Crichard Hofstetter

Crichard Hofstetter
San Diego State University | SDSU · Center for Behavioral Epidemiology and Community Health

Ph.D.

About

241
Publications
19,378
Reads
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11,441
Citations
Introduction
Professor of Political Science, Emeritus, and adjunct Professor, Graduate School of Public Health. PI for an NIH funded study of reinforcers within social networks involving alcohol and smoking among first generation Korean and Mandarin speaking Chinese immigrants in metropolitan Los Angeles.
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - present
San Diego State University
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
Description
  • Adjunct Professor, Graduate School of Public Health Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science
August 2000 - present
San Diego State University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 1995 - present
San Diego State University
Position
  • Managing Director
Education
August 1964 - August 1967
Indiana University Bloomington
Field of study
  • Political Science-Sociology
January 1962 - June 1964
University of Oregon
Field of study
  • Political Science-Sociology
September 1960 - June 1961
Central Oregon Community College
Field of study
  • Liberal Arts

Publications

Publications (241)
Article
Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test whether brief exercise and diet advice provided during child patient visits to their orthodontic office could improve diet, physical activity, and age-and-gender-adjusted BMI. Methods: We enrolled orthodontic offices in Southern California and Tijuana, Mexico, and recruited their pati...
Article
Introduction: Exposure to fine particulate matter in the home from sources such as smoking, cooking, and cleaning may put residents, especially children, at risk for detrimental health effects. A randomized clinical trial was conducted from 2011 to 2016 to determine whether real-time feedback in the home plus brief coaching of parents or guardians...
Article
Full-text available
Children are at risk for adverse health outcomes from occupant-controllable indoor airborne contaminants in their homes. Data are needed to design residential interventions for reducing low-income children's pollutant exposure. Using customized air quality monitors, we continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns) over a week in l...
Data
Sample sizes for dichotomous variables used in graphical analysis. (DOCX)
Data
Sample sizes for categorical variables used in graphical analysis. (DOCX)
Data
Housing characteristics, particle generating- and ventilation-activities compared for the final analytic sample versus homes excluded for complete case analysis. (DOCX)
Data
Variable names and codes in the raw data file. (DOCX)
Article
Objectives: Preventive health services are important for child development, and parents play a key role in facilitating access to services. This study examined how parents' reasons for not having a usual source of care were associated with their children's receipt of preventive services. Methods: We used pooled data from the 2011-2014 National H...
Article
Introduction Interventions are needed to prevent exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), which persists in certain immigrant enclaves, including Koreans in the United States. A faith-based and culturally acceptable intervention was developed and pilot tested in collaboration with Korean churches to address SHS exposure among people of Korean descent....
Article
Background: Smoking, insufficient physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and obesity are leading risk factors for morbidity and premature mortality. Few studies examining the relationship between these behavioural risk factors and quitting behaviours among cohorts of smokers have been published. Purpose: The goals of this study are to...
Article
Full-text available
Ruderman, D., Clapp, J., Hofstetter, C., Irvin, V., Kang, S., & Hovell, M. (2016). Comparison of heavy episodic drinking patterns between Korean and Chinese immigrants. The International Journal Of Alcohol And Drug Research, 5 (2), 65-71. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7895/ijadr.v5i2.220 Objective: Drinking-related problems are increasing among Asian i...
Article
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Objectives. While obesity is common in the US, disparities exist. Orthodontic samples are assumed to be more affluent than the general population and not in need of assistance in developing or maintaining healthy lifestyles. This paper evaluates the need of the orthodontic population for intervention by examining diet and weight status of an orthod...
Article
Background: Tobacco smoking and related health problems are still major public health concerns in the United States despite the declining smoking prevalence. Objectives: This study explored differences in smoking prevalence between urban and rural areas potentially relevant to tobacco control efforts in California. Methods: Public use adult sm...
Article
Studies of changes in health following immigration are inconsistent, and few are based on longitudinal designs to test associations based on change. This study identified factors that predicted changes in self-reported health (SRH) among California residents of Korean descent. A sample of California residents of Korean descent were interviewed and...
Article
Full-text available
We examined whether smokers who used e-cigarettes are more likely to quit after 1 year than smokers who had never used e-cigarettes. We surveyed California smokers (n = 1000) at 2 time points 1 year apart. We conducted logistic regression analyses to determine whether history of e-cigarette use at baseline predicted quitting behavior at follow-up,...
Article
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Compliance with California's smoke-free restaurant and bar policies may be more a function of social contingencies and less a function of legal contingencies. The aims of this study were: 1) to report indications of compliance with smoke-free legislation in Korean bars and restaurants in California; 2) to examine the demographic, smoking status, an...
Article
A growing literature addresses the need to reduce cigarette smoking prevalence by increasing the use of assistance when quitting. A key focus is to identify strategies for enhancing adoption of effective interventions in order to increase utilization of evidence-based treatments. To examine the effect of beliefs regarding ability to quit on utiliza...
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Full-text available
Objectives: We assessed whether an anti-tobacco television advertisement called "Stages," which depicted a woman giving a brief emotional narrative of her experiences with tobacco use, would be recalled more often and have a greater effect on smoking cessation than 3 other advertisements with different intended themes. Methods: Our data were der...
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Full-text available
Hofstetter, C., Clapp, J., Allem, J., Hughes, S., Li, Y., Irvin, V., Daly, A., Kang, S., & Hovell, M. (2014). Social networks and alcohol consumption among first generation Chinese and Korean immigrants in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The International Journal Of Alcohol And Drug Research, 3 (4), 245-255. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7895/ijadr....
Article
Hofstetter, C., Clapp, J., Allem, J., Hughes, S., Li, Y., Irvin, V., Daly, A., Kang, S., & Hovell, M. (2014). Social networks and alcohol consumption among first generation Chinese and Korean immigrants in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The International Journal Of Alcohol And Drug Research, 3(4), 245-255. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.7895/ijadr.v3...
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Full-text available
We evaluated changes in and factors affecting second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in a panel study of nonsmokers. This study was based on data from a larger study of tobacco use among a representative sample of adults of Korean descent residing in California. Participants included 846 males and 1,399 females who were nonsmokers at baseline (2005-2006)...
Article
Benzene is a human hematotoxicant and a leukemogen that causes lymphohematopoietic cancers, especially acute myelogenous leukemia. We investigated uptake of benzene in hookah smokers and non-smokers attending hookah social events in naturalistic settings where hookah tobacco was smoked exclusively. We quantified S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), a m...
Article
This study examined relationships between social networks and immigration stress among first-generation Chinese immigrants. Using data from a larger study of health behavior among first-generation Mandarin/English-speaking immigrants residing in the Los Angeles metropolitan area (N = 1,183), this study found that Chinese immigrants living closer to...
Article
Full-text available
Some attributes of neighborhood environments are associated with physical activity among older adults. This study examined whether the associations were moderated by driving status. Older adults from neighborhoods differing in walkability and income completed written surveys and wore accelerometers (N = 880, mean age = 75 years, 56% women). Neighbo...
Article
This study documents the indirect effects of social and environmental variables as mediated by immigrant stress and physical health. Using data from a large dual frame sample of first generation mandarin speaking Chinese immigrants in metropolitan Los Angeles counties with the largest groups of Chinese immigrants, this study uses a path analytic ap...
Article
To assess whether smoking ban policies are associated with smoking reduction and quit attempts among California smokers. Data were examined for 1718 current smokers from follow-up telephone interviews conducted in 2011 of persons previously identified as smokers in a representative sample of the adult population of California. Population weighted l...
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Full-text available
Some attributes of neighborhood environments are associated with physical activity among older adults. This study examined whether the associations were moderated by driving status. Older adults from neighborhoods differing in walkability and income completed written surveys and wore accelerometers (n=880, mean age=75 years, 56% women). Neighborhoo...
Article
Full-text available
The California antitobacco culture may have influenced home smoking bans in Mexico. Based on the Behavioral Ecological Model, exposure to socially reinforcing contingencies or criticism may explain adoption of home smoking bans in Tijuana, Mexico, approximating rates relative to San Diego, California, and higher than those in Guadalajara, Mexico. A...
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Background Increasing empirical evidence supports associations between neighborhood environments and physical activity. However, since most studies were conducted in a single country, particularly western countries, the generalizability of associations in an international setting is not well understood. The current study examined whether associatio...
Article
The Korean population in the US increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the US report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, a...
Article
Objectives: Little is currently known about price sensitivity across ethnic groups as well as for non-daily smokers. To address this issue, this study compared perceived price sensitivity across smoking status (daily and non-daily) and within ethnicity (Hispanic and non-Hispanic White) in a recent representative population survey of California smo...
Article
This research examined the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among younger, middle-aged, and older Korean American women. Data were drawn from telephone interviews of a population-based, representative probability sample (N = 592) of female adults of Korean descent residing in California, with a completion rate of 70%. Da...
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Full-text available
This study compared risks of secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) among Korean nonsmokers in Seoul, South Korea and California, United States. Social networks were hypothesized to contain more smokers in Seoul than in California, and smokers were hypothesized to produce more secondhand smoke in Seoul than California, as Seoul's policies and norms are l...
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Full-text available
Immigration to a nation with a stronger anti-smoking environment has been hypothesized to make smoking less common. However, little is known about how environments influence risk of smoking across the lifecourse. Research suggested a linear decline in smoking over the lifecourse but these associations, in fact, might not be linear. This study asses...
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Full-text available
Using data from a larger study, we explored the characteristics of preventive health care practices (influenza vaccination, mammogram, and Pap test) among a representative sample of 1,786 Korean American women residing in California by telephone. Three preventive health care practices were related to the goals set by Healthy People 2010. Participan...
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Full-text available
The South Korean (SK) government monopolizes the tobacco industry and is accused of pushing smoking on captive military personnel. However, estimating the association between military service and smoking is difficult, since military service is required for all SK men and the few civilian waivers are usually based on smoking determinants, e.g., soci...
Article
Hookah use is gaining popularity nationwide. We determined the correlates and trends for hookah use from the California Tobacco Survey. Between 2005 and 2008 hookah use increased more than 40%, and in 2008, 24.5% of young men reported ever using a hookah. Hookah use was more common among the young (18-24 years), the educated, the non-Hispanic White...
Article
Koreans hail from a culture where men's smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure were the norm. Little is known about how nonsmokers of Korean descent respond to smokers in the United States. In 2007-2008, trained moderators conducted eight focus groups with nonsmokers (n = 47) of Korean descent in San Diego. Participants discussed their persona...
Conference Paper
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore the characteristics of preventive health care practices (influenza vaccination, mammogram, and pap test) among 1786 Korean American women residing in California by telephone survey. Rationale: While regular preventive health care practices are necessary to reduce mortality and morbidity, overall pr...
Article
Hookah use is increasing among young people, but there are limited data on its use among high school-age populations. We examined hookah use initiation, prevalence, cessation, and psychosocial risk factors of hookah use among high school students. A cross-sectional survey of 689 students from three high schools in San Diego County was used to compa...
Article
This study estimated the association of cultural and social mechanisms with Korean American women's drinking behaviors. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with 591 Korean women selected from a random sample of households in California with Korean surnames during 2007. About 62% of eligible respondents completed the interview. Respondents rep...
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Full-text available
Immigration involves challenges and distress, which affect health and well-being of immigrants. Koreans are a recent, fast-growing, but understudied group of immigrants in the USA, and no study has established or evaluated any immigration stress measure among this population. This study explores psychometric properties of Korean-translated Demands...
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Although Korean American women show high levels of involvement in religious practices and high prevalence of alcohol consumption, no studies have assessed the association between religious denomination and alcohol intake among this group of women. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of religious denomination and religious commitmen...
Conference Paper
Background. Age at migration has been recognized as important correlates of health behaviors among Asians because it captures different developmental phases of the immigrants. However, very little is known about its effect on smoking among Korean immigrant men despite their higher smoking prevalence compared to other Asians or ethnic minority group...
Article
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This study, informed by ecological frameworks, compared the prevalence, predictors, and association of home smoking restrictions with secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) between Koreans in Seoul, South Korea, and Korean Americans in California, United States. A cross-sectional survey was drawn from telephone interviews with Korean adults in Seoul (N =...
Article
This research examines the influence of messages from religious leaders and congregants on whether Korean women are overweight or obese. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with a probability sample (N = 591) of women of Korean descent living in California. Overweight or obese prevalence was measured using World Health Organization standards...
Article
Full-text available
Timely diagnosis of HIV is essential to improve survival rates and reduce transmission of the virus. Insufficient progress has been made in effecting earlier HIV diagnoses. The Mexican border city of Tijuana has one of the highest AIDS incidence and mortality rates in all of Mexico. This study examined the prevalence and potential correlates of lat...
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To explore the feasibility of engaging community businesses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention. Randomly selected business owners/managers were asked to display discreetly wrapped condoms and brochures, both of which were provided free-of-charge for 3 months. Assessments were conducted at baseline, mid-program, and post-program. Custo...
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This study assesses the association of immediate social and legal reprimand and current smoking status among Californians of Korean descent. Data were drawn from a population-based probability sample using a telephone survey conducted by bilingual, professional interviewers (N = 2085). About 85.0% of eligible respondents completed interviews and 86...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate the interaction of gender with social network mechanisms and smoking behaviors in Seoul, South Korea, where smoking is common among men but not women. During 2002, telephone surveys were completed with 500 adults drawn from a probability sample in Seoul. Respondents described their smoking status, smoking rate (number of cigarettes smok...
Article
This study examined the validity of child-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and investigated factors, such as child's age, which might affect accuracy of recall. Participants were drawn from a nonprobability sample of 380 families who completed baseline assessment as part of a randomized trial of an SHS reduction intervention conducted in...
Article
In this study, we provide evidence of construct and discriminant validity for measures of self-efficacy in using television, newspaper, and interpersonal communication to monitor politics in everyday life. Data were drawn from a survey of undergraduates (N = 576) at a large public university. Self-efficacy is a key mediating variable in social lear...
Article
Few longitudinal studies have examined the adoption of bans on smoking in private homes. This longitudinal study examined: (1) the prevalence of home smoking bans at baseline, (2) the incidence and predictors of new ban implementation by follow-up, and (3) the reasons for banning smoking and the difficulties with enforcement. The sample consisted o...
Article
Full-text available
This research identifies social reinforcers within religious institutions associated with alcohol consumption among Korean women in California. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with female adults (N = 591) selected from a random sampling of persons in California with Korean surnames during 2007. Approximately 70% of attempted interviews we...
Article
To test effects of parent/child training designed to increase calcium intake, bone-loading physical activity (PA), and bone density. Two-group randomized controlled trial. Family-based intervention delivered at research center. 117 healthy children aged 10-13 years (58.1% female, 42.7% Hispanic, 40.2% White). Ninety-seven percent of participants ha...
Article
This research identifies stressors that correlate with depression, focusing on acculturation, among female Korean immigrants in California. Telephone interviews were conducted with female adults of Korean descent (N = 592) from a probability sample from 2006 to 2007. Sixty-five percent of attempted interviews were completed, of which over 90% were...
Article
Full-text available
We tested a combined intervention to reduce children's secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) and help parents quit smoking. After baseline, mothers who exposed their children younger than 4 years to 10 or more cigarettes/week were randomized to the intervention (n = 76) or usual care control condition (n = 74). Outcomes were assessed at 3, 6, 12, and 18...
Article
Objective. This study assesses the association between Anglo aversion to Latinos, physical proximity to Latinos, and contact with ethnic minorities, with expressed preferences for immigration policies. Methods. Data were drawn from a telephone survey of San Diego County, California, residents (N=549 Anglos) using random-digit-dial procedures during...
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Full-text available
This study explored social determinants of smoking among a sample of male Chinese adults in Changqiao, a community representing the transition from traditional to a "mobile" urban culture in China. New commercial systems have introduced high profits but also layoffs in the absence of government security systems. In-person interviews were conducted...
Article
Based on one intensive survey of media behavior and a series of other national surveys, the study shows that holding issue positions and perceptions of major party candidates' issue positions are functions of media exposure to public affairs media. Imagery, moreover, is diffuse and not particularistic.