Craig E Nelson

Craig E Nelson
Indiana University Bloomington | IUB · Department of Biology

Ph.D.

About

76
Publications
14,116
Reads
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3,650
Citations
Citations since 2016
2 Research Items
1067 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Introduction
IU Biology since 1966. 60+ papers on evolution, 50+ on SOTL. Faculty development workshops (critical thinking, achievement, retention etc.) & Conference Keynotes widely across US and other countries. Founding President, International Society for Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. Several awards for outstanding teaching. Outstanding Research and Doctoral University Professor of the Year for 2000. President's Medal for Excellence, "the highest honor bestowed by Indiana University" 2001.
Additional affiliations
June 2004 - present
Indiana University Bloomington
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
Description
  • Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SOTL) & Faculty Development. Special expertise includes: Fostering critical thinking; Increasing achievement, retention and equity; Teaching evolution; Graduate pedagogy programs; and Developing SOTL programs.
August 1966 - July 2004
Indiana University Bloomington
Description
  • Assistant, Associate and then Full Professor. Evolutionary biology with focus on frog evolution and on the evolutionary ecology of reptile development. Developed expertise in the scholarship of college teaching and learning. Faculty development workshops.
Education
June 1962 - August 1966
University of Texas at Austin
Field of study
  • Zoology
August 1958 - May 1962
Univeristy of Kansas
Field of study
  • Zoology

Publications

Publications (76)
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Misunderstandings of the nature of science (NOS) contribute greatly to resistance to evolutionary theory especially among non-scientific audiences. Here we delineate three extended instructional examples that make extensive use of NOS to establish a foundation upon which to more successfully introduce evolution. Specifically, these instruc...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers in various contexts have long struggled with an apparent disconnect between an individual’s level of understanding of biological evolution and their acceptance of it as an explanation for the history and diversity of life. Here, we discuss the main factors associated with acceptance of evolution and chart a path forward for evolution ed...
Chapter
Scientists frequently attribute public misunderstanding of evolution to religious or political influences. Ineffective undergraduate teaching has also contributed. Faculty often ignored strong pedagogical evidence. Five research conclusions are discussed: The traditional lecture approach is inadequate. Active learning is much more effective. Fundam...
Article
Full-text available
These are some of my favorite resources of informing scholarly teaching (ST) and the scholarship of teaching and learning (SOTL). This list is focused on the needs of college biology faculty. It is highly selective and somewhat idiosyncratic in that many more items are relevant and could have been included.
Article
Full-text available
The sex of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) is determined by the incubation temperature of the egg. At high temperatures (> 30 °C), all females are produced, with a transition to all males at most lower temperatures (24–27 °C). However, two of three previous studies have reported that some females also result when incubation temperatures are low (...
Article
Full-text available
The fine structure of normal and abnormally thick eggshells of the turtles Melanochelys trijuga and Rhinoclemmys areolata (Emydidae: Batagurinae) are described through the use of scanning electron microscopy. Eggshells of R. areolata differ from those reported for other turtles in having complex pores with basal openings partially occluded with cry...
Article
My initial teaching practices were based on nine “dysfunctional illusions of rigor.” Overcoming them required revision of my ideas on the value of “hard” courses, the effectiveness of traditional methods, grade inflation, what students should be able to do initially, the fairness of traditional approaches, the importance of fixed deadlines, the imp...
Article
Because of the ever-increasing magnitude and importance of the consequences of human actions on global ecosystems, effective education for environmental literacy is intrinsically one of the most important areas of post-secondary education. It is also one of the more complex. Environmental literacy requires integrated understanding of the ecological...
Article
In turtles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), estradiol applied to eggs incubated at male-producing temperatures produces female hatchlings. In other vertebrate taxa, estradiol administration during embryogenesis often induces only temporary or incomplete feminization, and sensitivity to estradiol can vary among taxonomic families....
Article
Full-text available
The developmental environment can have lasting effects on posthatching phenotype in oviparous animals. Innate immune response is one important component of fitness in vertebrates because it provides a generalized defense against infection. In addition, because male vertebrates are at a higher risk of infection than females, males may benefit more f...
Article
Full-text available
The strength of the evidence supporting evolution has increased markedly since the discovery of DNA but, paradoxically, public resistance to accepting evolution seems to have become stronger. A key dilemma is that science faculty have often continued to teach evolution ineffectively, even as the evidence that traditional ways of teaching are inferi...
Article
Students' approaches to the nature of knowledge (known as intellectual development, epistemological development, or cognitive development) have significant impacts on their approach to learning and on their ability to learn throughout and beyond college. College students generally matriculate, and often graduate, with a dualistic (i.e., right or wr...
Article
Full-text available
Oestradiol application during embryonic development reverses the sex of male embryos and results in normal female differentiation in reptiles lacking heteromorphic sex chromosomes, but fails to do so in birds and mammals with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. It is not clear whether the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in amniotes is accompa...
Article
This chapter considers the relation between collaborative learning and some major theoretical and empirical approaches to the fostering of critical thinking.
Article
Full-text available
Article
Students often hold strong attitudes regarding topics they encounter during their studies, and many instructors feel that these attitudes can have strong effects on students' performance. We characterized students' attitudes toward evolution and investigated the influence of students' attitudes (pre-course and post-course) regarding evolution on th...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies of sea turtle nesting ecology have revealed that females exhibit natal homing, whereby they imprint on the nesting area from which they hatch and subsequently return there to nest as adults. Because freshwater turtles comprise the majority of reptiles known to display environmental sex determination (ESD), the study of natal homing...
Article
Full-text available
Sex ratios of the American snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina are female-biased at cool temperatures, male-biased at moderate temperatures, and only females are produced at warm temperatures. The laboratory incubation of eggs at several constant temperatures yields patterns of skewed sex ratios. In this study, incubated eggs represented regional s...
Article
Charnov and Bull (1977) originally predicted that environmental sex determination (ESD) can evolve when the developmental environment differentially affects male and female fitness. While developmental temperature is known to affect hatchling performance in reptiles with ESD, this reaction norm can provide the conditions to favour ESD only if the e...
Article
1.The potential for metabolic heating by embryonic reptiles to influence temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) has not been examined in a controlled environment.2.In a laboratory experiment conducted within a single background environment, eggs of the American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) arranged in a small cluster (“clutch”) yie...
Article
This study investigates the potential effects of maternally derived hormones present in the yolk of reptile eggs. Specifically, we ask when are these hormones utilized by developing red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Eggs were incubated at 27 degrees C, a male-producin...
Article
In the past decade, the academic community has increased considerably its activity concerning the teaching and learning of evolution. Despite such beneficial activity, the state of public understanding of evolution is considered woefully lacking by most researchers and educators. This lack of understanding affects evolution/science literacy, resear...
Article
In the past decade, the academic community has increased considerably its activity concerning the teaching and learning of evolution. Despite such beneficial activity, the state of public understanding of evolution is considered woefully lacking by most researchers and educators. This lack of understanding affects evolution/science literacy, resear...
Article
The transfer of hormones from a female to her offspring is known to occur in egg laying vertebrates, and the potential for these early, maternally derived hormones to influence sex determination in reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination is intriguing. In the present study, we examine variation in the concentrations of progesterone, t...
Article
Eggs of wild caught Trachemys scripta and Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii, two emydine turtles known to have temperature-dependent sex determination, were incubated at 28.5°C in boxes aerated with one of four gas mixtures (two in G. p. kohnii). Across all eggs, elevated levels of carbon dioxide significantly feminized sex ratios in both species...
Chapter
This chapter presents the approach applied in several inservice institutes for secondary school biology teachers with a focus on evolution and the nature of science. Here we present the rationale, review the pedagogical strategies and several of the lessons, and provide the evidence that the institutes made a major difference in how teachers taught...
Article
1 Egg size in turtles often increases with female size, contrary to expectations of optimality. Functional constraints on egg width imposed by the pelvic aperture or the gap between the carapace and plastron (the caudal gap) have been inferred for a few populations but appear inapplicable in others.2 For Sternotherus odoratus (the Common Musk Turtl...
Article
Full-text available
Although populations of most sexual species exhibit a 1 : 1 sex ratio, biased ratios are often associated with environmental sex determination. Theoretical models predict that species with environmental sex determination will bias sex allocation in favour of the sex produced in the environment that yields lower fitness. These models have been propo...
Article
The actions of circulating hormones, although relatively well understood for adults, are largely unknown for their developing embryos. Transfer of maternal hormones to the egg is known to occur in oviparous species, and recently the presence of hormonally heterogeneous yolk layers has been described in two avian species. To investigate the possibil...
Article
Full-text available
Most hypotheses that have been put forward in order to explain the persistence of environmental sex determination (ESD) in reptiles assume a relatively fixed association of sex with temperature-induced phenotype and no maternal influence on offspring sex. Here we demonstrate the association of maternally derived yolk hormone levels with the offspri...
Article
The role of steroids in locomotor performance and growth was examined in free-living lizards. Male northern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus) with experimentally elevated plasma testosterone concentrations had greater sprint speed (+24%) and burst stamina (+17%) than sham-implanted males after 14-23 d in the field. This enhanced per...
Article
The challenge hypothesis has been very successful in explaining patterns of testosterone secretion in response to social stimuli in avian species. However, there have been few studies in nonavian vertebrates. We tested the challenge hypothesis in male northern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus). These males are highly territorial and...
Article
It now appears that all traditionally taught college courses are markedly (though uninten tionally) biased against many non-traditional students, and, indeed, against most students who have not attended elite preparatory schools. Thus, when we teach merely in traditional ways we probably discriminate strongly on grounds quite different from those w...
Article
Two modes of sex determination occur in squamates: genotypic sex determination (GSD) and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Within each of these two major modes, there are many different variants, or mechanisms. Male heterogamety, female heterogamety, multiple sex chromosome systems, and homomorphic sex chromosome systems are all types...
Article
Among reptiles that show temperature-dependent sex determination, sex ratios vary across constant incubation temperatures in ways sufficiently predictable to allow classification into patterns. One common pattern shows low temperatures yielding only males and high temperatures yielding only females. Another common pattern has low as well as high te...
Article
Incubation temperature is known to affect pigmentation in turtles and alligators, but the influence of other incubation parameters on pigmentation has not been reported previously. We examined the pigmentation of hatchling red-eared slider turtles, Trachemys scripta elegans, incubated under various temperatures and gaseous conditions in the course...
Article
Full-text available
The leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, has temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Previous reports have shown that females are produced predominately at cool incubation temperatures and males are produced predominately at warm incubation temperatures (Pattern Ib). We report here that incubation at even higher temperatures (34 and 35°C)...
Article
In the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, sex is determined by the incubation temperature of the egg: warm temperatures produce females, cool ones produce males, and a narrow range of intermediate temperatures produce both sexes. We asked whether the influence of temperature is modified by the effects of carbon dioxide. Under one current h...
Article
In many species of reptiles, sex is determined by the incubation temperature of the egg. In the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta), warm incubation temperatures produce females, cool ones produce males, and a narrow range of intermediate temperatures produces both sexes. The mechanism of sex determination has not been established. Some inv...
Article
New data on the genders of young turtles from eggs incubated at controlled temperatures demonstrate temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in 17 species surveyed for the first time and corroborate TSD in another 11 species. The well-known pattern of males from cool temperatures and females from warm ones (=Pattern Ia) occurs in eight species...
Article
Full-text available
The potential effects of multiple factors structuring certain larval amphibian communities were studied using a pen experiment in a natural pond. Potential factors (predation and competition from other species) were allowed to act in a stepwise fashion such that their relative importance could be evaluated. Based on a previous study, it was hypothe...
Article
This paper formalizes a class of evolutionary games called conditional. A game is conditional when the payoff matrix varies systematically with conditions in the environment, even though the strategies available to the players do not. Density dependence is an example of conditionality. The paper extends the notion of Evolutionarily Stable Strategie...
Article
Full-text available
Orchids of the Neotropical genus Catasetum have sexually dimorphic flowers; that is, male and female flowers are distinctly different in shape and color. Male flowers forcibly attach a large pollinarium onto euglossine bees. Euglossa bees leave the male flower in response to pollinarium emplacement by Catasetum ochraceum and subsequently avoid male...
Article
The reproductive biology of two sympatric tropical lizards Chamaeleo jacksonii and C. hoehnelii was investigated from April 1972 to June 1973 in Karatina, Kenya. The smallest gravid female was 80 mm SVL in C. jacksonii, and 67 mm SVL in C. hoehnelii. The smallest male showing enlarged testis, epididymis and as deferens was 90 mm SVL in C. jacksonii...
Article
Specimens from Peru represent a new species of the recently described genus Syncope Walker. The new species, S. carvalhoi, differs from the Ecuadorian type species, S. antenori, in the absence of a tympanum, in having more reduced digits, in coloration, and in having the eggs larger and unpigmented.
Article
1.1. Serum protein patterns were obtained by starch-gel electrophoresis for several amphibians.2.2. Sera of Dermophis costaricense (Caecilidae) contain an albumen and differ thereby from most serum patterns reported for salamanders.3.3. Relatively few assayable proteins were found in sera from Rhinophrynus dorsalis (Rhinophrynidae); frogs may paral...
Article
The affinities of Gastrophryne, based on osteology, adaptations for myrmecophagy, secondary sexual characteristics, tadpole morphology, mating call, and karyotype, lie with Hypopachus, and not with Microhyla. Gastrophryne contains 5 species: G. usta, G. elegans, G. pictiventris, G. carolinensis, and G. olivacea. Although the latter 2 species occasi...
Article
Although the occurrence of mimicry is increasingly well documented and the objections to its evolution have largely been answered (see Sheppard 1959; Wickler 1968; Rettennieyer 1970), the adaptive strategies underlying various types of mimicry are not clearly understood. The ecological concepts of environmental grain or patchiness and of fitness se...
Article
site: http://www.sotl.ilstu.edu/resLinks/index.shtmlScan abstracts for the new International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning http://www.issotl.org/conferences. Another Overview : T. Angelo. Ed. 1998. Classroom Assessment and Research: An Update on Uses, Approaches, and Research Findings. Jossey-Bass Overview of types of SOTL:Ne...
Article
Full-text available
The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SOTL) movement in the United States and internationally is now sufficiently mature to justify a bit of celebration and reflection. The Carnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (CASTL) in the US has completed its first seven years. CASTL has provided key books, a Gallery of SOTL projects...
Article
Taxonomy and distribution of Loxocemus are reviewed. All specimens are assigned to L. bicolor. This species is known on the Pacific versant from Nayarit, Mexico, to Costa Rica and on the Atlantic versant from Chiapas, Mexico, and Honduras. Sexual dimorphism exists in spurs. No other geographically consistent secondary sexual dimorphism is known. Ge...
Article
Three new specimens of Ectophylla alba and 2 of Vampyrum spectrum are reported from Costa Rica. The Central American records for the 2 species are discussed. Measurements, color notes and remarks on the natural history of the new specimens are included.

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