topics discussed are: the novelty and importance attributed to On Certainty; the subversion of the traditional perspective about basic beliefs; and the 'n...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper some of the latest interpretations of Ludwig Wittgenstein's On Certainty are analysed in order to distinguish to what extent it is possible to talk about a 'third' Wittgenstein. The topics discussed are: the novelty and importance attributed to On Certainty; the subversion of the traditional perspective about basic beliefs; and the 'n...
Article
Full-text available
This paper suggests a way to understand and analyze the uses of conceptual metaphors from an argumentative perspective. The examples to illustrate the place of conceptual metaphors in arguments originate from Chilean parliamentarian's media participation. To achieve the purpose, first some differences between argument by analogy and arguing by meta...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN En este trabajo se analiza el problema de la presunción tanto desde una perspectiva prag-mática como desde el ángulo de la teoría contemporánea de la argumentación. El objetivo principal es caracterizar y discutir el papel que le cabe a este tipo de acto de habla en los intercambios controversiales. En este esfuerzo, serán considerados tant...
Article
Full-text available
Stephen Toulmin published The Uses of Argument in 1958, a book dedicated to discussing the epistemological dimension of behavioral sciences, such as psychology, anthropology, and sociology, by means of an analytical overview in which the argumentative and linguistic realms are the main ones. Fifty years after its publication there is no consensus a...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper the problem of presumption is analysed as much from a pragmatic perspective, as from the angle of contemporary argumentation theory. The main goal is to characterise and discuss the role of this type of speech act in controversial exchanges. In this effort, cognitive, pragmatic and argumentative aspects will be considered. The analysi...
Article
Full-text available
Rhetoric, dialectics or pragmatics: Stephen Toulmin's The Uses of Argument 50 years later. Stephen Toulmin published The Uses of Argument in 1958, a book dedicated to discussing the epistemological dimension of behavioral sciences, such as psychology, anthropology, and sociology, by means of an analytical overview in which the argumentative and lin...
Article
Full-text available
This paper suggests a way to understand and analyze the working of metaphors from the point of view of argumentative practice. For this purpose, it discusses not only the main contributions made by cognitive linguistics to the analysis of metaphors, but also Stephen Toulmin's (1958) perspective for argumentative reconstruction, known as factual log...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen Si la Cognición Social es un tipo de proceso de entendimiento y coordinación colectiva entre miembros que reconocen intencio-nes y elecciones entre sí en virtud de representaciones mentales y simbólicas de resultados deseados (Tomasello, 1999), entonces el estudio de esquemas específi cos y comunes, en virtud de los que tales representacion...
Article
Full-text available
This paper suggests a way to understand and analyze the working of metaphors from the point of view of argumentative practice. For this purpose, it discusses not only the main contributions made by cognitive linguistics to the analysis of metaphors, but also Stephen Toulmin's (1958) perspective for argumentative reconstruction, known as factual log...
Article
Full-text available
Aún se utilizan insistentemente los conceptos de ‘paradigma’, ‘inconmensurabilidad’ y ‘regla’, tal como Thomas Kuhn lo propuso para referirse al modo en que se organizaría la ciencia. Lo problemático es que La estructura de las revoluciones científicas se cita como un caso de debate epistemológico, más que como un ensayo sobre la ciencia con perspe...
Article
Full-text available
The concepts of 'paradigm', 'incommensurability' and 'rule' are still widely used. Thomas Kuhn applied them to refer to the way in which science could be organized. The problem is that The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is quoted as a case of epistemological discussion, rather than a case of an historical perspective on science. In this paper...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN Primero, el artículo presenta una discusión de las similitudes y diferencias entre el concepto “decorum”, fundamental en retórica, y el “principio de relevancia”, expuesto por Grice y modificado por Sperber y Wilson, con el objeto de enfatizar la continuidad teórica que existe entre ellos. Posteriormente, se plantea la necesidad de consid...
Article
Full-text available
Pero el lenguaje no es un objeto de uso, ni tampoco un instrumento; sobre todo no es un objeto, no es más que su propio uso. Lenguaje es uso de lenguaje. FRITZ MAUTHNER, Contribuciones El significado de una palabra es su uso en el lenguaje LUDWIG WITTGENSTEIN, Investigaciones Filosóficas ABSTRACT Ludwig Wittgenstein's ambiguous and unfriendly comme...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper I will apply certain arguments of literary theory and cultural studies, including those attacked in the "Sokal case", in order to explain the function of the category "author". In particular, I will synthesize reflections of Barthes, Foucault, Bourdieu, Jameson and Vattimo, among others, to claim that "author" is a collective category...

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Projects (3)
Project
This project aims at proposing a concept of a critical agent in dialogue with the practice of deliberative democracy, considering what reason-giving means.
Project
Este proyecto tiene por objetivo proveer información, análisis e ideas en torno a la competencia argumentativa, en relación con su desarrollo, práctica y evaluación por y en hablantes naturales. Reúne en sus sub-ambientes (niñ@s, jóvenes/adultos, y adultos mayores), material que permitirá a los interesados en este fenómeno humano profundizar su conocimiento. http://ecologiaargumentativa.cl/
Project
Specific objectives: 1. To integrate the different researches developed by the members of the Centres of this proposal focused on the study of lexicon, narrative discourse and argumentative competence. 2. To compare the findings in the studies of lexicon, narrative discourse and argumentative competence in different stages of development and different ecological contexts. 3. To contribute to the formation of human resources (doctoral and post-doctoral students). 4. To elaborate pedagogical material (textbooks for children, didactical guidelines for teachers) to promote the learning of vocabulary, narrative and argumentative skills in kindergarten and first grades of primary school. 5. To disseminate the scientific findings among academic communities, educational communities and civil organisations at a national and international level. 6. To design joint research projects funded bilaterally (Chile-Argentina) and internationally (applying to American, European or other available grants).