Craig Stephen

Craig Stephen
Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative

About

153
Publications
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Publications

Publications (153)
Article
The wildlife trade has been characterized as one of the biggest risk factors in the emergence of new infectious diseases. In the shadow of COVID-19, there is growing political and scientific urgency to manage this risk. Existing studies and experiences make it clear that something must be done but are less clear on how to get it done. It is a quite...
Article
Full-text available
Wicked problems in One Health are associated with dynamicity and uncertainty that require experts, authorities and community members to reach for innovative means of collective inquiry, and collaborative interventions to address the deep social issues at the root of interspecies problems. In this study we explore the value of harm reduction concept...
Article
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To sustainably control urban rat infestations, management efforts need to encompass large areas of urban centers. Therefore, the objective of this review and narrative synthesis was to collate what is known about municipal-scale rat management. We explored the management frameworks that have been used at a large scale in cities and we describe the...
Article
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Rats evoke public health and economic concern in cities globally. Rapid urbanization exacerbates pre-existing rat problems, requiring the development and adoption of more effective methods of prevention, monitoring and mitigation. While previous studies have indicated that city-wide municipal management approaches often fail, such outcomes are ofte...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has re-focused attention on mechanisms that lead to zoonotic disease spillover and spread. Commercial wildlife trade, and associated markets, are recognized mechanisms for zoonotic disease emergence, resulting in a growing global conversation around reducing human disease risks from spillover associated with hunting, trade, an...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 32 chapters divided into 4 main sections that discuss the theoretical foundations of One Health; methods, skills and perspectives for the practice of One Health; the application of One Health in infectious and non-infectious diseases and governance and capacity building, all of which are related to the globa...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 32 chapters divided into 4 main sections that discuss the theoretical foundations of One Health; methods, skills and perspectives for the practice of One Health; the application of One Health in infectious and non-infectious diseases and governance and capacity building, all of which are related to the globa...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 32 chapters divided into 4 main sections that discuss the theoretical foundations of One Health; methods, skills and perspectives for the practice of One Health; the application of One Health in infectious and non-infectious diseases and governance and capacity building, all of which are related to the globa...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 32 chapters divided into 4 main sections that discuss the theoretical foundations of One Health; methods, skills and perspectives for the practice of One Health; the application of One Health in infectious and non-infectious diseases and governance and capacity building, all of which are related to the globa...
Article
This study focuses on understanding public support for the control of the invasive small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) in order to reduce predation pressure on endangered sea turtles. A sample of 104 residents and 103 visitors on St. Kitts was verbally interviewed about their knowledge, attitudes, and support for mongoose control. Respo...
Article
Full-text available
The Rocky Mountain ridged mussel ( Gonidea angulata ) is a bivalve species whose Canadian range is limited to the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia. In 2019, conflicts between habitat protection for the mussel and potential habitat alteration to control the invasive Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum ) (milfoil), led to a decision to mai...
Article
Health impacts of climate change are now inevitable. The objective of this study was to see if animal health climate change adaptation was a subject of scholarly inquiry, advice, or discussion and if there was an evidence base from which to make adaptation recommendations. A scoping review of English-language literature over the past 10 years was u...
Article
Full-text available
The Sri Lanka Wildlife Health Centre was created in 2011 as an intersectoral surveillance system intended to address gaps in emerging and zoonotic disease preparedness in the country. This study, which was conducted during August 2015 to November 2015, examined perceived obstacles and opportunities to undertake wildlife disease surveillance in Sri...
Article
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The concept of health permeates priorities and policies for managing wild Pacific salmon (Oncorynchus spp.). Regulatory agencies rely largely on salmon abundance and (or) the absence of pathogens to declare if a population is healthy. Our goal was to determine if there was a receptive policy environment within Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) to a...
Article
The social and ecological changes accompanying the Anthropocene require changes in how pandemics are anticipated, conceived, and managed. Pandemics need to be reframed from infections we can predict to inevitable infectious and non-communicable surprises with which we need to cope. A hazard-by-hazard approach to planning and response is insufficien...
Article
A Delphi exercise involving 17 senior national parks’ biologists in the United States of America and Canada examined how evolving concepts of wildlife health resonated with Parks’ needs. Participants examined wildlife health as a multi-factorial cumulative effect that provides capacity to cope with a changing world. They agreed that this concept of...
Article
Due diligence is a concept used to justify investment in wildlife health surveillance to satisfy trading partners and other animal health stakeholders. Canadian literature and legislation were reviewed and key informant interviews were used to determine if a wildlife surveillance due diligence standard existed. Wildlife surveillance is constrained...
Article
Full-text available
Sri Lanka is progressing towards its goal of eliminating human rabies. This goal rests on programs designed to limit canine rabies, which in turn requires a combination of targeted dog rabies control and a better understanding of the movement of the virus between domestic animals, people, and wildlife. Coordinated and integrated surveillance of the...
Article
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Social licence is rooted in perceptions of local rights holders and stakeholders. The disease focus of aquaculture health policy, practices, and research insufficiently reflects societal expectations for aquafarms to protect health of shared resources. Our case study of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming in British Columbia (BC), Canada, assesse...
Article
Community-based capture–hold–release (CHR) aquariums were developed to (i) increase community connection to local marine environments by displaying local animals, (ii) avoid negative perceptions about holding animals by minimizing the time any individual is held captive, and (iii) operate with a low ecological footprint. CHR aquariums in British Co...
Article
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Background Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic protozoan parasite, infects mammals and birds worldwide. Infection in humans is often asymptomatic, though illnesses can occur in immunocompromised hosts and the fetuses of susceptible women infected during pregnancy. In Nunavik, Canada, 60% of the Inuit population has measurable antibodies against T. gondii...
Article
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Work that addresses the cumulative impacts of resource extraction on environment, community, and health is necessarily large in scope. This paper presents experiences from initiating research at this intersection and explores implications for the ambitious, integrative agenda of planetary health. The purpose is to outline origins, design features,...
Article
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Urban Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations can carry the bacteria methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are numerous knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of MRSA in these populations that limit understanding of its ecology in urban environments. For example, fecal shedding of MRSA, which may increase environmental contaminat...
Article
Wildlife health is important for conservation, healthy ecosystems, sustainable development and biosecurity. It presents unique challenges for national programme governance and delivery because wildlife health not only crosses jurisdictional responsibilities and authorities but also inherently spans multiple sectors of expertise. The World Organisat...
Article
Our objectives were to establish if the determinant of health model used in the fields of human population and public health could be adapted to wildlife health; if it was applicable to more than one species; and if it reflected how fish and wildlife managers conceptualized health in practice. A conceptual model was developed using a scoping review...
Article
Full-text available
Outbreaks of Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. have been recurring for decades among Inuit of Nunavik, northeastern Canada. Contact with wildlife has been identified as a risk factor for Inuit exposure to T. gondii, but reservoirs have yet to be confirmed based on direct detection of DNA or organism. Similarly, little is known about the occurr...
Article
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Wildlife conservation lacks a well-accepted ethical foundation for population welfare. In this paper we propose a definition of wildlife population welfare and use a case study to suggest its value for species recovery planning. We define wildlife population welfare as coherence between the species' adapted capacities and the realities of its curre...
Article
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This paper introduces the concept of harm reduction-based health intelligence as the next step in the evolution of urban wildlife surveillance. There are three reasons to evolve urban wildlife health surveillance: (1) proactive steps to reduce vulnerability to health and safety impacts requires an understanding of environments and social structures...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The impetus for this report was the widespread trichomonosis outbreak in the summer and fall of 2017 that extended through every province from Ontario east to Newfoundland and Labrador (CWHC, unpublished data). This and other bird feeder associated diseases generate a large amount of public interest and concern. The bird feeding public is passionat...
Article
Full-text available
We found that lethal, urban rat control is associated with a significant increase in the odds that surviving rats carry Leptospira interrogans. Our results suggest that human interventions have the potential to affect and even increase the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens within rat populations.
Data
Additional methods for a study of the effects of culling on Leptospira interrogans carriage by rats, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 2016–January 2017.
Article
As shrimp farming can be an important means of income generation, particularly among Sri Lanka’s rural communities, it is important that this industry grows in a sustainable manner, starting at the farm level. The objectives of this study were to; 1) create baseline farm-level sustainability indices for smallholder shrimp farms in Sri Lanka using b...
Article
Full-text available
Early warning systems for climate change adaptation, preparedness and response will need to take into consideration the range of factors that can drive risk and vulnerability. There are no data from which to nominate the most effective, efficient and reliable wildlife health signals for public health planning, but there is growing opinion that wild...
Article
The unprecedented threats to the health and sustainability of wildlife populations are inspiring conversations on the need to change the way knowledge is generated, valued, and used to promote action to protect wildlife health. Wildlife Health 2.0 symbolizes the need to investigate how to improve connections between research expertise and policy or...
Article
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One Health is held as an approach to solve health problems in this era of complexity and globalization, but inadequate attention has been paid to the competencies required to build successful teams and programs. Most of the discussion on developing One Health teams focuses on creating cross-disciplinary awareness and technical skills. There is, how...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
http://www.wda2016.org/scientific-program.html#posters Spatial data related to wildlife and wildlife diseases is often limited, sparse, or designed for one-time use which can lead to difficulties understanding the distribution and spatial characteristics of health outcomes and determinants. We examined the degree to which environmental and landscap...
Article
Linkages between human, environmental, and animal health have been an increasingly important topic of geographical research in recent years. As more data become available for explicitly representing the geographies of these systems, and how they interact, geographers are playing an important role in shaping this research area. Whereas previously th...
Article
The objective of this study was to assess the use of statistical algorithms in identifying significant clusters of Salmonella spp. across different sectors of the food chain within an integrated surveillance programme. Three years of weekly Salmonella serotype data from farm animals, meat, and humans were used to create baseline models (first two y...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Hook Lake Wood Bison Recovery Project (HLWBRP) was initiated in 1996 as a co-management project between the Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT) and the community of Fort Resolution, NWT. The overall objective of the project was to salvage genetically representative wood bison (Bison bison athabascae), from a wild, free-ranging herd i...
Article
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Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is an emerging fungal pathogen that has caused recent die-offs of native salamanders in Europe and is known to be lethal to at least some North American species in laboratory trials [1]. Bsal appears to have originated in Asia, and may have been introduced by humans into wild populations in Europe through co...
Data
Number of live salamanders imported by taxa into the USA, 2004 to 2014 (source = USFWS LEMIS). USFWS LEMIS data (S1 Table) for live salamander imports into the US available at: http://www.amphibians.org/resources/tradedata/. Data requested in May 2015 under the US Freedom of Information Act. (PDF)
Article
The need to adequately predict, prevent and respond to infectious diseases emerging unexpectedly from human-animal-environmental systems has driven interest in multisectoral, socio-economic, systems-based, collaborative (MSC) research approaches such as EcoHealth and One Health. Our goals were to document how MSC research has been used to address E...
Article
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Limited surveillance programs and lack of diagnostic laboratory testing capacity in many low and middle income Asian countries have made it difficult to validate epidemiological patterns and anticipate future changes in disease risk. In this study, we consider the case of Japanese Encephalitis in Asia and examine how populations of human hosts and...
Article
Full-text available
Investment in wild animal health has not kept pace with investment in health programs for agriculture or people. Previous arguments of the inherent value of wildlife or the possible public health or economic consequences of fish or terrestrial wildlife diseases have failed to motivate sufficient, sustained funding. Wildlife health programs are ofte...
Article
We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of the caudal-fold skin test (CFT), the fluorescent polarization assay (FPA), and the rapid lateral-flow test (RT) for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae), in the absence of a gold standard, by using Bayesian analysis and, then, used those estimat...
Article
Full-text available
One Health has gained a remarkable profile in the animal and public health communities, in part owing to the pressing issues of emerging infectious diseases of wildlife origin. Wildlife parasitology can offer insights into One Health, and likewise One Health can provide justification to study and act on wildlife parasites. But how do we decide whic...
Article
SUMMARY There is interest in the potential of companion animal surveillance to provide data to improve pet health and to provide early warning of environmental hazards to people. We implemented a companion animal surveillance system in Calgary, Alberta and the surrounding communities. Informatics technologies automatically extracted electronic medi...
Article
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are new, their causes are not visible, risks are not equitable, and they are often out of the control of the risk perceiver (Bond and Nolan 2011). Their potential for economic harm or high rates of mortality and morbidity have been the motivators for response. But, the fact that we cannot predict with reasonable...
Article
Full-text available
Background: To date, research has shown an increasing use of the term "ecohealth" in literature, but few researchers have explicitly described how it has been used. We investigated a project on health and environmental sanitation (the conceptual framework of which included the pillars of ecohealth) to identify the impediments and enablers of ecohe...
Article
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The One Health concept is responsible for a shift towards practices, policies and partnerships that better link the health of people, animals and our shared environments. The papers in this issue of the World Organisation for Animal Health Scientific and Technical Review illustrate a myriad of ways in which a One Health approach could advance or ha...
Article
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Antimicrobial drugs may be used to treat diarrheal illness in companion animals. It is important to monitor antimicrobial use to better understand trends and patterns in antimicrobial resistance. There is no monitoring of antimicrobial use in companion animals in Canada. To explore how the use of electronic medical records could contribute to the o...
Article
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A study of the risk factors associated with mastitis in Sri Lankan dairy cattle was conducted to inform risk reduction activities to improve the quality and quantity of milk production and dairy farmer income. A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected dairy farms was undertaken to investigate 12 cow and 39 herd level and management risk factors...
Article
Abstract There has been, to date, little discussion about the defining features and measures of wildlife health in the literature or legislation. Much wildlife health work focuses on the detection and response to infectious or parasitic diseases; this perspective has been reinforced by the focus of the One Health initiative on wildlife as sources o...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract We inventoried and assessed historical anthrax outbreak data from 1962-2008 in wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) in Wood Buffalo National Park and the Slave River Lowlands (SRL), Northwest Territories, Canada. We compared these results with a 2010 outbreak in the SRL. Anthrax outbreaks have occurred in the 12 yr between 1962 and 200...
Article
Large amounts of animal health care data are present in veterinary electronic medical records (EMR) and they present an opportunity for companion animal disease surveillance. Veterinary patient records are largely in free-text without clinical coding or fixed vocabulary. Text-mining, a computer and information technology application, is needed to i...
Article
Full-text available
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that has pigs as the major amplifying hosts. It is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in people in Nepal and is spreading in its geographic distribution in that country. Pig farming is increasing in Nepal due to reducing cultural biases against pigs and government programs...
Article
Companion animals closely share their domestic environment with people and have the potential to, act as sources of zoonotic diseases. They also have the potential to be sentinels of infectious and noninfectious, diseases. With the exception of rabies, there has been minimal ongoing surveillance of, companion animals in Canada. We developed customi...
Conference Paper
The One Health movement seeks to foster interdisciplinary approaches to minimizing harms and maximizing benefits from the co-management of human, animal and environmental health. One Health approaches may involve different collaborative models across and within countries, but regardless of approach, the aim is to increase efficiency and effectivene...
Article
For many of the world's poor, aquatic products are critical for food security and health. Because the global population is increasing as wild aquatic stocks are declining, aquaculture is an increasingly important source of aquatic products. We undertook a scoping review of the English-language peer-reviewed literature to evaluate how the research c...
Article
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia and a significant public health problem in Nepal. Its epidemiology is influenced by factors affecting its amplifying hosts (pigs), vectors (mosquitoes), and dead-end hosts (including people). While most control efforts target reduced susceptibility to infection either by...