Craig Partridge

Craig Partridge
Raytheon BBN Technologies | BBN

About

131
Publications
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9,119
Citations

Publications

Publications (131)
Article
The most important consideration is how the collection of measurements may affect a person's well-being.
Patent
Full-text available
Embodiments of the invention reduce the probability of success of a DOS attack on a node receiving packets by decreasing the probability of random collisions of packets sent by a malicious user with those sent by honest users. The probability of random collisions may be reduced in one class of embodiments of the invention by supplementing the ident...
Article
Some of the challenges of developing and maturing a future internet architecture (FIA) are described. Based on a talk given at the Conference on Future Internet Technologies 2013.
Patent
Systems, methods, and devices for decoy routing and covert channel bonding are described. The decoy routing system includes a client computing device, a decoy router, and a decoy proxy such that packets addressed to a decoy destination are re-routed by the decoy router to a covert destination via the decoy proxy. The decoy routing method may be app...
Article
A brief history of the evolution of ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review as a newsletter and journal is presented.
Article
We present a content network architecture for a cluster of satellites flying in low Earth orbit. The cluster uses a dynamic wireless network to interconnect the satellites and has an intermittent link to the ground. Even though a cluster of satellites fly in formation, their relative positions can vary widely, and occasionally the cluster can dispe...
Conference Paper
Although IP and its overlying protocols, such as TCP and UDP, are ubiquitous, they were originally designed for point-to-point connections between computers in reasonably fixed locations. They are less suited to mobile networks and broadcast communications. In this paper, we present an alternative to IP that is based on a publish-subscribe approach...
Article
Disadvantaged wireless communications, such as those in fractionated spacecraft systems, need real-time, reliable, and fault tolerant information dissemination from information producers (such as sensors) to information consumers (such as information exploitation, analysis, or command and control systems). Such systems are well-suited to the publis...
Article
About ten years ago, Bob Lucky asked me for a list of open research questions in networking. I didn't have a ready list and reacted it would be good to have one. This essay is my (long- belated) reply.
Article
Technologies are available to unlock radio spectrum as consumers need it.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper studies methods of quantitatively measuring semantic information in communication. We review existing work on quantifying semantic information, then investigate a model-theoretical approach for semantic data compression and reliable semantic communication. We relate our approach to the statistical measurement of information by Shannon, a...
Article
This note describes the various peer review processes applied to Internet Requests for Comments (RFCs) over a number of years, and suggests that these have been up to normal scholarly standards since at least 1992. The authors believe that these documents should be considered the equivalent of scholarly publications.
Article
We’re a venture capitalist and a communications researcher, and we come bearing bad news: optical computers and all-optical networks aren’t going to happen anytime soon. All those well-intentioned stories about computers operating at the speed of light, computers that would free us from Internet delays and relieve us from the tyranny of slow and ho...
Article
The stack in various forms has been widely used as an architectural template for networking systems. Recently the stack has been subject to criticism for a lack of flexibility. However, when it comes right down to it nobody has offered a truly compelling alternative. Various cross-layer optimizations have been proposed, but these optimizations are...
Article
A large scale internetworking facility named Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) is currently being designed. Early prototypes are currently funded with the anticipation of limited operations within the next year. This paper describes GENI and discusses how it can be used to facilitate innovation in optical devices, optical communicat...
Article
In this work we propose a network meta-architecture based on fundamental laws of physics and a physical model of computation. This meta-architecture may be used to frame discussions about novel network architectures as well as cross-layer alterations to the canonical network stack.
Article
Development and evolution of the technologies and standards for Internet email took formatting more than 20 years, and arguably is still under way. The protocols to move email between systems and the rules for formatting messages have evolved, and- been largely replaced at least once. This article traces that evolution, with a focus on why things l...
Article
Full-text available
Software-defined radios (SDRs) are now recognized as a key building block for future wireless communications. We have spent the past year enhancing existing open software to create a software-defined data radio. This radio extends the notion of software-defined behavior to higher layers in the protocol stack: most importantly through the media acce...
Article
Full-text available
Wireless networks are often very lightly used. Some wireless networks, most notably sensor networks, are also energy-constrained – that is, the period of time during which the network is operational depends on battery lifetime. We have designed and simulated a novel design for a mobile ad hoc network with a low offered load (of approximately 1% ave...
Article
Full-text available
The field of adaptable communication networks is a rich application area for artificial intelligence technology. Re- cent developments in software defined radio technology have opened up the opportunity to develop networks that are, in principle, highly adaptable and effective under a much wider range of operating conditions than currently possible...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an analysis of IPv6 and its support protocols from the point of view of Information Assurance. It describes the IPv6 protocol suite, compares and contrasts it to the IPv4 protocol suite, and identifies IA issues that will arise during a migration of core networks from IPv4 to IPv6. It identifies decisions that will have to be ma...
Article
Understanding BGP routing dynamics is critical to the solid growth and maintenance of the Internet routing infrastructure. However, while the most extensive study on BGP dynamics is nearly a decade old, many factors that could affect BGP dynamics have ...
Article
The classification of IP ows according to the application that generated them is at the basis of any modern network management platform. However, classical techniques such as the ones based on the analysis of transport layer or application layer information ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a transport protocol whose goal is to reduce power consumption without compromising delivery requirements of applications. To meet its goal of energy efficiency, our transport protocol (1) contains mechanisms to balance end- to-end vs. local retransmissions; (2) minimizes acknowledg- ment traffic using receiver regulated rate-based flow...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ADROIT project is building an open-source software-defined data radio, intended to be controlled by cognitive applications. The goal is to create a system that enables teams of radios, where each radio both has its own cognitive controls and the ability to collaborate with other radios, to create cognitive radio teams. The desire to create cogn...
Article
The ACM SIGCOMM Test of Time Award recognizes a paper published 10 to 12 years in the past in Computer Communications Review or any SIGCOMM sponsored or co-sponsored conference that is deemed to be an outstanding paper whose contents are still a vibrant and useful contribution today.The award is given annually and consists of a custom glass award a...
Article
BBN has an illustrious history of contributions to data networking, and has made repeated contributions in the development of networking protocols, network operations, router design, and wireless and satellite networks. Because so much of BBN's early Arpanet work has been documented elsewhere, this history focuses on post-Arpanet contributions that...
Article
Full-text available
We consider the concept of opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) – whereby radios identify unused portions of licensed spectrum, and utilize that spectrum without adverse impact on the primary licensees. OSA allows both dramatically higher spectrum utilization and near-zero deployment time, with an obvious and significant impact on both civilian and...
Article
Full-text available
How might the computing and communications world be materially different in 10 to 15 years, and how might we define a research agenda that would get us to that world?
Article
Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn are this year's recipients of the ACM Turing Award (the highest award in Computer Science) for their pioneering work in internetworking. To commemorate their award, and with the gracious consent of IEEE (which originally published the paper) and the authors, SIGCOMM is reprinting their famous early paper on internetworking, "...
Article
Wireless and satellite networks often have non-negligible packet corruption rates that can significantly degrade TCP performance. This is due to TCP’s assumption that every packet loss is an indication of network congestion (causing TCP to reduce the transmission rate). This problem has received much attention in the literature. In this paper, we t...
Article
Wireless and satellite networks have non-negligible error rates that can significantly influence TCP performance because TCP considers every packet loss as an indicator of congestion, and thus throttles the packet transmission rate. Explicit transport error notification (ETEN) mechanisms can aid TCP in distinguishing packets that are lost due to co...
Conference Paper
One of the Internet's greatest strengths is that it does not know or care what its applications are or what they are doing: it simply forwards data. Yet network users experience the network through the functioning and performance of applications. This divergence of perspective leads to a number of problems. For example, a user whose local DNS servi...
Article
Although secondary to the human tragedy resulting from the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, telecommunications issues were significant that day both in terms of damage (physical as well as functional) and of mounting response and recovery efforts. The Internet has come to be a major component of the nation’s (...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The design of the Internet protocol makes it difficult to reliably identify the originator of an IP packet. IP traceback techniques have been developed to determine the source of large packet flows, but, to date, no system has been presented to track individual packets in an efficient, scalable fashion. We present SPIE, the Source Path Isolation En...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent studies have shown that signal-processing techniques are quite valuable for the modeling and analysis of modern networks and network traffic [1] [2]. However, to date most of these studies have focused on characterizing the multi-scale and long-memory stochastic nature of single streams or traces of non-encrypted network traffic. The key app...
Article
Full-text available
The design of the IP protocol makes it difficult to reliably identify the originator of an IP packet. Even in the absence of any deliberate attempt to disguise a packet's origin, widespread packet forwarding techniques such as NAT and encapsulation may obscure the packet's true source. Techniques have been developed to determine the source of large...
Article
Full-text available
This document specifies an increase in the permitted initial window for Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) from one segment to roughly 4K bytes. This document discusses the advantages and disadvantages of such a change, outlining experimental results that indicate the costs and benefits of such a change to TCP.
Article
Full-text available
This paper is a summary of the BBN Technical Report No. 8333, "Explicit Transport Error Notification for Error-Prone Wireless and In this study we discuss two types of Explicit Transport Error Notification (ETEN) mechanisms: (i) per-packet mechanisms that notify endpoints of each detected corruption; and (ii) cumulative mechanisms that notify endpo...
Article
This memo summarizes techniques and algorithms for efficiently computing the Internet checksum. It is not a standard, but a set of useful implementation techniques. Distribution of this memo is unlimited
Article
This memo presents two recommendations to the Internet community concerning measures to improve and preserve Internet performance. It presents a strong recommendation for testing, standardization, and widespread deployment of active queue management in routers, to improve the performance of today's Internet. It also urges a concerted effort of rese...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Experts have long recognized that theoretically it was possible to perform traffic analysis on encrypted packet streams by analyzing the timing of packet arrivals (or transmissions). We report on experiments to realize this possiblity using basic signal processing techniques taken from acoustics to perform traffic analysis on encrypted transmission...
Article
Aggressive research on gigabit per second networks has led to dramatic improvements in network transmission speeds. One result of these improvements has been to put pressure on router technology to keep pace. This paper describes a router, nearly completed, which is more than fast enough to keep up with the latest transmission technologies. The rou...
Article
Traces of Internet packets from the past two years show that between 1 packet in 1,100 and 1 packet in 32,000 fails the TCP checksum, even on links where link-level CRCs should catch all but 1 in 4 billion errors. For certain situations, the rate of checksum failures can be even higher: in one hour-long test we observed a checksum failure of 1 pack...
Article
Full-text available
The design of the IP protocol makes it difficult to reliably identify the originator of an IP packet. Even in the absence of any deliberate attempt to disguise a packet's origin, wide-spread packet forwarding techniques such as NAT and encapsulation may obscure the packet's true source. Techniques have been developed to determine the source of larg...
Article
Full-text available
The Source Path Isolation Engine (SPIE) is a system capable of tracing a single IP packet to its point of origin or point of ingress into a network. SPIE supports tracing by storing a few bits of unique information about each packet for a period of time as the packets traverse the network. Software implementations of SPIE can trace packets through...
Article
Full-text available
This article introduces Smart Packets and describes the Smart Packets architecture, the packet formats, the language and its design goals, and security considerations. Smart Packets is an Active Networks project focusing on applying active networks technology to network management and monitoring. Messages in active networks are programs that are ex...
Article
The High-Level Entity Management System (HEMS) is currently the best known of the network management schemes designed to work on TCP-IP networks.
Article
Full-text available
Current routing protocols are monolithic, specifying the algorithm used to construct forwarding tables, the metric used by the algorithm (generally some form of hop count), and the protocol used to distribute these metrics as an integrated package. The flexible intra-AS routing environment (FIRE) is a link-state, intradomain routing protocol that d...
Article
Full-text available
As a reliable, end-to-end transport protocol, the ARPA Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) uses positive acknowledgements and retransmission to guarantee delivery. TCP implementations are expected to measure and adapt to changing network propagation delays so that its retransmission behavior balances user throughput and network efficiency. However,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Source Path Isolation Engine (SPIE) is a system capable of tracing a single IP packet to its point of origin or point of ingress into a network. SPIE supports tracing by scoring a few bits of unique information about each packet for a period of time as the packets traverse the network. Software implementations of SPIE can trace packets through...
Article
Current routing protocols are monolithic, specifying the algorithm used to construct forwarding tables, the metric used by the algorithm (generally some form of hop-count), and the protocol used to distribute these metrics as an integrated package. The Flexible Intra-AS Routing Environment (FIRE) is a link-state, intra-domain routing protocol that...
Article
In this paper, we study the performance of paced TCP, a modified version of TCP designed especially for high delay- bandwidth networks. In typical networks, TCP optimizes its send-rate by transmitting increasingly large bursts, or windows, of packets, one burst per round-trip time, until it reaches a maximum window-size, which corresponds to the fu...
Conference Paper
From my perspective, one of the more distressing aspects of the past fifteen years is the evolution of data communications and distributed computing into distinct and somewhat disconnected disciplines. It is getting to the point where researchers in each discipline often don't really understand what is going on in the other discipline, even though...
Article
It is a widely held belief that packet reordering in the Internet is a pathological behavior, or more precisely, that it is an uncommon behavior caused by incorrect or malfunction- ing network components. Some studies of Internet traffic have reported seeing occasional packet reordering events and ascribed these events to "route fluttering", router...
Article
Full-text available
Imagine a world in which every device has an embedded processor and a high-speed wireless link. Any two devices can talk to each other and you link devices together as needed to get your work done. Devices with embedded processors and wireless links are coming soon. This paper looks at some of the problems we have to overcome to make it possible to...
Article
The goal of this study is to better understand how TCP behaves over noisy, high-latency links such as satellite links and propose improvements to TCP implementations such that TCP might better handle such links. This report is comprised of a series of smaller reports, presentations and recommendations. Included in these documents are a summary of t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Smart Packets is a DARPA-funded Active Networks project focusing on applying active networks technology to network management and monitoring without placing undue burden on the nodes in the network. Messages in active networks are programs that are executed at nodes on the path to one or more target hosts. Smart Packets programs are written in a ti...
Article
Full-text available
Checksum and cyclic redundancy check (CRC) algorithms have historically been studied under the assumption that the data fed to the algorithms was uniformly distributed. This paper examines the behavior of checksums and CRCs over real data from various UNIX file systems. We show that, when given real data in small to modest pieces (e.g., 48 bytes),...
Article
This memo is to document a simple experiment. The experiment showed that in the case of a TCP receiver behind a 9600 bps modem link at the edge of a fast Internet where there are only 3 buffers before the modem (and the fourth packet of a four-packet start will surely be dropped), no significant degradation in performance is experienced by a TCP se...
Article
Aggressive research on gigabit-per-second networks has led to dramatic improvements in network transmission speeds. One result of these improvements has been to put pressure on router technology to keep pace. This paper describes a router, nearly completed, which is more than fast enough to keep up with the latest transmission technologies. The rou...
Article
Full-text available
This memo presents two recommendations to the Internet community concerning measures to improve and preserve Internet performance. It presents a strong recommendation for testing, standardization, and widespread deployment of active queue management in routers, to improve the performance of today's Internet. It also urges a concerted effort of rese...
Article
The designers of the TCP/IP protocol suite explicitly included support of satellites in their design goals. The goal of the Internet Project was to design a protocol which could be layered over different networking technologies to allow them to be concatenated into an internet. The results of this project included two protocols, IP and TCP. IP is t...
Article
Achieving high data rates using TCP/IP over satellite networks can be difficult. This article explains some of the reasons TCP/IP has difficulty with satellite links. We present solutions to some problems, and describe the state of the research on some the unsolved problems
Article
Full-text available
ST-2 is a revision of an experimental protocol designed to support applications which require guaranteed network services. ST-2 provides mechanisms for creating streams,tree- shaped delivery paths with performance guarantees, for applications which require such guarantees. As part of the MultiG project, the authors implemented ST-2 in the BSD UNIX...
Conference Paper
Checksum and CRC algorithms have historically been studied under the assumption that the data fed to the algorithms was entirely random. This paper examines the behavior of checksums and CRCs over real data from various UNIX® file systems. We show that, when given real data in small to modest pieces (e.g., 48 bytes), all the checksum algorithms hav...
Article
At first blush, one would expect that increasing data network transfer rates by two orders of magnitude (from the ubiquitous 10 Mbit speed of today's LANs to the greater than 1 gigabit-per-second speeds we expect of networks in the early 1990s) would severely impact our choice of network protocols and architectures. This report presents the strawma...
Article
Presents an adaptive flow synchronization protocol that permits synchronized delivery of data to and from geographically distributed sites. Applications include inter-stream synchronization, synchronized delivery of information in a multisite conference, and synchronization for concurrency control in distributed computations. The contributions of t...
Article
As an experiment in protocol optimizations, the authors undertook to improve the performance of a stateless protocol, namely the user datagram protocol (UDP) in the 4.3 BSD Unix kernel. The authors describe the successful optimizations that were done, along with measurements that shows a UDP performance improvement of between 25-35% on CISC and RIS...
Article
A personal view of the goals and challenges of gigabit networking is presented. The paper takes the form of a series of questions and attempts to answer (or characterize the possible answers to) the questions.
Article
One of the most sensitive and controversial aspects in incorporating usage based charging in internetworks is the accounting of the packets that are dropped by transit domains during transit from source domain to destination domain. From the perspective ...
Article
This RFC describes an internet anycasting service for IP. The primary purpose of this memo is to establish the semantics of an anycasting service within an IP internet. Insofar as is possible, this memo tries to be agnostic about how the service is actually provided by the internetwork. This memo describes an experimental service and does not propo...