Craig McGarty

Craig McGarty
Western Sydney University ·  School of Social Sciences and Psychology

BA Hons (Adel.) PhD (Macq.)

About

141
Publications
71,081
Reads
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8,302
Citations
Citations since 2017
44 Research Items
4006 Citations
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Introduction
Craig McGarty currently works at the School of Social Sciences and Psychology, Western Sydney University. Craig does research in Social Psychology and Political Psychology. His current project is '"Outcomes of collective action. After the blockade, what next?" '. I haven't updated or monitored this site for a while. Fairly good at replying to emails if you contact me though.
Additional affiliations
March 2014 - present
Western Sydney University
Position
  • Professor
January 2007 - July 2014
Murdoch University
Position
  • Professor of Psychology (and various research leadership roles)
January 1990 - January 2007
Australian National University
Position
  • Research Associate to Reader/ Head of School

Publications

Publications (141)
Article
The recent revolutions known as the Arab Spring have been characterized as the products of social media. However, there is an alternative view that revolution takes place on the street or the battlefield and that the role of social media has been overstated. We argue that some new technologies can serve to facilitate rapid social change when they p...
Article
Although psychology has recently witnessed a burgeoning interest in the predictors of social and political action generally, little research has considered the psychological mechanisms by which people come to choose extreme or radical forms of action. How and why do groups come to favor radical or extreme solutions (radicalization) over conventiona...
Article
Full-text available
Of the climate science papers that take a position on the issue, 97% agree that climate change is caused by humans1, but less than half of the US population shares this belief2. This misalignment between scientific and public views has been attributed to a range of factors, including political attitudes, socio-economic status, moral values, levels...
Article
In this article, we propose a social psychological mechanism for the formation of new social change movements. Here, we argue that social change follows the emergence of shared injunctive social norms that define new collective identities, and we systematically spell out the nature of the processes through which this comes about. We propose that th...
Article
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Collective action expresses group-based identities, formed by supporters seeking to further particular social causes. While the development of groups linked to action necessitates interaction among supporters, little research has examined how these groups form. Utilizing responses of supporters who participated in 1 of 29 action-planning sessions,...
Article
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Social change movements may take years or decades to achieve their goals and thus require ongoing efforts from their supporters. We apply the insights of self-determination theory to examine sustained collective action over time. We expected that autonomous motivation, but not controlled motivation, would predict sustained action. We also examine w...
Research
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Despite Australia’s and Victoria’s stated commitment to promoting multiculturalism and equality, and to eradicating racism, our knowledge about the nature, extent and impact of different forms of racism on diverse populations is not as well-developed as it should be. Stakeholders addressing racism increasingly recognise that anti-racism initiatives...
Article
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Background Racism has been identified as a major source of injustice and a health burden in Australia and across the world. Despite the surge in Australian quantitative research on the topic, and the increasing recognition of the prevalence and impact of racism in Australian society, the collective evidence base has yet to be comprehensively review...
Article
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The past decade has witnessed rapid growth in popular protest, alongside an upsurge in research on collective action. The proliferation of research has been both productive and fragmenting: We have an excellent understanding of the many factors that shape participation in collective action, but we lack a framework that explains how these factors fi...
Article
Social psychology’s search for ways to address intergroup inequality has grappled with two approaches that have been considered incompatible: (a) the prejudice reduction approach, that argues that changing individual negative attitudes will undermine the basis for discrimination and lead to intergroup harmony; and (b) the collective action approach...
Article
In this short introduction we address four major issues for community psychologists to consider when addressing social change: a) Collective action is about social categories; b) Online technology gives to and takes away from collective action; c) Actions change the world but actions are themselves subject to change; and d) Beliefs, emotion and ide...
Article
Social change occurs over years and decades, yet we know little about how people sustain, increase or diminish their actions over time, and why they do so. This article examines diverging trajectories of solidarity-based collective action to support people in developing nations more than 5 years. We suggest that sustained, diminished, and/or increa...
Preprint
Social psychology's search for ways to address intergroup inequality has grappled with two approaches that have been considered incompatible: a) the prejudice reduction approach, that argues that changing individual negative attitudes will undermine the basis for discrimination and lead to intergroup harmony; and b) the collective action approach,...
Article
Most social movements will encounter setbacks in their pursuit of sociopolitical change. However, little is known about how movements are affected after protestors fail to achieve their aims. What are the effects of failure on subsequent engagement in various conventional and radical actions? Does failure promote divergent reactions among protestor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Racism has been identified as a major source of injustice and a health burden in Australia and across the world. Despite the surge in Australian quantitative research on the topic, and the increasing recognition of the prevalence and impact of racism in Australian society, the collective evidence base has yet to be comprehensively review...
Article
The present paper examines the extent to which conspiracy beliefs about the COVID-19 outbreak and distrust of epidemiological science are likely to predict optimistically biased risk perceptions at the individual and group levels. We explored the factor structure of coronavirus conspiracy beliefs and their associations with trust in science in pred...
Article
Extensive research has identified factors influencing collective-action participation. However, less is known about how collective-action outcomes (i.e., success and failure) shape engagement in social movements over time. Using data collected before and after the 2017 marriage-equality debate in Australia, we conducted a latent profile analysis th...
Article
This article examines the conditions under which political déjà vu (PDV), a perceived analogy between past and present societal‐level traumatic events, can mobilize people to support system‐changing collective action. We propose that individuals' perceptions of PDV can evolve both social identification with a group that sustains the victimized and...
Article
Collective action is volatile: characterized by swift, unexpected changes in intensity, target, and forms. We conduct a detailed exploration of four reasons that these changes occur. First, action is about identities which are fluid, contested, and multifaceted. As the content of groups’ identities change, so do the specific norms for the identitie...
Article
The current article addresses bystander action to confront disparaging humor as a form of moral courage. We ask: When is disparaging humor seen as harmless fun or as a pernicious form of prejudice? What are the social and psychological processes through which bystanders confront, evade, or collaborate in disparaging humor? Three experiments (Ns = 9...
Article
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This article investigates whether the perceived threat of terrorism explains the support for right-wing Eurosceptic parties and Euroscepticism above and beyond other relevant variables, including perceived economic and immigration threats. We first examined the entire Eurobarometer samples of 2014 and 2015, and then conducted survey experiments in...
Article
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The study of hostile orientations toward out‐groups is divided between three great kingdoms: a) overt (explicit, old‐fashioned, or hostile) prejudice, b) veiled (implicit, modern, aversive, or subtle) prejudice, and c) stigma. To date, there is no systematic account as to which form of hostility is likely to be expressed toward members of particula...
Article
Background: Group therapy is a popular and effective format for psychological intervention, and both anecdotal and empirical data consistently point to group dynamics as a primary driver of its benefits. However, to date there has been no systematic investigation of what facilitates an engaged, cohesive group environment. We argue that this is soc...
Article
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When and how do social movements form to mobilize action across national boundaries? In the context of the 2015 movement to support Syrian refugees, we develop an integrative model of transnational social movement formation shaped by pre-existing world-views (SDO and RWA) and social media exposure to iconic events, resulting in an emergent group co...
Article
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An image of drowned Syrian toddler, Aylan Kurdi, was popularly shared through social media and this promoted a surge of solidarity with Syrian refugees in September 2015. However, this response was not sustained. We explore the role of social media engagement in the emergence of solidarity and its decline (compassion fade). We collected data when s...
Article
Whitehouse adapts insights from evolutionary anthropology to interpret extreme self-sacrifice through the concept of identity fusion. The model neglects the role of normative systems in shaping behaviors, especially in relation to violent extremism. In peaceful groups, increasing fusion will actually decrease extremism. Groups collectively appraise...
Article
Solving the world’s most pressing problems (climate change, global poverty) will require the commitment of large numbers of people. The current research draws upon the joint insights of self-determination theory and the social identity perspective to consider the mechanisms through which social interaction engenders commitment to social change. Par...
Method
Full-text available
Time 2 questionnaire (2014) for the project ‘Transnational contact and challenging global poverty: Intergroup contact intensifies (the right kind of) social identities to promote solidarity-based collective action for those low in social dominance.’
Method
Full-text available
Time 1 questionnaire (2013) for the project ‘Transnational contact and challenging global poverty: Intergroup contact intensifies (the right kind of) social identities to promote solidarity-based collective action for those low in social dominance.’
Article
Viral social media content has been heralded for its power to transform policy, but online responses are often derided as “slacktivism.” This raises the questions of what drives viral communications and what is their effect on support for social change. We addressed these issues in relation to Twitter discussions about Aylan Kurdi, a child refugee...
Method
Full-text available
This research examines the effects of intergroup contact in promoting solidarity-based action amongst advantaged group members within the context of global poverty reduction. Included below is the Time 1 questionnaire we distributed in 2013.
Method
Full-text available
This research examines the effects of intergroup contact in promoting solidarity-based collective action amongst advantaged group members in the context of global poverty reduction.
Article
There are a variety of ways that people can respond to inequality. This article considers the distinction between collective giving and collective acting, but also adopts a focus on the people who engage in those behaviours. Benevolent supporters engage in efforts to alleviate suffering through the transfer of money or provision of goods (‘giving’)...
Article
Intergroup contact and collective action have been identified as two important but potentially conflicting ways to improve intergroup relations. However, little research has investigated the effects of contact in promoting solidarity‐based collective action amongst advantaged group members, and nor has research considered the effects of contact in...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the current research is to explore how mode of identification (glorification versus attachment) results in either schadenfreude “with a bad conscience” (S-BC) about disadvantaged people, or prosocial emotional responses (sympathy and guilt) towards them through appraisals of entitlement, realistic threat, and blame. These relationshi...
Article
Full-text available
We propose that collective support for European integration is mani-fested in 2 distinct forms: first, as engagement in socio-political action by citizens who seek to change their nation and its status in Europe. Second, it is manifested as a transnational acculturation process that impacts on both nations and their citizens. These processes potent...
Chapter
There is a pressing need to promote generous responses to humanitarian emergencies. Our chapter addresses this need by seeking to advance understanding of the collective underpinnings of generosity. The first section of the chapter develops the distinction between (what we argue to be) two qualitatively distinct forms of generosity: benevolent and...
Article
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The present research sought to explain the mechanisms behind rival Ukrainian solidarity campaigns advocating protection of the minority Crimean Tatars in the immediate aftermath of Russia’s 2014 annexation of the Crimean peninsula. Adapting the social identity model of helping and solidarity we propose that political solidarity is a form of collect...
Article
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This paper explores the expression of multiple social identities through coordinated collective action. We propose that perceived compatibility between potentially contrasting identities and perceived legitimacy of protest serve as catalysts for collective action. The present paper maps the context of the “Euromaidan” anti-regime protests in Ukrain...
Article
Understanding how to attract and maintain volunteers is crucial for the operation of victim support organizations. We propose that volunteerism can be understood in a similar way as collective action. Active (N = 99) and nominal supporters (N = 134) completed measures of identities (personal, social, and organizational), emotions (sympathy, outrage...
Article
The 21st century has borne witness to catastrophic natural and human-induced tragedies. These disasters necessitate humanitarian responses; however, the individual and collective bases of support are not well understood. Drawing on Duncan’s motivational model of collective action, we focus on how individual differences position a person to adopt gr...
Article
The social identity model of collective action (SIMCA) proposes that collective action flows from identity, perceived injustice, and efficacy beliefs but do these drivers apply for activists in all situations? Intuitively, the social structure that confronts activists should influence when and how they act. In two studies, we consider how activists...
Article
Recent years have seen an increase in theoretical and empirical interest in the dynamics of social change. Missing from much of this literature, which has focused broadly on collective action, is attention to the people who seek to bring about social change, activists. Mass collective action is unlikely to occur without the involvement of people to...
Chapter
Categorization is a process by which people make sense of things by working out similarities and differences. Social categorization is especially important because it explains the way that people make sense of other people and themselves. Studying social categorization helps us to understand the way that people perceive groups and form impressions...
Article
Background: Consumer and carer participation in mental health service development and evaluation has widespread nominal support. However, genuine and consistent participation remains elusive due to systemic barriers. Aims: This paper explores barriers to reform for mental health services from the perspectives of consumers and carers actively eng...
Article
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The consumer participation movement has growing international recognition in policy and research. Focusing on the collective context, this research systematically examines how two advocacy organizations in the Australian mental health sector are organized and motivated to advance the cause. Qualitative studies analyzed 17 strategic communication do...
Article
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Many of the world’s biggest problems are being tackled through the formation of new groups yet very little research has directly observed the processes by which new groups form to respond to social problems. The current paper draws on seminal research by Lewin (1947) to advance a perspective as to how such identities form through processes of small...
Article
The process of globalisation has gained tremendous momentum over recent decades, resulting in unprecedented human interconnectedness and awareness of global concerns. The current special issue of the European Journal of Social Psychology brings together ten papers that address this development. This special issue showcases different perspectives on...
Article
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This paper engages with the methodology being used within a research project auditing concerns and aspirations in an impoverished Indigenous community in North West Australia. The community is in the heart of booming resource industries and it symbolizes the many challenges and opportunities for contemporary Australia. The paper advances the notion...
Article
Kony2012 was a viral Internet video that attracted unprecedented online interest in promoting a campaign to arrest the leader of an African militant group. The current research considers the social psychological bases of social media-based collective action. In three cross-sectional surveys (N = 304) collected before, on, and after the key action d...
Article
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This Special Thematic Section brings together eight papers that showcase different aspects of the contribution of psychology to the processes of recovery in Rwanda following the 1994 genocide. The Section is noteworthy in part because a majority of the papers have Rwandan authors. In summarizing the contributions I make six observations about the r...
Article
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For the past twenty years, the overriding story of Rwanda has been centred around the events and consequences of the genocide. In Rwanda, public expressions of that story have occurred in the gacaca courts, where survivors and perpetrators testified about their experiences and actions, during ongoing annual remembrance and mourning commemorations,...
Article
This article explores the theoretical and practical considerations of developing cooperative communities to reduce the stigma of mental disorders and achieve meaningful structural and systemic change. A cooperative community is conceptualized as an alliance of people from differing backgrounds who work together to achieve a positive social change d...
Article
This research examines the role of aspirations for cooperative relations between people with mental disorders and other community members in influencing commitment to stigma-reducing practices and promoting positive social change. Two studies demonstrated that a measure of aspirations for a cooperative community is distinct from social and communit...
Article
Policies atoning for past wrongs against minority groups are often contested within the majority. During the year after the apology to the Indigenous Australian Stolen Generations, predictors of non-Indigenous (majority) collective action intentions focusing on support or opposition to reform reconciliation policies (Study 1, N = 206) and compensat...
Data
Full-text available
The recent revolutions known as the Arab Spring have been characterized as the products of social media. However, there is an alternative view that revolution takes place on the street or the battlefield and that the role of social media has been overstated. We argue that some new technologies can serve to facilitate rapid social change when they p...
Article
this issue) develops an analysis of the predictors of sympathetic, in-cipient support for terrorism. While we endorse the conceptual focus on terror-ism as a process, our concern is that the data reported by McCauley do not address predictors of sympathy for terrorism. Rather, aspects of that contribu-tion conflate opposition to the War on Terror w...
Article
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This research explores the role of opinion-based groups in understanding responses to racist violence such as the 2005 Cronulla riots in Australia. Traditionally, explanations of collective action in social psychology and sociology focus on conflict between broad social categories. We propose that the responses to the riots can be understood not on...
Article
Establishing Civil Society, Surviving Civil War, and Embracing Civil Rights Opinion-Based Groups The Operation of Opinion-Based Groups Applying and Extending the Opinion-Based Group Concept Conclusion References
Article
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The authors investigated the effects of perspective taking on opinions about reparations for victims of historical harm. In two studies, they showed that when non-Indigenous Australians took an Indigenous Australian perspective, this increased perceived entitlement to, and decreased anger toward, monetary compensation. Moreover, perceived entitleme...
Article
There is little quantitative research regarding the causes and expression of prejudice and discrimination against Middle-Eastern Australians. We report two studies, one from the perspective of new settlers and a second from the perspective of host communities. The first found that Middle-Eastern Australians reported more discrimination compared wit...
Article
Three studies explore the recently elaborated social identity model of collective action (SIMCA) and an alternative, the encapsulated model of social identity in collective action (EMSICA). These models both afford a central role to the function of social identities in promoting collective action, through affective reactions to injustice and group...
Article
This article examines fear and anger content in the political rhetoric of former U.S. President George W. Bush and former British Prime Minister Tony Blair during the period 2001–2003. A total of 49 terrorism-related speeches were coded for content that could plausibly elicit fear or anger in listeners. Although anger and fear inductions were prese...
Article
In this chapter we take a broad view of the social psychology of intergroup relations and apply it to the internet. We start by addressing two popular propositions about the internet. The first of these is that the internet is a safe haven for racists who, using the cover of anonymity, engage in hostile flaming of members of other communities. We c...
Article
Since the advent of the ‘cognitive revolution’ in stereotyping research, interest in the consensual nature of stereotypes and its social psychological basis has declined dramatically. Reversing this trend, this paper examines the manner in which the strength of shared stereotypes and the links between particular content and particular groups are me...
Article
Contrast effects have long been recognized as important for the study of judgement. It has been predicted that the presence of a categorization superimposed on a series of stimuli (and correlated with their magnitude) would serve to accentuate judged differences between and judged similarities within classes. Fifty-five subjects judged political st...
Article
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The fact that stereotypes are shared within groups is essential to stereotype definition and operationalization. Nonetheless, stereotype consensus remains under-researched and under-explained. To address this problem we present a theoretical analysis of the process through which stereotype consensus develops. Derived from self-categorization theory...
Article
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The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represent the first global, tractable effort to combat world poverty and preventable disease. The success of the MDGs, however, depends critically upon the support of the people who do not themselves experience the disadvantage: That is, the people and governments of developed countries. In this paper it is a...
Chapter
Categorization is the process of understanding things by knowing what other things they are equivalent to and different from. It is a process that is widely studied in cognitive and social psychology and in philosophy and linguistics. This entry offers an overview of categorization and outlines its functions, then describes the major views on categ...
Article
Full-text available
While existing research recognizes the central importance of social identities in motivating participation in social movements, much less is known about the creation of such groups. In this paper we take a social identity perspective and consider the ways that both "nice" (prosocial) and "nasty" (hostile) social movements can be mobilized through t...
Article
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In this article, we argue that progress in the study of collective action rests on an increasingly sophisticated application of the social identity approach. We develop the view, however, that the application of this theoretical perspective has been limited by theoretical and empirical difficulties in distinguishing between social categories and ps...
Article
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This article explores the synergies between recent developments in the social identity of helping, and advantaged groups' prosocial emotion. The authors review the literature on the potential of guilt, sympathy, and outrage to transform advantaged groups' apathy into positive action. They place this research into a novel framework by exploring the...
Article
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In this article the authors explore the social psychological processes underpinning sustainable commitment to a social or political cause. Drawing on recent developments in the collective action, identity formation, and social norm literatures, they advance a new model to understand sustainable commitment to action. The normative alignment model su...
Article
This paper explores fear-arousing content in Australian former Prime Minister John Howard's political rhetoric about terrorism. We coded 27 speeches delivered between September 2001 and November 2007 for the presence of statements promoting fear-consistent appraisals (Smith & Lazarus, 1993). Fear-arousing content was present in 24 of these speeches...
Article
The present research investigates how reading stories about past mistreatment of children who had been in institutional care affects support for reparations, perceived difficulty of reparations and group-based guilt were investigated in two experiments. In Study 1 we showed that, when the stories increased in perceived harm, so did the perceived di...