Cristian Parker

Cristian Parker
University of Santiago, Chile | USACH · Instituto de Estudios Avanzados (IDEA)

PhD

About

81
Publications
27,348
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Introduction
As a sociologist I am working on two fronts, on the one hand environmental sociology, analyzing climate change, the energy transition and social actors; on the other hand, studying contemporary religious transformations in the framework of multiple modernities. I am conducting field research with mixed methodologies to study social actors and energy transition. Secondary sources methodologies to analyze religious transformations at the Latin American level and in other continents.
Additional affiliations
August 1996 - present
University of Santiago, Chile
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
February 1982 - October 1985
March 1972 - December 1976

Publications

Publications (81)
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document seeks to contribute to society and its decision-makers with the best available scientific evidence on Chile’s Renewable Energy (RE) Export Potential and the opportunities and challenges that such potential opens for Chile’s commitment to carbon neutrality. It also aims to provide a useful input for the dialogues that the country will...
Article
Full-text available
Diversos autores han observado un tránsito de menor a mayor complejidad en las políticas de evaluación ambiental, pasando desde un enfoque originariamente sectorial hacia una perspectiva sistémica y estratégica. Sin embargo, como en todo proceso político, estos tránsitos no son homogéneos ni lineales. De hecho, existen importantes diferencias en lo...
Article
Full-text available
p>La construcción de una gobernanza ambiental, en términos del diseño e implementación de una institucionalidad ad hoc, ha estado atravesada por la tensión entre una perspectiva orientada al resguardo de las inversiones y el crecimiento económico, versus los objetivos del desarrollo sustentable suscritos por los Estados nacionales. En Chile, esta t...
Article
Full-text available
Social research on the transition to renewable energies has focused on understanding public policies and social movements. Energy knowledge plays an important practical, normative, and social role that influences actors' approaches to this transition, which has been scarcely studied at local or community levels, let alone in the Global South. A com...
Article
Full-text available
Popular, ethnic, and folk religions endure in all regions of the planet, but specially in underdeveloped or developing non-Western countries. The main objective of this paper was to propose a framework for understanding this popular religious trend. Although religion in general has previously been linked to multiple modernities, the revitalization...
Article
Full-text available
El presente artículo tiene como objetivo proponer un marco teórico y metodológico para el análisis del factor conocimiento socio-técnico en los procesos de evaluación ambiental, teniendo como referente lo que sucede generalmente en la evaluación de los megaproyectos de infraestructura, energía o minería. En particular, nuestro propósito es profundi...
Chapter
Against the background of supply deficiency and citizen opposition to the construction of large-scale hydro power plants, numerous movements against energy projects emerged during the last decade and ultimately paved the way for a participatory energy policy design process in Chile. The “Energy 2050” strategy was developed through a participative p...
Article
Full-text available
Implementing a transition towards sustainable patterns of energy consumption in the extractive sector, including energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, is an ongoing, but incipient, process in South America. The focus here is on social representations of elites on ’sustainable energy consumption’ in the large-scale mining sector in Argenti...
Preprint
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ABSTRACT Efforts to tackle climate change are heading in different directions, but the transition towards renewable energies (RE) and clean technologies occupies a central place. In recent years the South American governments have started applying policies for promoting the use of renewable energies, and private investment in this sector has increa...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes the main results of a research on environmental governance in Latin America, held in Chile in relation to copper mining. Different sectors of economic and political elites of the country, as well as actors of civil society linked to the environmental movement were interviewed. The objective was to ascertain their level of knowle...
Article
ResumenSin duda alguna podemos apreciar que Chile se encuentra en un proceso de integración a la globalización en el cual destaca en relación a los países latinoamericanos. Sin embargo, existe un desarrollo desigual en cuanto a los factores de competitividad. La adecuada inserción de Chile en la globalización, una mayor integración a la sociedad de...
Article
Full-text available
ResumenSin duda alguna podemos apreciar que Chile se encuentra en un proceso de integración a la globalización en el cual destaca en relación a los países latinoamericanos. Sin embargo, existe un desarrollo desigual en cuanto a los factores de competitividad. La adecuada inserción de Chile en la globalización, una mayor integración a la sociedad de...
Article
Full-text available
The new cultural and religious landscape of Latin American is increasingly plural, transforming a religious field that was some decades ago totally Catholic (Parker 2014, 2016). The classical interaction between religion and society, and between religion and politics in this continent has been replaced by new forms of religions in the public sphere...
Article
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The role of religion in Latin American politics can no longer be interpreted with reductionist schemes. The faithful—citizens—are combining faith and politics in unprecedented ways, and churches and denominations are no longer factors of political identity. The reconfiguration of new social and political movements interweaves complex linkages with...
Chapter
Full-text available
Mining activity has undeniable environmental impacts due to the nature of its operations, processing plants and foundries. Mining companies proclaim their environmental responsibility by implementing policies that limit environmental risk and impact, while also applying new technologies and production processes that are more respectful of the envir...
Article
Full-text available
Indigenous Urban Tourism is a singular phenomenon in Latin America. In this Continent's experience in cases such as México, Guatemala, Perú and Bolivia what is generally referred to as indigenous tourism is concentrated in rural and peasant areas and even in many cases it is not called Indigenous Tourism but simply Peasant Tourism. This article sys...
Conference Paper
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Existen abundantes estudios sociales acerca del cambio climático y la transición energética (TE), pero ellos provienen principalmente de países desarrollados. Los estudios en América Latina son incipientes todavía. El desafío de avanzar en la TE es una exigencia frente a la crisis provocada por el cambio climático. Esta TE hacia fuentes renovables...
Article
Global society’s goal is to transition to more sustainable forms of energy production and consumption. How is the religious factor supporting this transition to sustainable energy models and renewable energy? This is a question that social scientists are only just beginning to respond to. In Latin America, it has hardly been raised. This article is...
Chapter
Full-text available
InTRoDUCCIón la actividad minera tiene indudables impactos ambientales por los procesos propios de la mina, las plantas de procesamiento de minerales y las fundiciones cercanas. además del daño directo por la remoción de tierra (desmontes y relaves), se generan sustancias tóxicas en el proceso minero (cadmio, mercurio, arsénico, plomo, cianuro, etc...
Article
Indigenous Urban Tourism is a singular phenomenon in Latin America. In this Continent's experience in cases such as México, Guatemala, Perú and Bolivia what is generally referred to as indigenous tourism is concentrated in rural and peasant areas and even in many cases it is not called Indigenous Tourism but simply Peasant Tourism. This article sys...
Article
Full-text available
This paper addresses the problem of water and energy consumption in the South American mining from a perspective not much explored: the sustainable consumption. From the point of view of sociology and the social studies of science and technology, we expose the issue by presenting three different consumption patterns: conventional, alternative and p...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between the academic world and public policy (PP) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) facing the tasks of genuine sustainable development suffers from deficits. This article begins by analyzing the relationship between PP and development tasks, and the features acquired by current environmental governance. In the light of the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The focus of our research is sustainable consumption of water and energy in the mining sector of Latin America. An industry that consumes large amounts of natural resources ‐ especially water and energy. In many countries of the region mining has become a privileged sector of development, although it remains controversial because of its environment...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The growing demand for primary energy consumption in many Latin American (LA) countries is carbonized raising a challenge to move towards low-carbon economies. Promoting social patterns of low-carbon energy consumption involves analyzing the lifestyles associated with the current energy consumption. Indeed social patterns of primary energy consum...
Article
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Faced with global climate change, local elites are confronted with the main dilemma of a developing country: development requires economic growth, but this effort also requires consideration of environmental factors and sustainable patterns of production and consumption. Based on empirical evidence from qualitative research on businesses and politi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La relación entre el mundo académico y las políticas públicas en América Latina y el Caribe (ALC) están siendo cada vez más demandadas por los desafíos que plantea el desarrollo sustentable. Para analizar esta temática necesitamos primero revisar la relación existente entre el mundo de las políticas públicas y las tareas del desarrollo, en el marco...
Book
Full-text available
Al iniciar el siglo XXI, en 2010, se celebra el bicentenario de varias naciones independientes en América Latina. Muchos acontecimientos han transcurrido en estos doscientos años, pero lo más asombroso ha sido el impacto que ha tenido, en la evolución socio-histórica, el avance de las ciencias y las tecnologías, acelerado desde la segunda mitad del...
Chapter
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Al iniciar el siglo XXI, en 2010, se celebra el bicentenario de varias naciones indepen-dientes en América Latina. Muchos acontecimientos han transcurrido en estos doscientos años, pero lo más asombroso ha sido el impacto que ha tenido, en la evolución socio-históri-ca, el avance de las ciencias y las tecnologías, acelerado desde la segunda mitad d...
Article
Full-text available
Measures to address climate change on the planet involve a number of factors including the existence of structures and organizations to catalyze and encourage transformative actions. Local capacity building involves the consciousness of citizens and elites in line with the institutional actions to respond at various levels. Based on empirical resea...
Article
Full-text available
El articulo examina la concepción que los estudiantes universitarios chilenos tienen acerca de sus representaciones y valoraciones de las ciencias, la tecnologia y la ética. Se sistematizan los principales resultados de las encuestas realizadas entre 2005 v 2008. en el marco de proyectos FONDECYT la primera a una muestra representativa de 6.219 est...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptation and mitigation measures and changes in production and consumption patterns are necessary to face the risks of the impacts of global warming. They imply large investments the costs of which companies and governments, in charge of elites are not always willing to endure. Changes in elites have a direct impact on public policy and environme...
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
Since the re-establishment of democracy in Chile, the presence of evangelicals inside the society is becoming more notorious. The civic skills that the religious communities create in their participants, in combination with the eventual increasing of their economical and educational level, could transform the evangelicals in a “cultural citizenship...
Article
Full-text available
El presente artículo presenta un análisis del nuevo concepto de alfabetismo científico como competencia requerida para el ejercicio de la ciudadanía en el siglo XXI y como complemento y ampliación del alfabetismo tradicional. Ya no basta con enseñar a leer y escribir, es necesario también hacer realidad la educación permanente para todos y el acces...
Article
Full-text available
Since the re-establishment of democracy in Chile, the presence of evangelicals inside the society is becoming more notorious. The civic skills that the religious communities create in their participants, in combination with the eventual increasing of their economical and educational level, could transform the evangelicals in a �cultural citizenship...
Article
Full-text available
Interculturality reveals, in its tensions and relationship with religion, many aspects that need to be theorized. On the one hand, the studies on international relations analyse interreligious conflicts in the context of power conflicts and regional or international geopolitical imbalances. On the other hand, studies of interculturalism are centred...
Article
There may exist among the university students a true motivation toward science and technology, as these symbolize progress. On the contrary, their attachment to religious values does not discourage their motivation for science and technology. Their critical appreciation of the role of science and technology is related mostly to the ethical and ecol...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen: Este artículo describe las formas peculiares que adquiere el cambio religioso, tanto a nivel de las adhesiones a nuevos movimientos religiosos como en las creencias religiosas en chile. Este trabajo analiza la manera en que el factor educacional interviene en las tendencias hacia la pluralización religiosa. También se exploran las posibles...
Chapter
Full-text available
Parker Gumucio, Cristian. Mentalidad religiosa post-ilustrada: creencias y esoterismo en una sociedad en mutuación cultural. En publicación: América Latina y el Caribe. Territorios religiosos y desafíos para el diálogo. Aurelio Alonso (Compilador). CLACSO, Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales, Buenos Aires. Febrero de 2008.
Article
Full-text available
Este artículo describe las formas peculiares que adquiere el cambio religioso, tanto a nivel de las adhesiones a nuevos movimientos religiosos como en las creencias religiosas en Chile. Este trabajo analiza la manera en que el factor educacional interviene en las tendencias hacia la pluralización religiosa. También se exploran las posibles consecue...
Article
Full-text available
¿Qué duda cabe que la religión es una estructura significativa de sentido y una forma de dominio simbólico que el hombre tiene de su mundo? Pero la religión es también una forma de poder. Y no sólo poder simbólico o cultural sino que también poder ideológico y en ocasiones se vuelve poder político y hasta militar. Aunque, por otra parte, la complej...
Article
Full-text available
The “awakening” of the indigenous people of Latin America raises the following question: is it accom- panied by a religious revitalization and a return to an- cestral beliefs and rituals? Religion is, indeed, present in protests and visible movements such as those in Me- xico or Ecuador, but religion does not appear to be the principal factor or th...
Article
Full-text available
La época de mutaciones culturales que vivimos esta transformando los códigos bajo los cuales se relacionaban religiosidad y política. De acuerdo a las corrientes de la modernidad ilustrada las actitudes “progresistas” debían ser inevitablemente “secularistas” y racionalistas, y propender al ateísmo. Los datos analizados sobre los estudiantes univer...
Chapter
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The maln argument of this chapter is that new forms of religious expression are breaüing new life into magical or popular Practices which, according to 'scientistic' opinion, should have disappeared by üe middle of the last century. These new extra-institutional and/or anti-institutional forms of 'magico-popular religious' expression requfue adequa...
Article
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There is now real religious pluralism in Latin America. Latin America can no longer be considered «Catholic» in the traditional sense of the term. Other religions -including pentecostal Protestantism- have grown and there is now a notable presence of non believers and of those who define themselves as «Catholics in my own way». This transformation...
Article
Full-text available
Estamos en presencia del pluralismo en el campo religioso latinoamericano. América Latina ya no es católica en el sentido tradicional del término. Han crecido las otras religiones ¿entre ellas el protestantismo pentecostal¿ y también es notable la presencia de no creyentesy de «católicos a mi manera». Esta transformación tiene raíces en la expansió...
Article
Full-text available
Any attempt to grasp that which is currently at stake in sociology of religion from a Latin American point of view requires awareness of the current context, including multiple on-going processes of globalization and geopolitical tensions in the post-September 11 world. The internal contradictions of the process of modernization and the inequalitie...
Article
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The author analyses certain forms of religion which can be characterized as “neo-magic-religion”. In the course of the shift towards post-industrial society magic has been updated and religion has been transformed. It is not a question of the “return” of magic but rather of a mutation of institutionalized religion largely in response to the scienti...
Article
Full-text available
The “awakening” of the indigenous people of Latin America raises the following question: is it accompanied by a religious revitalization and a return to ancestral beliefs and rituals? Religion is, indeed, present in protests and visible movements such as those in Mexico or Ecuador, but religion does not appear to be the principal factor or the deep...
Article
Contrary to supposition, globalization is not imposing a homogeneous and secularized culture. A case study of popular beliefs and practices in Santiago (Chile) reveals the great transformations they have undergone, but not the decisive influence of a market-oriented and pragmatic culture. Traditional and orthodox Catholic beliefs are being relativi...
Article
Full-text available
Popular religion is a widespread phenomenon among peasants of the Third World, but it is the vitality and force of popular religious expressions in the urban popular milieu of developing countries that pose serious questions for classical secularization theories. The religious sense produced by the lower strata of the urban populace in contexts of...
Article
The development of Chilean sociology of religion has not been smooth. In order to survive at all it sometimes had to submit to being treated as an “auxiliary science” of theology and pastoral studies. Pluralist religious fields of study emerged when the socio-political transformations linked to military authoritarianism precipitated a decisive mome...
Book
Full-text available
Visión histórica, sociológica y política de la religión como expresión cultural en el devenir de América Latina, donde se señala que la modernización y urbanización capitalistas conducen a la secularización, y que los rasgos emergentes que es importante proteger son los de pluralismo cultural y religioso.
Article
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A partir de una reflexión crítica sobre las categorías fundamentales de la sociología de la religión legadas por la tradición europea, el autor hace un análisis sistemático de la mentalidad racionalista ilustrada y el enfoque hermenéutico. La cosmovisión y la comprensión del sujeto, las estructuras de pensamiento, las creencias y prácticas de lo "s...
Article
En Amerique Latine, la sociologie religieuse prend son envol apres une periode de dependance. Le role decisif du facteur religieux dans l'evolution historique, culturelle et politique de la region, pose de nouveaux problemes auxquels les sociologues autochtones repondent avec de nouvelles recherches et en developpant les aspects theoriques et metho...
Article
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La recherche d'une identite latino-americaine a ete un effort constant dans la tradition intellectuelle creole. Dans le contexte des mutations culturelles qui ont lieu a l'aube du XXI e siecle, la pensee latino-americaine peut etre reinventee avec originalite si la dependance par rapport a ce qu'on appelle l'Occident moderne est abandonnee et si l'...
Book
Because in most of Latin America the vast majority of people are poor, popular culture inevitably suggests the culture of the poor. But within the context of a military regime such as Chile during the Pinochet years, popular culture has a greater clarity than it possesses in more democratic societies. It increasingly becomes the major alternative t...
Chapter
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